How to read an entry in the Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516
Each entry in the Gazetteer follows the same basic layout:
|PLACENAME 8-figure Ordnance Survey National Grid reference. If the place was a medieval borough or a mint in the Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Norman period, with first known date. Assessed value in 1334 Lay Subsidy. If place was a market town c.1600 (as noted by Alan Everitt). If there was a fair at the place in 1587, with its date (as recorded in Harrison). References to key works about the place (with sources).|
|M (market)||(Type of market either prescriptive (perhaps because borough or mint) or type of grant) day of week market held; date granted or recorded, grantor, grantee, any other information including regrants (source of information is given in parentheses).|
|F (fair)||(Type of fair either prescriptive or type of grant) days held in the form of vfm+1 to represent the vigil, feast and morrow plus the following day, feast name (either feast date or Easter Dependent, if the feast was movable and was determined by the date of Easter); date granted or recorded, grantor, grantee, any other information including regrants (source of information is given in parentheses).||Any miscellaneous information on the markets/fairs.|
Please note that not every category of information will be present for each entry. For example, at some places there will only be evidence of a market, or of a fair. The majority of places did not have burghal status, or a mint. Many places were not included in the 1334 lay subsidy, including, for example, the whole of Kent. Many others were not included in Alan Everitt's list of market towns c.1600 or in the list of fairs drawn up by William Harrison in 1587.
Some entries are longer than others, because there were more markets or fairs at that place, or because there is more evidence for those markets or fairs. Urban entries tend to be the longest.
Typical entry in the Gazetteer
A typical entry in the Gazetteer would be a place with one market and one fair which were granted by a royal charter, such as Queen Camel in Somerset:
|QUEEN CAMEL 3597 1249. 1334 Subsidy £30.67. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).|
|M||(Charter) Mon; gr 12 Sept 1264, by K Hen III to John de Burgo. To be held at the manor (CChR, 12571300, p. 49). In 12756, it was alleged that the market raised by John de Burgo was damaging that at Somerton, Somerset (q.v.) and the borough of Ilchester, Somerset (q.v.) (RH, ii, p. 129).|
|F||(Charter) vfm, Barnabas the Apostle (11 Jun); gr 12 Sept 1264, by K Hen III to John de Burgo To be held at the manor. (CChR, 12571300, p. 49).|
This entry begins with standard information, which provides grid references for Queen Camel, its value in the 1334 lay subsidy and notes that Alan Everitt found evidence of a market there between c.1500 and 1640.
There is evidence for one medieval market at Queen Camel. The market was granted by charter and was to be held on Monday. The charter was dated 12 September 1264 and was granted by King Henry III to John de Burgo. The market was to be held at the manor of Queen Camel. In 12756, the market was allegedly damaging two other Somerset markets, at Somerton and Ilchester.
There is evidence for one medieval fair at Queen Camel. The fair was to be held on the vigil, feast and morrow of saint Barnabas the Apostle, whose feast falls on 11 June each year. The fair was also granted by charter and was to be held at the manor of Queen Camel.
Place with a Prescriptive Market
An example of a place with only a market, which was prescriptive, is Clifton, Derbyshire:
|CLIFTON 4165 3448. 1334 Subsidy £35.25.|
|M||(Prescriptive) mercatum, recorded 1222, held by Roger de Hilton, Roger Kide, Richard Cuble, Philip le Mercer and Richard Fabrum. They were alleged to have set up the market to the detriment of that at Ashbourne, Derbyshire (q.v.). The market was held in the vill (CRR, x, no. 283). The case continued in 1224 (CRR, xi, no. 36).|
The entry begins with standard information, which provides grid references for Clifton and its value in the 1334 lay subsidy.
There is only evidence for one market, which was held by prescriptive right. It was described in the source as 'mercatum'. The earliest evidence for it dates from 1222, when it was held in the vill by by Roger de Hilton, Roger Kide, Richard Cuble, Philip le Mercer and Richard Fabrum. They were alleged to have set up the market to the detriment of a neighboring market at Ashbourne in Derbyshire. The legal case concerning these two markets was continuing in 1224.
Place which was a Borough, for which there is no
information regarding the Market
An example of a place which was a borough, but for which there is no further information regarding the market is Wellington, Somerset:
|WELLINGTON 3141 1209. Borough 1330 (BF, p. 159). 1334 Subsidy £21.50. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).|
|M||(Prescriptive: borough). No further information for the market.|
This entry begins with the standard information, providing grid references to Wellington and evidence that it was a borough in 1330, with a reference to the source of information regarding the borough. The value of Wellington in the 1334 lay subsidy is given and the fact that Alan Everitt included it in his list of market towns c.1600.
No specific reference to a medieval market at Wellington has been found during the compilation of the Gazetteer. However, as Wellington was a borough, it has been assumed that it operated as a centre of trade and had a market. Therefore, a market has been noted at Wellington. It has been given as prescriptive as there is no evidence that a market was established here by a grant.
Place which had a Market and a Fair granted by
An example of a place which had a market and a fair granted by letter close is Horsley, Derbyshire:
|HORSLEY 4375 3445. 1334 Subsidy £17.75.|
|M||(Letter Close) Thurs; mercatum, gr 8 Sept 1267, by K Hen III. To be held at the royal manor. Mandate to the sh of Derbyshire to make the market known and cause it to be held (CR, 12648, p. 335).|
|F||(Letter Close) vfm, Peter ad Vincula (1 Aug); feria, gr 8 Sept 1267, by K Hen III. To be held at the royal manor. Mandate to the sh of Derbyshire to make the fair known and cause it to be held (CR, 12648, p. 335).|
This entry begins with the standard information, providing grid references to Horsley and its assessed value in the 1334 lay subsidy.
The market at Horsley was granted by a letter close, in which it was described as a mercatum. It was to be held on Thursday and was granted on 8 September 1267, by King Henry III. The fact that it was to be held on the royal manor explains why there is no grantee: the market was for Henry himself. An order was sent to the sheriff of Derbyshire to publicise the market and to cause it to be held. The fair at Horsley was set up by the same letter close, with the same instructions to the sheriff. It was to be held on the vigil, feast and morrow of St Peter ad vincula; the feast falls on 1 August every year. The fair was described as feria.
Note on Hereditary Grants
Nearly all grants were hereditary, that is they were made to the grantee and his heirs, or to the grantees and their heirs, or to an ecclesiastical grantee and his or its successors. Hereditability of grants has therefore been taken as the norm in the Gazetteer and all grants should be assumed to be to the heirs and successors of the grantee, unless otherwise stated. Details of exceptions have been clearly noted, including life grants and specifications regarding the inheritance of the market or fair (e.g. a market might have been granted to a man and his wife, but its inheritance limited to the heirs of the wife).