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Last updated: 23 February, 2005

ASHWELL 5268 2398. Borough 1086 (BF, p. 124; Darby, p. 365). 1334 Subsidy 149.84. K Edw the Confessor granted the manor to the A of Westminster by 1086 (B. Harvey, Westminster Abbey and its Estates in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1977), p. 346). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 200.
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded 1211, held by A of Westminster. Nova Oblata: A of Westminster paid 10m. for the Sat market to be returned to Sun (PR, 13 John, p. 122). In 1287, the A of Westminster successfully claimed that St Edw [the Confessor] former king of England, had granted his predecessors the manor with the market (QW, p. 288).
In 1575, a Mon market was granted by Qu Eliz to the bp of London (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 200).

AYOT ST LAWRENCE 5194 2169. 1334 Subsidy 33.17. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 61.
M (Prescriptive) recorded 20 May 1506, held by John More, William Greville and William Fairfax (CAD, i, B280). One third of an unspecified number of markets were granted to them, along with one third of the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Lawrence (10 Aug); gr 14 Sept 1257, by K Hen III to William de Aete. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 474). On 19 Aug 1375, a fair on the feast of Laurence was recorded, held by Richard de Pembrugge, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 191). On 20 May 1506, one third of an unspecified number of fairs were granted to John More, William Greville and William Fairfax, along with one third of the manor (CAD, i, B280). Fair recorded in 1617 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 61).

BALDOCK 5243 2339. Borough 1138x85 (BF, p. 124). 1334 Subsidy 132.58. The borough was established by the Knights Templars, who were granted land in the manor in the mid-twelfth century. At the dissolution of the Templars in 1309, their lands fell to the Crown. By 1335, the manor had been granted to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1550, Baldock was described as a market town, but much decayed (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 66–68). It is possible that Baldock was the villa de Novo Burgo where the brothers of the Knights of the Temple had a Wed market in 1215 (RCh, p. 207). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, 25 Jul; 21 Sept (Harrison, pp. 395–6). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 66–8.
M (Grant: other) gr 1154x85, by K Hen II to Knights Templars. Market (forum) recorded in 1185. Between 6 Jul and 31 Dec 1189, K Ric I confirmed to the Templars the market granted to them by his father K Hen II. The day of the market was not given (B.A. Lees, ed., Records of the Templars in England in the Twelfth Century: the inquest of 1185 with illustrative charters and documents (London, 1935), pp. 66, 141). On 16 Jul 1199, K John confirmed the market to the Templars; the day of the market was not given (RCh, p. 3a).
M (Charter) Fri; gr 15 Mar 1492, by K Hen VII to John Kendale, P of the Hospitallers and the brethren. To be held on their ground (CPR, 1485–94, p. 375). This is probably the same market as above. Day of the market changed to Sat in 1566 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 68).
F (Charter) f+4, Matthew the Apostle (21 Sept); nundine gr 16 Jul 1199, by K John to St Mary and the knightly brothers of the Temple of Solomon. To be held in the vill (RCh, p. 2b). Fair granted by K Hen III to the brethren of the Temple on 10 Feb 1227 (CChR, 1226–57, p. 5). Fair held by the Master of the Knights Templar recorded in 1278, held by a charter of K Hen III (QW, p. 281). On 15 Mar 1492, K Hen VII granted John Kendale, P of the Hospitallers and the brethren, a fair on vfm Matthew to be held on their ground (CPR, 1485–94, p. 375). Fair on the f of Matthew granted to Thomas Revett in 1566 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 67).
F (Letter Close) vf, Bartholomew (24 Aug); feria gr 23 Apr 1226, by K Hen III to leprous brothers of St Mary Magdalene of Baldock. To be held at their hospital without Baldock until the king came of age (RLC, ii, p. 107). There is no further evidence for the fair (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 68).
F (Letter Patent) vfm, James (25 Jul); gr 15 Mar 1492, by K Hen VII to John Kendale, P of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in England and the brethren there (CPR, 1485–94, p. 375). Fair on the f of James granted to Thomas Revett in 1566 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 67).

BARKWAY 5382 2356. 1334 Subsidy 132.94. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iv, p. 28.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 28 Jun 1270, by K Hen III to Robert de Scales (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 146). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm+5, Mary Magdalen (22 Jul); gr 28 Jun 1270, by K Hen III to Robert de Scales (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 146). To be held at the manor.

BENINGTON 5297 2236. 1334 Subsidy 84.92. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 75.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 26 Nov 1304, by K Edw I to John de Bensted. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1300–26, p. 48). On 5 Feb 1380, K Ric II confirmed the 1304 grant to Edward Berstede, the new tenant of the manor (CPR, 1377–81, p. 428).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 26 Nov 1304, by K Edw I to John de Benstede. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1300–26, p. 48). On 5 Feb 1380, K Ric II confirmed the 1304 grant to Edward Berstede, the new tenant of the manor (CPR, 1377–81, p. 428).
On 25 Nov 1531, K Hen VIII confirmed a market, the day of which was not given, and a fair, the date of which was not given, to William Saperwyke, the original charter gr by K Edw I on 26 Nov 1304 being lost (L and P Henry VIII, v, p. 559 (29)).

BERKHAMSTED 4996 2076. Borough 1086 (BF, p. 124). 1334 Subsidy 154.89. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 173.
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sun; recorded 8 May 1218, mercatum. Sh of Hertfordshire ordered to make it known that the day of market changed from Sun to Mon, 8 May 1218 (RLC, i, p. 361). Sh of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire ordered to make the change known, 25 May 1218 (RLC, i, p. 362b) A market, the day of which was not noted, was mentioned in 1221 (RLC, i, p. 451).
F (Charter) f+7, Invention of the Cross (3 May); gr 11 Mar 1245, by K Hen III to R[ichard] earl of Cornwall. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 281). Mandate to the sh of Hertfordshire to proclaim the fair and cause it to be held, 11 Mar 1245 (CR, 1242–7, p. 292). In 1616, it was stated the the fair had formerly been held, but had fallen into disuse (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 173).
VCH states that there was also a fair on feast of James (25 Jul) but provides no further evidence (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 173).

BISHOP’S STORTFORD 5486 2213. Borough 1306x36 (BF, p. 125). 1334 Subsidy 96.24. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, Ascension day; Thurs after Trinity Sun; 8 Oct (Harrison, pp. 393–4, 396). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 292, 296–7.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1346, held by bp of London (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 292, 296). An unspecified number of markets were recorded as part of the manor in 1437–8.
F (Prescriptive) feria recorded 1187, held by bp of London (PR, 33 Hen II, p. 29). Fair recorded in 1188 (PR, 34 Hen II, p. 11) An unspecified number of fairs were recorded as part of the manor in 1437–8 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 296).

BRAUGHING 5396 2252. 1334 Subsidy 80.39. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 308.
M (Prescriptive) recorded 1147–8, forum, when K Steph confirmed his gift to the Ca of Holy Trinity London [Holy Trinity priory, Aldgate, London] of land to which the market pertained (Regesta, iii, no. 511). A similar charter granted by Qu Matilda also mentioned the market (Regesta, iii, no. 512). Robert, bp of London, confirmed the grant, presumably on the same date (F. Neininger ed., English Episcopal Acta 15, London 1076–1187, British Academy (Oxford, 1999) no. 53). In 1147x54, K Steph granted his protection to those going to the market held by the Ca of Holy Trinity London (Regesta, iii, no. 514).

BUCKLAND 5355 2334. 1334 Subsidy 38.67. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iv, p. 43.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 17 Jun 1258, by K Hen III to Philip de Boclaunde (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 12). The thirteenth- century market was ‘largely speculative and ephemeral’ (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 361).
F (Charter) vfm, Simon and Jude (28 Oct); gr 17 Jun 1258, by K Hen III to Philip de Boclaunde (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 12).

BUNTINGFORD 5363 2293. Buntingford was a small hamlet in the thirteenth century, but began to develop urban functions in the early fourteenth century. By 1360, it had overtaken nearby Chipping, Hertfordshire (q.v.). The development of Buntingford is also linked to the decline of Standon, Hertfordshire (q.v.) (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 359–62). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, 17 Oct (Harrison, p. 396). See also M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 351–71; VCH Hertfordshire, iv, pp. 43, 78.
M (Prescriptive) Fri; recorded 20 Apr 1360, held by Elizabeth de Burgo, [the king’s] kinswoman. On 20 Apr 1360, in lieu of the market at Chipping, Hertfordshire (q.v.), K Edw III granted Elizabeth de Burgo a Fri market at Buntingford ‘in the king’s streets in the town’. Elizabeth paid ½m. to the king for the grant of this (and the fair below) and was to pay a further 6d. annually to the king, via the sh of Hertfordshire. The grant was made after an inquisition ad quod damnum taken by the eschaetor in Hertfordshire found that the market was not to the damage of the king or any other (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 166). When Elizabeth died later in 1360, her inheritance passed to Lionel, duke of Clarence, who held the market at nearby Standon, Hertfordshire (q.v.). Clarence suggested to the King that the market in the town of Buntingford, which was without the demesne of the inheritance, was harmful to his fair at Standon. On 6 Jul 1367, K Edw III therefore revoked the market. However, twelve days later, on 18 Jul 1367, the ‘lords and tenants’ of Buntingford proved that Elizabeth de Burgh had transferred control of the market to them, from her manor of Pope’s Hall. Therefore, on 18 Jul 1367, K Edw III granted to the lords and tenants of Buntingford a market on Sat in lieu, to be held in the king’s streets (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 209). In 1385, it was stated that the [rent from the] market had been granted to John Rukke, deceased, by the late king [K Edw II]. On 13 Oct 1385, the rent from the market was granted by K Ric II to Thomas Stoute, groom of the butlery, for life. This was vacated, but granted again on 26 Nov 1385. On 22 Feb 1387, the letters patent granting the market to Thomas Stoute were revoked on the petition of John Rok and other lords and tenants of Buntingford, to whom the market was restored (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 351–71; CPR, 1385–9, pp. 22, 39, 285).
F (Charter) fm, Invention of the Cross (3 May); gr 20 Apr 1360, by K Edw III to Elizabeth de Burgo [the king’s] kinsman (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 166). The grant was made after an inquisition ad quod damnum taken by the escheator in Hertfordshire found that it was not to the damage of the king or any other. Elizabeth paid ½m. to the king for the grant (and for the market above) and was to pay a further 6d. annually to the king, via the sh of Hertfordshire. When Elizabeth died in 1360, her inheritance passed to Lionel, duke of Clarence, who suggested to K Edw III that the fair in the town of Buntingford, which was without the demesne of the inheritance, was harmful to him. On 6 Jul 1367, K Edw III therefore revoked the fair. However, on 18 Jul 1367, K Edw III granted to the ‘lords and tenants’ of Buntingford a fair on fm Peter and Paul (29 Jun) in lieu, to be held in the king’s streets (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 209; M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 359–62). In 1385, it was stated that the fair had been granted to John Rukke, deceased, by the late king. On 13 Oct 1385, the fair was granted to Thomas Stoute, groom of the butlery, for life. This was vacated, but granted again on 26 Nov 1385. On 22 Feb 1387, the letters patent granting the fair to Thomas Stoute were revoked on the petition of John Rok and other lords and tenants of Buntingford, to whom the fair was restored (CPR, 1385–9, pp. 22, 39, 285).
In 1385, the market and fair were extended at 13s. 4d. per annum (CPR, 1385–9, p. 22).

BUSHEY 5130 1952. 1334 Subsidy 64.27. Geoffrey de Mandeville was granted the manor by K Wil I. His heirs, who later became earls of Essex, retained the overlordship of the manor until the mid fourteenth century. The Jarpenville family held the manor from the Mandevilles from the late twelfth century (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 181). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 183.
M (Charter) Thurs; mercatum, gr 1141, by Matilda, lady of the English, to Geoffrey de Mandeville [earl of Essex] (Regesta, iii, no. 274).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 13 Feb 1270, by K Hen III to David de Charpenvill. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 134). On 28 Nov 1280, K Edw I confirmed the market to David de Jarpenville, noting the ‘liberties and free customs he has hithero not fully used’ (CPR, 1272–81, p. 416).
F (Charter) vfm, James (25 Jul); feria gr 1141, by Matilda, lady of the English, to Geoffrey de Mandeville [earl of Essex] (Regesta, iii, no. 274).
F (Charter) vfm, James (25 Jul); gr 13 Feb 1270, by K Hen III to David Charpenvill. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 134). On 28 Nov 1280, K Edw I confirmed the fair to David de Jarpenville, noting the ‘liberties and free customs he has hithero not fully used’ (CPR, 1272–81, p. 416).
Rather than there being two Thurs markets and two fairs on the feast of James, it is likely that the 1270 grant reflects a change in tenure of the manor.

BYGRAVE 5267 2362. 1334 Subsidy 42.66. The Somery family held an interest in Bygrave until 1383, when Alexander de Walden and his wife Elizabeth de Sumery sold the manor to John Thornbury. He was succeeded by his son, Philip Thornbury in 1428 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 214). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 215.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 20 Oct 1256, by K Hen III to Adam de Sumery; conf 12 Jun 1435 by K Hen VI to Philip Thurnbury, kn (CPR, 1429–36, p. 461). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Margaret (20 Jul); gr 20 Oct 1256, by K Hen III to Adam de Sumery; conf 12 Jun 1435 by K Hen VI to Philip Thornbury, kn (CPR, 1429–36, p. 461). To be held at the manor.

CHESHUNT 5359 2022. 1334 Subsidy 159. In 1086, ten merchants paid 10s. of the customs (Darby, p. 369). On the death of Peter of Savoy, earl of Richmond in 1268, the earldom passed to the dukes of Brittany. John, duke of Brittany and earl of Richmond died in Apr 1341. On 20 Sept 1342, K Edw III created his son, John of Gaunt, earl of Richmond (GEC, x, pp. 805–9, 818–20). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 446.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 4 Mar 1245, by K Hen III to Peter of Savoy. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 281). Market granted by K Edw III to John, duke of Brittany and earl of Richmond on 28 Dec 1335 (CChR, 1327–41, p. 350). Market granted by K Edw III to John of Gaunt, earl of Richmond, the king’s son on 11 Jul 1344 (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 32).
F (Charter) vfm, Assumption of Mary (15 Aug); gr 4 Mar 1245, by K Hen III to Peter of Savoy. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 281). See below.
F (Prescriptive) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); recorded 24 May 1257, held by Peter of Savoy. On 24 May 1257, K Hen III granted Peter of Savoy a fair on m+3 Exaltation of Holy Cross (14 Sept), to be held in lieu of the fair on vfm Nativity of Mary. The fair was to be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 469). It is possible that the word ‘Nativity’ is a scribal error for the word ‘Assumption’, in which case the fair granted in 1257 would have been to replace that granted in 1245.

CHIPPING 5356 2320. Market held at the manor of Pope’s Hall. See also M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 351–71; VCH Hertfordshire, iv, p. 43.
M (Charter) Fri; gr 23 Sept 1252, by K Hen III to Bertram de Crioll. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 404). Tolls of the market were farmed at 16s. per year in 1322, when it was held at the ‘New Cheping’. In the mid fourteenth century, the market lost trade to Buntingford, Hertfordshire (q.v.). In 1360, Elizabeth de Burgo was holding the market called the ‘Neuchepyng’ on a Fri in a vacant place (placea), which was of her inheritance. Elizabeth was granted a market at Buntingford in lieu (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 166; M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 361; VCH Hertfordshire, iv, p. 43).
F (Charter) vfm, Gregory (12 Mar); gr 23 Sept 1252, by K Hen III to Bertram de Crioll (CChR, 1226–57, p. 404). To be held at the manor.

CODICOTE 5219 2188. 1334 Subsidy 65.28. See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 345.
M (Prescriptive) Fri; recorded 1262, held by A of St Albans. In 1262, jurors before the justices in eyre stated that the current A of St Albans had raised a market since the last eyre and had held it for the past ten years (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 345). The eyre had last visited Hertfordshire in 1255 (D. Crook, Records of the General Eyre (1982) p. 216). This market was probably formally recognised in 1268, see below.
M (Charter) Fri; gr 9 Oct 1268, by K Hen III to A and C of St Albans. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 112). Market held by A of St Albans recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 280).
F (Charter) vf+2, James (25 Jul); gr 21 Jul 1272, by K Hen III to A and M of St Albans. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 183). Fair held by A of St Albans recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 280).

CORNEY BURY 5359 2307. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iv, p. 116.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 4 Apr 1253, by K Hen III to P and C of Holy Trinity, London. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 427). The thirteenth century market was ‘largely speculative and ephemeral’ (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 361).
F (Charter) vf+6, Bartholomew (24 Aug); gr 4 Apr 1253, by K Hen III to P and C of Holy Trinity, London (CChR, 1226–57, p. 427). To be held at the manor.

DIGSWELL 5238 2149. 1334 Subsidy 34.62. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 83.
M (Grant: other) Thurs; gr 1227x72, by K Hen III to Laurence de St Michael. Laurence claimed this market in 1278, by charter of K Hen III (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 83).
F (Grant: other) gr 1227x72, by K Hen III to Laurence de St Michael. Laurence claimed this fair lasting ten days in 1278, by charter of K Hen III (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 83).

EASTWICK 5434 2116. 1334 Subsidy 24.38. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 317.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 15 Apr 1253, by K Hen III to Richard de Tany. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 429). Market held by Richard de Tany recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 277).
F (Charter) vfm, Botolph (17 Jun); gr 15 Apr 1253, by K Hen III to Richard de Tany. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 429). Fair held by Richard de Tany recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 277).

FLAMSTEAD 5079 2146. 1334 Subsidy 4.28. See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, pp. 195–6.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 30 Jul 1299, by K Edw I to Robert de Tony (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf+6, Leonard (6 Nov); gr 30 Jul 1299, by K Edw I to Robert de Tony (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479). To be held at the manor.

HATFIELD 5235 2088. 1334 Subsidy 199.69. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 99.
M (Letter Close) Thurs; mercatum, gr 16 May 1226, by K Hen III to G. bp of Ely (RLC, ii, p. 112b). To be held at the manor until the king came of age.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 14 Nov 1318, by K Edw II to John, bp of Ely, the chancellor (CChR, 1300–26, p. 393). To be held at the manor.
M (Charter) Wed, gr 19 Nov 1466, by K Edw IV to William, bp of Ely. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 214). According to VCH, before 1538 the day of the market at Hatfield had reverted back to Thurs (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 99).
F (Letter Close) vf+2, John the Baptist (24 Jun); feria gr 16 May 1226, by K Hen III to G. bp of Ely (RLC, ii, p. 112b). To be held at the manor until the king came of age.
F (Charter) vf+2, Etheldreda the virgin (23 Jun); gr 14 Nov 1318, by K Edw II to John, bp of Ely, the chancellor. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1300–26, p. 393). On 19 Nov 1466, K Edw IV granted William, bp of Ely a fair on vfm Etheldreda the virgin to be held at the manor (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 214).

HEMEL HEMPSTEAD 5078 2071. 1334 Subsidy 222.75. VCH states that a market and fair were granted with a charter of incorporation in 1539 and does not mention the grant of the fair in 1227 (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 217). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 217.
F (Charter) vfm, Margaret (20 Jul); gr Mar 1227, by K Hen III to Ps and N of St Margaret of the Wood of Ivingho (CChR, 1226–57, p. 27). The day of the grant is missing.

HERTFORD 5324 2126. Borough 912 (BF, p. 125). Mint 924–1100. 1334 Subsidy 56.82. Borough built by K Edw the elder. County town in 1011. Borough in Domesday Book. The seven burgesses recorded in Domesday Book at Stanstead Abbotts, Hertfordshire (q.v.) might have been burgesses of Hertford (BF, p. 125; Darby, p. 365). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, 21 Oct; 28 Oct; 6 Nov [Wetshod fair] (Harrison, p. 396). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 500.
M (Prescriptive: borough, mint) recorded 1199x1216 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 500). In 1224, the market at Hertford was being damaged by that at Ware, Hertfordshire (q.v.); the Ware market was therefore closed (CRR, xi, no. 1434). Market days were Wed and Fri in the thirteenth and part of the fourteenth centuries (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 500). On 10 Feb 1368, the sh of Hertfordshire was ordered to proclaim that the market day was to change from Wed to Thurs and was thereafter to be held by the king’s son, John, duke of Lancaster (CCR, 1364–8, p. 460). On 27 May 1383, John, duke of Lancaster gained an exemplification of this order from K Ric II (CPR, 1381–5, p. 274). In 1397–8, it was stated that ‘merchants forsake [the market] for others on every side’. In 1438–9, K Hen VI’s annual income from the market was 10s. 6d. By the end of the fifteenth century, the market produced very little income. The Thurs market was still held in the reign of Qu Eliz I. From the reign of Qu Eliz I onwards the market was held on Sat (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 500).
F (Letter Close) Sun before the f of Simon and Jude until the Sun following (28 Oct); feria gr 15 May 1226, by K Hen III to his men of Hertford. To be held until the king came of age (RLC, ii, p. 111b). Fair granted by K Hen III to the men of Hertford on 19 May 1226 (RLC, ii, p. 114). According to VCH, despite the limitation that the fair was only to be held until the king came of age, it continued throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It was in decline in the fifteenth century: the income from the fair fell to 6s. 8d. in 1437–8 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 500).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1331, held by burgesses of Hertford (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 500–1). Fair continued until the end of the fifteenth century.
F (Prescriptive) recorded last quarter of the fourteenth century, held by master of the hospital of the Holy Trinity (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 500–1). The fair made no profits in 1437–8.

HIGH BARNET 5243 1964. 1334 Subsidy 89.66. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 330.
M (Charter) Thurs; mercatum, gr 23 Aug 1199, by K John to A and M of St Albans. To be held at the vill (RCh, p. 11b). Market held by A of St Albans recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 280). In the sixteenth century, the day of the market was changed to Mon (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 330).

HITCHIN 5185 2292. Borough 1268 (BF, p. 125). 1334 Subsidy 119.25. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, Tues in Easter week (Harrison, p. 393). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 6.
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Grant: other) vf, Andrew (30 Nov); feria, gr 12 Nov 1221, by K Hen III to Hugh de Balliol. To be held until the king came of age. Hugh gave one palfrey (C 60/16 m. 9).
F (Charter) vfm, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 20 Mar 1318, by K Edw II to Robert Kendale (CChR, 1300–26, p. 379). To be held at the manor.
F (Letter Patent) Wed in Easter Week (Easter dep); gr 7 Jun 1475, by K Edw IV to guild of St Mary, Hitchin. To be held in the town (CPR, 1467–77, p. 542). Fair continued into the sixteenth century, but had been abandoned by the eighteenth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 7).
F (Letter Patent) vfm, Trans of Edw the Confessor (13 Oct); gr 7 Jun 1475, by K Edw IV to guild of St Mary, Hitchin. To be held in the town (CPR, 1467–77, p. 542). Fair continued into the sixteenth century, but had been abandoned by the eighteenth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 7).

HODDESDON 5373 2090. 1334 Subsidy 69.72. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 435.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 21 Jan 1253, by K Hen III to Richard de Boxe (CChR, 1226–57, p. 416). Market confirmed to Henry, earl of Essex in Jun 1535 (L and P Henry VIII, viii, no 962 (6)).
F (Charter) vfm, Martin (11 Nov); gr 21 Jan 1253, by K Hen III to Richard de Boxe (CChR, 1226–57, p. 416). In 1533, Henry, earl of Essex petitioned for a licence to change the date of the fair, the feast of which was not given (L and P Henry VIII, vi, no. 611). In Jun 1535, a fair on vfm Trans of Martin (4 Jul) instead of on vfm Martin (11 Nov) as the fair was formerly held, was confirmed to Henry, earl of Essex and Mary his wife (L and P Henry VII, viiii no. 962 (6)).

KING’S LANGLEY 5074 2024. The proclamation of a market in 1290 is presumably associated with the establishment of King’s Langley as a royal residence (H.M. Colvin ed., The History of the King’s Works, ii (London, 1963), pp. 970–3). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 237 .
M (Letter Close) Thurs; gr 12 Feb 1290, by K Edw I (CCR, 1288–96, p. 69). To be held at the king’s manor. Mandate to the sh of Hertford to proclaim the market in the county court.
M (Letter Close) Thurs; gr 26 Nov 1347, by K Edw III (CCR, 1346–9, p. 417). The sh of Hertford was ordered to proclaim the market as it ‘had been discontinued by carelessness and negligence for some time past’ to the king’s detriment.
F (Letter Close) Tues, Wed and Thurs in Whit week (Easter dep); gr 12 Feb 1290, by K Edw I (CCR, 1288–96, p. 69). To be held at the king’s manor. Mandate to the sh of Hertford to proclaim the fair in the county court.
F (Prescriptive) Midsummer day (24 Jun); recorded 26 Nov 1347, held by K Edw III (CCR, 1346–9, p. 417). The sh of Hertford was ordered to proclaim the fair as it ‘had been discontinued by carelessness and negligence for some time past’ to the king’s detriment.

KNEBWORTH 5231 2210. 1334 Subsidy 48.31. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 116.
F (Charter) vfm, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 4 May 1292, by K Edw I to Robert de Ho. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 421). The fair was confirmed in 1547. It had been abandoned before the end of the eighteenth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 116).

PUCKERIDGE 5385 2233. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 352.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 6 Sept 1314, by K Edw II to William le Baud and Isabel his wife and his heirs (CChR, 1300–26, p. 242). To be held at the manor.
M (Charter) Sat; gr 3 Jun 1327, by K Edw III to William le Baud (CChR, 1327–41, p. 35). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 6 Sept 1314, by K Edw II to William le Baud and Isabel his wife and his heirs (CChR, 1300–26, p. 242). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 3 Jun 1327, by K Edw III to William le Baud (CChR, 1327–41, p. 35). To be held at the manor.

ROYSTON 5358 2407. 1334 Subsidy 18.69. Also known as Cruce Roes. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, Ash Wed; Wed in Whit week; Sun after the 3rd Jul [the editor of Harrison considers this to be an error for the 19th Jul]; 13 Oct (Harrison, pp. 393–4, 396). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 254.
M (Charter) fourth day of each week; forum, gr 1189, by K Ric I to monastery of St Thomas the Martyr at Cruce Roes (Monasticon, vi, part i, p. 405). On 16 Feb 1272, K Hen III granted the market to the monastery of St Thomas the Martyr at Cruce Roes (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 180). In 1278, the P and C of Cruce Roes successfully claimed a market on the fourth day of the week by charters of K Ric I and K Hen III (QW, p. 283). In May 1537, shortly after the dissolution of the priory, a Wed market was leased to Richard Cromwell for twenty-one years (L and P Henry VIII, xiii (i), p. 584).
F (Charter) week of Pentecost (Easter dep); gr 1189, by K Ric I to monastery of St Thomas the Martyr at Cruce Roes (Monasticon, vi, part i, p. 405). The 1189 grant included all the customs of the fairs of the Ca of Dunstable, Bedfordshire (q.v.). On 16 Feb 1272, K Hen III granted the fair to the monastery of St Thomas the Martyr at Cruce Roes (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 180). In 1278, the P and C of Cruce Roes successfully claimed a fair for the whole week of Pentecost by charters of K Ric I and K Hen III (QW, p. 283). In May 1537, shortly after the dissolution of the priory, the fair was leased to Richard Cromwell for twenty-one years (L and P Henry VIII, xiii (i), p. 584). Whitsun fair was held in 1888, but had fallen into disuse before 1912 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 254).
F (Charter) vf, Trans of Nicholas (9 May); feria gr 2 Jan 1213, by K John to brothers of the hospital of St Nicholas of Cruce Roes (RCh, p. 189b). On 17 Mar 1236, K Hen III granted the brethren of the hospital of St Nicholas, Royston that the fair be extended from vf to vfm Trans of Nicholas (CChR, 1226–57, p. 218). The hospital ceased to exist before 1359; the fair probably also fell into disuse (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 254).
F (Charter) vf, Trans of Thomas the Martyr (7 Jul); gr 3 Apr 1242, by K Hen III to P of the ch of St Thomas the Martyr, Royston (CChR, 1226–57, p. 268). Mandate to the sh of Hertford to read the charter and cause the fair to be held, 16 May 1242 (CR, 1237–42, p. 441). Fair held by the P of Royston recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 283). In May 1537, shortly after the dissolution of the priory, the fair was leased to Richard Cromwell for twenty-one years (L and P Henry VIII, xiii (i), p. 584). Fair survived into the twentieth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 254).
Fair, the feast of which was not given, mentioned in 1230 and 1289 (CRR, xiv, no. 135; CCR, 1288–96, p. 21). In 1291, the markets and fairs were valued at 9 13s. 4d. The market and fairs were frequently disturbed during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 254).

ST ALBANS 5146 2073. Borough 1086 (BF, p. 125). 1334 Subsidy 265.44. Important pre-Roman and Roman centre. From the eighth century there was an abbey nearby which was the focus of later commercial activity. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). Fair 1587, 23 Jun (Harrison, p. 394). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 482.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded c.950, held by abbey of St Albans. The abbey chronicle states that A Wulsin VI (c.950) created the town, laying out the market place to the north east of the abbey (Beresford, p. 326; VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 470). On 13 Nov 1198, K Ric I conceeded and confirmed the market to the ch of St Albans and M. On 20 Jul 1301, K Edw I inspected and confirmed this charter (CChR 1300–26, p. 17). From at least 1287, the A of St Albans held markets on Wed and Sat. The Sat market continued into the twentieth century; the Wed market was abandoned in the early nineteenth century, but subsequently revived (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 482).
F (Grant: other) 8 days before the feast, Nativity of John the Baptist (24 Jun); feria gr 1105, by K Hen I to God and St Alban (Regesta, ii, 690). On 20 Jul 1301, K Edw I granted the fair to the A and C of St Albans (CChR, 1300–26, p. 20). This fair was probably succeeded by that on vfm Alban (22Jun) which K Edw VI granted to the mayor and burgesses of St Albans in the charter of incorporation on 12 May 1553. The Alban fair was still active in 1753 (CPR, Edward VI, v, p. 33; VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 482). The suggestion by VCH that the fair of St Alban was prescriptive in origin is not convincing.
Fairs lasting three days on Annunciation (25 Mar) and Michaelmas (29 Sept) were also granted in the charter of 1553. These fairs were still active in 1753 (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, pp. 481–2).

SAWBRIDGEWORTH 5480 2146. 1334 Subsidy 142.41. There were several manors at Sawbridgeworth. The Say family held the principal manor of Sawbridgeworth from the twelfth to the late fifteenth century. Shingehall manor was held by the Leventhorp family in the fifteenth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, pp. 335, 339–40). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 335.
M (Letter Close) Sat; mercatum, gr 20 Oct 1222, by K Hen III to Geoffrey de Say. To be held at the manor until the king came of age (RLC, i, p. 514). On 26 Jan 1223, the sh of Essex was ordered to prohibit the market (the day of which was not given) as it was alleged to be damaging to that at Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex (q.v.) (RLC, i, p. 531). On 6 Apr 1223, the day of the market held by Geoffrey de Say was changed from Sat to Fri, until the king came of age (RLC, i, p. 541b).
M (Charter) Fri; gr 22 Nov 1306, by K Edw I to Geoffrey de Say (CChR, 1300–26, p. 73). To be held at the manor.
M (Charter) Wed, gr 13 Feb 1448, by K Hen VI to John Leventhorp, esquire. To be held at the town (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 98). In Oct 1517, K Hen VIII confirmed the Wed market to Thomas, son and heir of John Leventhorp (L and P Henry VIII, ii (2), no. 3730).
F (Charter) vf, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 22 Nov 1306, by K Edw I to Geoffrey de Say (CChR, 1300–26, p. 73). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) 1+f+1, George the Martyr (23 Apr); gr 13 Feb 1448, by K Hen VI to John Leventhorp, esquire. To be held at the town (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 98). In Oct 1517, K Hen VIII confirmed the fair to Thomas, son and heir of John Leventhorp (L and P Henry VIII, ii (2), no. 3730).
F (Charter) 1+f+1, Denis (9 Oct); gr 13 Feb 1448, by K Hen VI to John Leventhorp, esquire. To be held at the town (CChR, 1427–1516, p. 98). In Oct 1517, K Hen VIII confirmed the fair to Thomas, son and heir of John Leventhorp (L and P Henry VIII, ii (2), no. 3730).

SHENLEY 5190 2005. 1334 Subsidy 80.37. See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 265.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 15 May 1268, by K Hen III to Adam de Stretton, king’s clerk. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 98). There is no further evidence for the market (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 265).
F (Charter) vfm, Botolph (17 Jun); gr 15 May 1268, by K Hen III to Adam de Stretton, king’s clerk. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 98). There is no further evidence for the fair (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 265).

STANDON 5396 2223. Borough early thirteenth century (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 366). 1334 Subsidy 145.25. Although the earliest date provided for the borough by Beresford and Finberg is 1262, it was probably established by the Clare family, earls of Gloucester, in the early thirteenth century. The decline of Standon in the fourteenth century is linked to the development of nearby Buntingford, Hertfordshire (q.v.) (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 351–71; BF, p. 125). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), pp. 351–71; VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 348.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded early thirteenth century, held by earl of Gloucester (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 348). In 1278, the earl of Gloucester claimed a market, but could not show by what warrant he held it (QW, p. 278). Market continued to function through the thirteenth century. In 1343, a property in the market place was derelict (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 366).
M (Charter) Fri; gr 6 Jul 1367, by K Edw III to Lionel, duke of Clarence (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 209). This market was granted in lieu of the market and fair at Buntingford, Hertfordshire (q.v.). In return for the charter, Lionel had to pay the king 6d. annually at Michaelmas (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 209).
F (Prescriptive) recorded thirteenth century (M. Bailey, ‘A tale of two towns: Buntingford and Standon in the later Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 19 (1993), p. 366). A fair was recorded on 6 Jul 1367, held by Lionel, duke of Clarence on his demesne; the feast was not given.
F (Charter) vfm, Peter’s Chains (1 Aug); gr 6 Jul 1367, by K Edw III to Lionel, duke of Clarence (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 209). Fair granted in lieu of the market and fair at Buntingford, Hertfordshire (q.v.). In return for the charter, Lionel had to pay the king 6d. annually at Michaelmas.
It is possible that the grant of a market and fair to Lionel, duke of Clarence was a legitimisation of the existing prescriptive market and fair, rather than the creation of a second market and fair.

STANSTEAD ABBOTTS 5386 2122. Borough 1086. The seven burgesses recorded in Domesday Book might have been burgesses of Hertford, Hertfordshire (q.v.) (BF, p. 125). 1334 Subsidy £50.88. There is no evidence for a market at Stansted Abbots, or any specific mention of burgage tenure after 1086 (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 366). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 366.
M (Prescriptive: borough). No further information for the market.

STANSTEAD ST MARGARETS 5381 2115. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 473 .
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 9 Jun 1281, by K Edw I to John de Luvetot. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 252). VCH provides no further information for the market (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 473).
F (Charter) vfm+6, Nativity of John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 9 Jun 1281, by K Edw I to John de Luvetot. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 252). VCH provides no further information for the fair (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 473).

STEVENAGE 5241 2262. 1334 Subsidy 89.55. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 142.
M (Letter Close) Fri; mercatum, gr 7 Jun 1223, by K Hen III to A of Westminster (RLC, i, p. 551). To be held at the manor until the king came of age. Notice to the sh of Hertfordshire.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 5 Jan 1281, by K Edw I to A and C of Westminster. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 252). On 8 Feb 1448, K Hen VI confirmed the grant of the market to the A and C of Westminster (CPR, 1446–52, p. 124). The day of the market was changed to Fri in the seventeenth century (VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 142).
F (Charter) vfm, John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 5 Jun 1281, by K Edw I to A and C of Westminster. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 252). On 8 Feb 1448, K Hen VI confirmed the grant of the fair to the A and C of Westminster (CPR, 1446–52, p. 124).

TRING 4924 2114. 1334 Subsidy 127.58. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 283.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 1 Sept 1315, by K Edw II to A and C of Faversham (CChR, 1300–26, p. 284). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf+8, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 1 Sept 1315, by K Edw II to A and C of Faversham (CChR, 1300–26, p. 284). To be held at the manor.
K Charles II granted a Tues market; a fair was held on St Peter’s day in 1650 (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 281).

WARE 5357 2145. Borough 1204 (BF, p. 126). 1334 Subsidy 193.03. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 385.
M (Charter) Tues; mercatum, gr 24 Jul 1199, by K John to Robert, earl of Leicester (RCh, p. 5b). On 10 Mar 1207, the sh of Hertfordshire was informed that K John had granted Petronilla, countess of Leicester, the market of Ware for her life, just as Robert, earl of Leicester, her son, had held it (RLP, i, p. 69b). In 1224, the market was closed as it was detrimental to that at Hertford, Hertfordshire (q.v.) (CRR, xi, no. 1434). Ware nevertheless appears to have continued as an active market, at least in supplying grain to London (B.M.S. Campbell, J.A. Galloway, D. Keene and M. Murphy, A Medieval Capital and its Grain Supply: agrarian production and distribution in the London region c. 1300 (London, 1993), p. 46).
F (Charter) vf+3, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); feria gr 24 Aug 1254, by K Hen III to Robert de Quency (Roles Gascons, 1242–54, no. 3988; CPR, 1247–58, p. 324). To be held at the manor.

WATFORD 5112 1968. Borough 1290 (BF, p. 126). 1334 Subsidy 101.48. It is possible that the market was originally granted by K Hen I (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 451). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 474). See also VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 451.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1154x89, forum, held by ch of St Albans and the M. K Hen II confirmed a market (the day of which was not given) to the ch of St Albans and the M (Monasticon, ii, p. 228). K Ric I conceded and confirmed the market at Watford to the ch and M (CChR, 1300–26, p. 17). In 1207, the men of Watford paid 40s. to have a Sun market, as they were accustomed to have (PR, 9 John, p. 101). On 20 Jul 1301, K Edw I inspected and confirmed the charter of K Ric I (CChR, 1300–26, p. 17). Market recorded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 451).
F (Charter) m+2, Trinity Sun (Easter dep); gr 1 Nov 1335, by K Edw III to A and C of St Albans, the lords of Watford. To be held at the town (CChR, 1327–41, p. 350). Fair recorded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 451).
F (Charter) fm, Decollation of John the ‘Evangelist’ (29 Aug); gr 1 Nov 1335, by K Edw III to A and C of St Albans, the lords of Watford. To be held at the town (CChR, 1327–41, p. 350). Fair recorded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (VCH Hertfordshire, ii, p. 451). The feast of the Decollation of John the Evangelist is not known; presumably this was a scribal error for the Decollation of John the Baptist.

WATTON AT STONE 5302 2189. 1334 Subsidy 80.72. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 161.
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of the Virgin (8 Sept); gr 29 Mar 1248, by K Hen III to Robert Agoyllon. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1226–57, p. 329). Fair held by Robert Aguylon recorded in 1278 (QW, p. 279).

WESTMILL 5369 2272. 1334 Subsidy 39.08. See also VCH Hertfordshire, iii, p. 399.
M (Letter Close) Fri; mercatum, gr 10 Jul 1226, by K Hen III to Geoffrey le Szuyn (RLC, ii, p. 129). Granted as a ‘concession’.
F (Letter Close) vf, Laurence (10 Aug); feria gr 10 Jul 1226, by K Hen III to Geoffrey le Szuyn (RLC, ii, p. 129). Granted as a ‘concession’.

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