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Last updated: 17 November, 2006

NB: Additions of 4 May 2004 in red. These updates/additions represent changes to the printed Gazetteer published in 2003 by the List and Index Society.

ARTHURET 3379 5677. 1336 Subsidy 23.94.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 16 Feb 1307, by K Edw I to Joan, late the wife of John Wak and Thomas, son and heir of the said John and the heirs of the said John (CChR, 1300–26, p. 81). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf+2, Giles (1 Sept); gr 16 Feb 1307, by K Edw I to Joan, late the wife of John Wak and Thomas, son and heir of the said John and the heirs of the said John (CChR, 1300–26, p. 81). To be held at the manor.
Britnell suggests that the market (mercatum) and two fairs (feria) held by William de Stutevill at an unnamed place in Cumberland, noted in the Pipe Roll of 1200, may have been at Arthuret. It is also possible that they were at Kirkoswald, Cumberland (q.v.) or Longtown, Cumberland (R.H. Britnell, ‘Boroughs, markets and trade in northern England, 1000–1216’, in R.H. Britnell and J. Hatcher eds., Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward Miller (Cambridge, 1996), p. 65; PR, 2 John, p. 244). William had not paid his fine for the market and fairs by 1208 (PR, 3 John, p. 252; PR, 4 John, p. 255; PR, 5 John, p. 254; PR, 9 John, p. 127; PR, 10 John, p. 43).

BEWCASTLE 3565 5746. 1336 Subsidy 37.41.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 6 Jul 1279, by K Edw I to John de Swyneburn. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). In 1292, John de Swinburne, the grantee, was holding the market (QW, p. 128).
F (Charter) vfm+2, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 6 Jul 1279, by K Edw I to John de Swyneburn. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). In 1292, John de Swinburne, the grantee, was holding the fair (QW, p. 128).
F (Charter) vfm+2, Barnabas (11 Jun); gr 6 Jul 1279, by K Edw I to John de Swyneburn. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). In 1292, John de Swinburne, the grantee, was holding the fair (QW, p. 128).

BOOTLE 3107 4884. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 24 Oct 1347, by K Edw III to John de Hudleston (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 64). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf+2, Exaltation of the Cross (14 Sept); gr 24 Oct 1347, by K Edw III to John de Hudleston (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 64). To be held at the manor.

BRAMPTON 3528 5610. 1336 Subsidy 99.16. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Tues; gr 31 Oct 1252, by K Hen III to Thomas de Muletone and Maud his wife. To be held at the manor of Braunton (CChR, 1226–57, p. 407). In 1292, Matilda de Multon de Gyleslaund, the grantee, was holding the market (QW, p. 126).
F (Charter) vf, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 31 Oct 1252, by K Hen III to Thomas de Muletone and Maud his wife. To be held at the manor of Braunton (CChR, 1226–57, p. 407). In 1292, Matilda de Multon de Gyleslaund, the grantee, was holding the fair (QW, p. 126).

CARLISLE 3399 5562. Borough 1130 (BF, p. 83). Mint 1100–54. 1336 Subsidy 133.33. Roman city. Monastic and probably a commercial centre in the seventh to ninth centuries, subsequently with an important church. In 1092, K Wil II occupied and restored the town, bringing it under English rule. The priory of St Mary was founded in or after 1122 and became the seat of a new bishopric in 1133. Carlisle’s fortunes rested on its role as a frontier city, as a centre for silver mining and as a regional market (H. Summerson, Medieval Carlisle: the city and the borders from the late eleventh to the mid–sixteenth century, Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society Extra Series, 25 (1993) pp. 24–38). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Fair 1587, 15 Aug (Harrison, p. 395). See also H. Summerson, Medieval Carlisle: the city and the borders from the late eleventh to the mid–sixteenth century, Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society Extra Series, 25 (1993).
M (Prescriptive: borough, mint) recorded 1292, mercatum, held by burgesses of Carlisle. In 1292, the mayor and community of Carlisle unsuccessfully claimed that they had held the market since the reign of K Hen II. The market was taken into the king’s hands (QW, p. 121). On 7 Feb 1352, it was stated that the citizens of Carlisle held and had held markets on Wed and Sat. K Edw III granted that the citizens and their heirs and successors should hold this and other liberties for ever (CPR, 1350–4, pp. 232–3).
F (Prescriptive) nundinae recorded c.1180. An undated grant by William de Lancaster to Gospatric son of Orm mentions the fair; Summerson dates this to c.1180 (J. Wilson ed., The Register of the Priory of St. Bees, Surtees Society Publications, 126 (1915) pp. 539–40; H. Summerson, Medieval Carlisle: the city and the borders from the late eleventh to the mid–sixteenth century, Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society Extra Series, 25 (1993), p. 64). Fair mentioned 1197 and 1202; the feast was not given (PR, 9 Ric I, p. 14; PR, 4 John, p. 243). Fair held by the burgesses of Carlisle recorded in 1292, which the mayor and community unsuccessfully claimed that they had held since the reign of K Hen II. The fair was taken into the king’s hands (QW, p. 121). On 7 Feb 1352, it was stated that the citizens of Carlisle held and had held a fair on the f+15 Assumption (15 Aug). K Edw III granted that the citizens and their heirs and successors should hold this and other liberties for ever (CPR, 1350–4, pp. 232–3).

COCKERMOUTH 3123 5306. Borough 1260 (BF, p. 83). 1336 Subsidy 42.86. Possibly a borough from c.1210, when the free men of Cockermouth were granted certain liberties (R.H. Britnell, ‘Boroughs, markets and trade in northern England, 1000–1216’, in R.H. Britnell and J. Hatcher eds, Progress and Problems in Medieval England (Cambridge, 1996), p. 51 n. 11). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Fair 1587, Mon in Whit week; 29 Sept (Harrison, pp. 394, 396).
M (Letter Close) Sat; mercatum, gr 19 May 1221, by K Hen III to W[illiam] count of Aumale. To be held at the manor until the king came of age. Notice to the sh of Cumberland (RLC, i, p. 458b). On 20 Nov 1221, the day of W. earl of Aumale’s market was changed from Sat to Mon (RLC, i, p. 481b). On 3 Sept 1227, K Hen III granted William de Forz, earl of Aumale a Mon market by charter (CChR, 1226–57, p. 58). Order to sh of Cumberland to cause him to have the market, 5 Sept 1227 (RLC, ii, p. 199b). In 1292, Isabella de Fortibus, countess of Aumale was holding the market in dower, by right of her late husband William de Fortibus, earl of Aumale (QW, p. 119).
F (Prescriptive) feria recorded 1292, held by Isabella de Fortibus, countess of Aumale, who was holding the fair in dower, by right of her late husband William de Fortibus, earl of Aumale. No details of the fair were given (QW, p. 119). In 1306 the farmers of the tolls at Cockermouth complained that every Sunday there was a gathering of people at Crosthwaite (also an Aumale possession, q.v.) buying and selling without paying any dues to the bailiffs of Cockermouth (L.F. Salzman, 'The legal status of markets', The Cambridge Historical Journal 2.3 (1928), 205-12, esp. 207).

CROSTHWAITE 3437 4915. In the thirteenth century this was an Aumale possession and a dependency of Cockermouth (q.v.), more than 50 km away.
M (Prescriptive). In 1292 the Countess of Aumale claimed that she did not have a market here, but that on feast days the men of the neighourhood gathered at the church and sold meat, fish and other goods; she did not take toll, stallage or any profit (QW, 115). This informal market was still active in 1306 when the farmers of the tolls at Cockermouth complained that the traders did not pay any dues to Cockermouth; on that occasion the 'market' at Crosthwaite was abolished (L.F. Salzman, 'The legal status of markets', The Cambridge Historical Journal 2.3 (1928), 205-12, esp. 207).

EGREMONT 3011 5105. Borough c.1202 (BF, p. 83). 1336 Subsidy 112.80. Thomas son of Lambert de Multon had inherited the manor from the Lucy family (QW, pp. 113–14). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 20 May 1267, by K Hen III to Thomas son of Lambert de Moleton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 75). Market held by Thomas son of Lambert de Multon recorded in 1292 (QW, p. 114). On 4 Apr 1322, a third of the market was assigned to Eleanor, late the wife of Thomas de Multon of Egremont, in dower. The day of the market was not recorded (CCR, 1318–22, p. 567).
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 20 May 1267, by K Hen III to Thomas son of Lambert de Moleton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 75). Fair held by Thomas son of Lambert de Multon recorded in 1292 (QW, p. 114). On 4 Apr 1322, a third of the fair was assigned to Eleanor, late the wife of Thomas de Multon of Egremont, in dower. The feast of the fair was not recorded (CCR, 1318–22, p. 567).

GREYSTOKE 3443 5307. Borough 1289. Burgesses were recorded in 1359, but in 1472 only one burgage is evident (A.J.L. Winchester, Landscape and Society in Medieval Cumbria (Edinburgh, 1987), p. 122). 1336 Subsidy £55.47.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 28 Oct 1245, by K Hen III to Thomas son of William de Craystock. To be held at the manor. Mandate in pursuance to the sh of Cumberland (CChR, 1226–57, p. 288). In 1292, the market was held by John de Craystok, son of the grantee (QW, p. 119).
F (Charter) vfm, Trans of Edward (13 Oct); gr 28 Oct 1245, by K Hen III to Thomas son of William de Craystock. To be held at the manor. Mandate in pursuance to the sh of Cumberland (CChR, 1226–57, p. 288). In 1292, the fair was held by John de Craystok, son of the grantee (QW, p. 119).

HAYTON 3508 5577. 1336 Subsidy 19.73. Identified in the index of the Calendar of Charter Rolls as Hayton in Aspatria.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 18 Jan 1278, by K Edw I to Robert de Molecastre. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). In 1292, the Crown was contesting the right of William de Mulcastr to hold the market; William showed the charter and claimed to be the heir of the grantee (QW, p. 126).
F (Charter) vfm, Mary Magdalen (22 Jul); gr 18 Jan 1278, by K Edw I to Robert de Molecastre. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). In 1292, the Crown was contesting the right of William de Mulcastr to hold the fair; William showed the charter and claimed to be the heir of the grantee (QW, p. 126).

IREBY 3238 5390. 1336 Subsidy 95. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 29 Nov 1236, by K Hen III to William de Ireby. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 225). Mandate to the sh of Cumberland to proclaim the market and cause it to be held (CR, 1234–7, p. 398). In 1292, the market was held by Robert de Brus, the elder, and Cristiana his wife, the heir of the grantee (QW, p. 124). On 1 Dec 1390, the charter was confirmed by K Ric II to Peter Tilliol, tenant of the manor (CPR, 1388–92, p. 331). Market continued into the eighteenth century (A.J.L. Winchester, Landscape and Society in Medieval Cumbria (Edinburgh, 1987), p. 122).
F (Charter) vfm, Matthew (21 Sept); gr 29 Nov 1236, by K Hen III to William de Ireby. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 225). Mandate to the sh of Cumberland to proclaim the fair and cause it to be held (CR, 1234–7, p. 398). On 1 Dec 1390, the charter was confirmed by K Ric II to Peter Tilliol, tenant of the manor (CPR, 1388–92, p. 331).

KESWICK 3267 5231. Borough 1373 (BF, p. 84). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Fair 1587, 22 Jul (Harrison, p. 395).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 13 Jul 1276, by K Edw I to Thomas de Derwentewatere (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 200). In 1292, Thomas de Derewentwatre was holding the market (QW, p. 123).
F (Charter) vfm+2, Mary Magdalene (22 Jul); gr 13 Jul 1276, by K Edw I to Thomas de Derwentewatere (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 200). In 1292, Thomas de Derewentwatre was holding the fair (QW, p. 123).

KIRKCAMBECK 3533 5689. In the 1334 Lay Subsidy, Kircambeck was assessed with Stapleton at 13.17 (Glasscock, p. 38).
M (Charter) Tues; mercatum, gr 31 Mar 1254, by K Hen III to William de Sancto Edmundo, rector of the ch of Cambeke (Roles Gascons, 1242–54, no. 2521; CPR, 1247–58, p. 286).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul the Apostles (29 Jun); feria gr 31 Mar 1254, by K Hen III to William de Sancto Edmundo, rector of the ch of Cambeke (Roles Gascons, 1242–54, no. 2521; CPR, 1247–58, p. 286).

KIRKLINTON 3433 5670. 1336 Subsidy 34.81.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 8 Jan 1262, by K Hen III to Eustace de Balliolo and Helewis his wife and the heirs of Helewis. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 39). In 1292, Richard de Kirkebride, Walter de Corry, Patrick Trumpe, Matilda de Carrigg, John de Seton, Walter de Thwynham and Gilbert de Sothayk claimed the market as the heirs of Helewis, but the quo warranto jury returned a verdict of non-user (QW, p. 129).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 8 Jan 1262, by K Hen III to Eustace de Balliolo and Helewis his wife and the heirs of Helewis. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 39). In 1292, Richard de Kirkebride, Walter de Corry, Patrick Trumpe, Matilda de Carrigg, John de Seton, Walter de Thwynham and Gilbert de Sothayk claimed the fair as the heirs of Helewis, but the quo warranto jury returned a verdict of non-user (QW, p. 129).

KIRKOSWALD 3553 5412. Borough 1272 (A.J.L. Winchester, Landscape and Society in Medieval Cumbria (Edinburgh, 1987), p. 122). 1336 Subsidy 154.59. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Thurs; mercatum, gr 1 Mar 1201, by K John to Hugh de Morevill (RCh, p. 89). In 1292, the market was held by Thomas son of Thomas de Multon de Gilleslaund, who claimed to be the heir of the grantee, although this was challenged by the Crown (QW, p. 122).
F (Charter) f, Oswald (5 Aug); feria gr 1 Mar 1201, by K John to Hugh de Morevill (RCh, p. 89). It is assumed that the feast of the fair relates to Oswald, king of Northumbria, whose feast was also celebrated on 8 or 9 Aug. In 1292, the fair was held by Thomas son of Thomas de Multon de Gilleslaund, who claimed to be the heir of the grantee, although this was challenged by the Crown (QW, p. 122).
Summerson suggests that the market (mercatum) and two fairs (feria) held by William de Stutevill at an unnamed place in Cumberland, noted in the Pipe Roll of 1200, were at Kirkoswald. It is more likely that they were at Arthuret, Cumberland (q.v.) or perhaps at Longtown, Cumberland (PR, 2 John, p. 244; R.H. Britnell, ‘Boroughs, markets and trade in northern England, 1000–1216’, in R.H. Britnell and J. Hatcher eds., Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward Miller (Cambridge, 1996), p. 65; H. Summerson, Medieval Carlisle: the city and the borders from the late eleventh to the mid- sixteenth century, Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society Extra Series, 25 (1993), p. 66).

LIDDEL 3403 5743. 1336 Subsidy 5.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 18 Jul 1267, by K Hen III to John de Stutevill. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 78). In 1292, John Wake was holding the market, as the heir of John de Stutevill (QW, p. 120).
F (Charter) vf+6, Exaltation of the Cross (14 Sept); gr 18 Jul 1267, by K Hen III to John de Stutevill. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 78). In 1292, John Wake was holding the fair, as the heir of John de Stutevill (QW, p. 120).

MELMERBY 3615 5374. 1336 Subsidy 63.09.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 20 Sept 1300, by K Edw I to John de Wygeton (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 489). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Peter ad Vincula (1 Aug); gr 20 Sept 1300, by K Edw I to John de Wygeton (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 489). To be held at the manor.

MILLOM 3170 4803. 1336 Subsidy 27.27.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 22 Jul 1251, by K Hen III to John de Huddleston (CChR, 1226–57, p. 364). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 22 Jul 1251, by K Hen III to John de Huddleston (CChR, 1226–57, p. 364). To be held at the manor.

NEWTON ARLOSH 3198 5552. Borough 28 Mar 1305 (CChR, 1300–26, p. 55). 1336 Subsidy 55.20. Granted instead of the borough status, market and fair previously granted to Skinburness, Cumberland (q.v.). Newton Arlosh was also known as Kirkby Johannis, which presumably related to the dedication of the ch (A.M. Armstrong ed., The Place Names of Cumbria (1950–2), ii, p. 291). Everitt noted a market at Holme Cultram; it is assumed that this relates to Newton Arlosh. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Grid references are to the current site of Newton Arlosh.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 28 Mar 1305, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram (CChR, 1300–26, p. 55).
F (Charter) vf+15, John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 28 Mar 1305, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram (CChR, 1300–26, p. 55).

PENRITH 3515 5302. Borough 1286 (BF, p. 84). 1336 Subsidy 398.15. Town developed under royal initiative in the 1220s (A.J.L. Winchester, Landscape and Society in Medieval Cumbria (Edinburgh, 1987), p. 122). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Fair 1587, Tues in Whit week (Harrison, p. 394).
M (Letter Close) Wed; mercatum, gr 16 Oct 1222, by K Hen III (RLC, i, p. 513). To be held at the royal manor until the king came of age. Notice to the sh of Cumberland.
F (Letter Close) v of Pentecost to the Mon after Holy Trinity (Easter dep), feria gr 16 Oct 1222, by K Hen III (RLC, i, p. 513). To be held at the royal manor until the king came of age. Notice to the sh of Cumberland.

RAVENGLASS 3086 4964. Thomas son of Lambert de Multon had inherited the manor from the Lucy family (QW, pp. 113–14). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468). Fair 1587, 25 Jul (Harrison, p. 395).
M (Charter) Sat; mercatum, gr 20 Aug 1208, by K John to Richard de Lucy. To be held at the manor (RCh, p. 182). In 1208, Richard de Luci owed a good palfrey for the market and the fair (below) (PR, 10 John, p. 44). Sat market held by Thomas son of Lambert de Multon recorded in 1292, which he claimed of old (QW, p. 114).
F (Charter) f, James the Apostle (25 Jul); feria gr 20 Aug 1208, by K John to Richard de Lucy. To be held at the manor (RCh, p. 182). In 1208, Richard de Luci owed a good palfrey for the fair and the market (above) (PR, 10 John, p. 44). Fair held by Thomas son of Lambert de Multon recorded in 1292, which he claimed of old (QW, p. 114). On 4 Apr 1322, a third of a fair (the feast of which was not specified) was assigned to Eleanor, late the wife of Thomas de Multon of Egremont, in dower (CCR, 1318–22, p. 567).

SEATON 3018 5306. 1336 Subsidy 38.25. In Camerton.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 24 May 1280, by K Edw I to Gilbert de Wirkinton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 226). In 1292, Thomas de Culewenn, the son of the grantee, was holding the market (QW, p. 123).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter ad Vincula (1 Aug); gr 24 May 1280, by K Edw I to Gilbert de Wirkinton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 226). In 1292, Thomas de Culewenn, the son of the grantee, was holding the fair (QW, p. 123).

SKINBURNESS 3126 5558. Borough 12 Feb 1301 (CChR, 1300–26, p. 2). On the island of Holmcoltram in the medieval period. The market and fair were granted to replace the charter for a market and fair at the mouth of the Waver, Cumberland (q.v.). However, the settlement at Skinburness could not have lasted long. On 28 Mar 1305, the A of Holmcoltram informed K Edw I that the greater part of the borough of Skinburness had been washed away by the sea. The king granted the A and C of Holmcultram that their town of Newton Arlosh, Cumberland (q.v.) would be a free borough, with all the liberties, including the market and fair, that had previously been granted to Skinburness (CChR, 1300–26, p. 55). The grid references are to the present settlement of Skinburness.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 12 Feb 1301, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram (CChR, 1300–26, p. 2). To be held within the borough in a place to be appointed by them.
F (Charter) vf+15, John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 12 Feb 1301, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram (CChR, 1300–26, p. 2). To be held within the borough in a place to be appointed by them.

WAVER 3170 5519. Borough 1300 (BF, p. 84). In Holmcultram. By Mar 1305, the greater part of the borough had been destroyed by the sea. As this site was unsuitable, another charter was issued for Skinburness, Cumberland (q.v.). The grid references are to the present mouth of the river Waver.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 20 Mar 1300, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram. To be held in the town of Waver in Holmcultram in a place to be appointed. The charter was vacated ‘because otherwise in the roll of the twenty–ninth year’ (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 488).
F (Charter) vf+15, Nativity of John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 20 Mar 1300, by K Edw I to A and C of Holmcoltram. To be held in the town of Waver in Holmcultram in a place to be appointed. The charter was vacated ‘because otherwise in the roll of the twenty–ninth year’ (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 488).

WIGTON 3256 5483. 1336 Subsidy 115.83. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 468).
M (Charter) Tues; gr 3 Feb 1262, by K Hen III to Walter de Wigeton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 40). Market held by John de Wygeton, son of the grantee, recorded in 1292 (QW, p. 116).
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 3 Feb 1262, by K Hen III to Walter de Wigeton. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 40). Fair held by John de Wygeton, son of the grantee, recorded in 1292 (QW, p. 116).

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