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Last updated: 16 March, 2007

NB: Updates/additions to the printed Gazetteer published in 2003 are given in red.

ABERAVON / ABERAFAN 2758 1900. Borough formally incorporated 1283x1314. Borough probably grew up next to the Norman motte and bailey castle. Nothing remains of the early borough, which was destroyed by the development of Port Talbot. It was also being overcome by the sea and sand by 1491–2 (Soulsby, p. 64; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 359).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Prescriptive) Jun; recorded 20 Apr 1373 when the fair, which was held for two days in Jun, was formally recognised by Edward, lord Despenser, in a grant of privileges to the burgesses; the tolls were reserved to lord Despenser (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 359).
F (Prescriptive) Nov; recorded 20 Apr 1373 when the fair, which was held for two days in Nov, was formally recognised by Edward, lord Despenser, in a grant of privileges to the burgesses; the tolls were reserved to lord Despenser (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 359).

ABERFFRAW 2353 3690.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 8 Jun 1342, by K Edw III to Master Roger de Heyton, king’s surgeon. To be held for life at the manor (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 11). A market was recorded in 1346 (M. Richards, Atlas of Anglesey (Anglesey, 1972), p. 67).
F (Charter) f+2, Edward, king and confessor (13 Oct); gr 8 Jun 1342, by K Edw III to Master Roger de Heyton, king’s surgeon (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 11). To be held for life at the manor. The date is assumed to be that of the translation of Edward the Confessor.
F (Charter) f+2, Corpus Christi (Easter dep); gr 8 Jun 1342, by K Edw III to Master Roger de Heyton, king’s surgeon (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 11). To be held for life at the manor.

ABERGAVENNY / Y FENNI 3302 2140. Borough 1256–9. Roman fort. Castle and town were set out in c.1090. A military and administrative centre after the Norman conquest of south Wales. Borough almost destroyed by Owain Glyndwr in 1404; it was not fully restored until the early sixteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 64–7). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1255. In 1368, an unspecified number of markets were recorded, which were greatly reduced in value (Beresford, p. 558).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1255. In 1368, an unspecified number of fairs were recorded, which were greatly reduced in value (Beresford, p. 558).

ABERGELE 2945 3777. Borough 1311. In the ninth century, the ch was regarded as the clas (mother ch) of the district. The location of this site is unclear and it is possible that the area has been eroded by the sea (Soulsby, p. 68).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1311 (Soulsby, p. 68).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1311 (Soulsby, p. 68).

ABERGWILI 2440 2209. Borough 1326. A small town in the medieval period, which was probably established after the bp of St David’s built a collegiate ch in 1287 (Soulsby, pp. 68–9).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 29 Apr 1313, by K Edw II to David, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1300–26, p. 216). A weekly market held by the bp of St David’s, according to the king’s charter, was recorded in 1326. However, this was said to be on Fri. All comers to the market were free from toll (Willis-Bund, p. 243).
F (Charter) vf+3, Maurice (22 Sept); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 20 Sept 1291 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Maurice which lasted seven days. The tolls were worth 6d. per annum (Willis-Bund, p. 243).

ABERGWYNGREGYN 2654 3726. Also known as Aber.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 13 Mar 1339, by K Edw III to Walter de Mauny (CChR, 1327–41, p. 461). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 13 Mar 1339, by K Edw III to Walter de Mauny (CChR, 1327–41, p. 461). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf, Nicholas (6 Dec); gr 13 Mar 1339, by K Edw III to Walter de Mauny (CChR, 1327–41, p. 461). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Denis (9 Oct); gr 13 Mar 1339, by K Edw III to Walter de Mauny (CChR, 1327–41, p. 461). To be held at the manor.

ABERYSTWYTH 2584 2820. Borough 28 Dec 1277 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). The original settlement in this area was at Llanbadarn Fawr, site of an important Welsh monastery. A Benedictine priory was founded here by the Normans in c.1111. At least two Norman castles were constructed in the vicinity. In 1277, Edmund, earl of Lancaster planned a new town two miles away on the coast. It retained the name of Llanbadarn Fawr until the early fifteenth century, when it became known officially as Aberystwyth. Some burgage plots remained untenanted in the early fourteenth century and the town had experienced a period of contraction by the sixteenth century (Griffiths, pp. 19–45; Soulsby, pp. 69–72). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Griffiths, pp. 19–45.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 28 Dec 1277, by K Edw I to burgesses of Aberystwith (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). Market recorded in 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 294, 362). On 4 Aug 1305, Edw, prince of Wales, earl of Chester, ordained that the market at Aberystwith should be held and proclaimed as granted to the burgesses (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 263). Leland recorded the market (Griffiths, p. 44).
F (Charter) vf+2, Whitsuntide (Easter dep); gr 28 Dec 1277, by K Edw I to burgesses of Aberystwith (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). A fair at Pentecost was recorded in 1298–1300 and 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 94, 294, 362).
F (Charter) vf+6, Michaelmas (29 Sept); gr 28 Dec 1277, by K Edw I to burgesses of Aberystwith (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 206). A fair on the feast of Michael was recorded in 1298–1300 and 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 75, 94, 294, 362).
Unspecified fair(s) were recorded in 1300–1 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, p. 199).

ADPAR 2306 2413. Borough first recorded in 1326, when it was controlled by the bps of St David’s. The bps may have re-organised a Welsh settlement to an English model. No details of the castle are known. Situated on the opposite bank of the river Teifi from Newcastle Emlyn, Wales (q.v.), by which it has now been absorbed (Soulsby, pp. 73–4).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded 1326, mercatum, held by bp of St David’s (Willis-Bund, p. 219).
F (Prescriptive) Trans of Thomas the Martyr (7 Jul); nundinae recorded 1326, held by bp of St David’s (Willis-Bund, p. 219).

BALA / Y BALA 2928 3362. Borough 1310. Founded by Roger Mortimer c.1310 to act as an adminstrative centre. Formal privileges were granted in 1324. It remained small during the medieval period and was described by John Leland as ‘a little poore market’ (Soulsby, pp. 74–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded c.1310 (Beresford, p. 557; Soulsby, pp. 74–6). The market was moved here from Llanfor, Wales (q.v.).
F (Prescriptive) recorded c.1310 (Beresford, p. 557; Soulsby, pp. 74–6). At least one fair was moved here from Llanfor, Wales (q.v.).

BANGOR 2581 3721. Probably grew up around the monastery of St Deiniol, founded in the sixth century, which became the main ecclesiastical centre in North Wales. Episcopal see, to which the first Norman bp was appointed in 1092. Motte constructed in late eleventh century. Site may have seen more development during the twelfth century, prompted by the building of a new cathedral ch. Described as a ‘town’ in 1211, when it was burnt by K John. K Edw I is said to have refortified the town in 1284. During the fourteenth century, the right of the burgesses of Bangor to trade in other towns of the principality was repeatedly conceded by the Crown. Bangor was attacked by Owain Glyndwr in 1402 (Soulsby, pp. 76–8; W. Rees, ed., Calendar of Ancient Petitions Relating to Wales (Cardiff, 1975), pp. 459–60; T. Jones ed., Brut y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes, Peniarth MS. 20 Version (Cardiff, 1952), p. 85). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Charter) vf+2, Luke (18 Oct); gr 10 Aug 1330, by K Edw III to Matthew, bp of Bangor. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1327–41, p. 187). Charter confirmed by K Ric II on 18 Dec 1378 (CPR, 1377–81, p. 291).
F (Letter Patent) Trillo (15 Jun); gr 8 Oct 1351, by Edw, prince of Wales to Matthew, bp of Bangor. This was a confirmation of an agreement between the justices-in-eyre in North Wales and the bp. It was confirmed by K Ric II on 18 Dec 1378 (CPR, 1377–81, p. 291). The feast of Trillo was celebrated elsewhere on 15 Jun (D.H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford, 1979), p. 383).

BEAUMARIS 2605 3761. Small Welsh settlement of Cerrig-y-gwyddyl here was destroyed when Beaumaris was constructed. Nearby Llanfaes, Wales (q.v.) was also destroyed and the inhabitants moved to Newborough, Wales (q.v.). Beaumaris was the last town planned by K Edw I. Work on the new castle began in 1295, but it was never completed. Town burnt by Owain Glyndwr in 1403 and retaken in 1405 (Soulsby, pp. 78–80). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Letter Close) Sat; gr 23 Nov 1296, by K Edw I. Market formerly held at Llanfaes, Wales (q.v.) on Sat was to be moved here. Mandate to the justice of North Wales to cause the market to be proclaimed and held (CCR, 1296–1302, p. 1).
F (Letter Close) vfm+5, Assumption (15 Aug); gr 23 Nov 1296, by K Edw I. To be held at the town. Mandate to the justice of North Wales to cause the fair to be proclaimed and held (CCR, 1296–1302, p. 1).
F (Letter Close) vfm+5, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 23 Nov 1296, by K Edw I. To be held at the town. Mandate to the justice of North Wales to cause the fair to be proclaimed and held (CCR, 1296–1302, p. 1).

BOUGHROOD 3128 2393.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 5 Oct 1335, by K Edw III to Edward de Penbrigg (CChR, 1327–41, p. 345). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) Michaelmas (29 Sept); gr 5 Oct 1335, by K Edw III to Edward de Penbrigg (CChR, 1327–41, p. 345). To be held at the manor. The duration of the fair was not given.

BRECON / ABERHONDDU 3044 2289. Borough c.1100 (Beresford, p. 536). Area occupied in Roman times. May have been the base of Brocan, a semi-legendary Welsh leader. Site of Norman castle from 1093. Town grew up by the castle on the west bank of the river Honddu. In the late twelfth or early thirteenth century, a new town developed on the east side of the river. Burnt by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in 1231 and attacked by Owain Glyndwr in 1404. Market place was triangular and situated next to the ch of St Mary, in the centre of the medieval town. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Griffiths, pp. 47–70.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1336, when the market tolls were worth 5 19s. 3d. (Beresford, p. 536). Griffiths states that there were two market days, Wed and Sat (Griffiths, p. 58).
F (Prescriptive) 8+f+8, Nativity of John the Baptist (24 Jun); nundinae recorded ante 12 Apr 1308, held by burgesses of Brecon (W. Rees, ‘The charters of the boroughs of Brecon and Llandovery’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, ii (1923–5), pp. 244–9). The fair was stated to last eight days before and eight days after the feast. However, it is assumed that the fair was also held on the feast day itself. The fair was mentioned in a charter of Edward, duke of Buckingham, earl of Hereford, Stafford, Northampton and lord of Brecon on 18 Jul 1517.
F (Prescriptive) 8+f+8, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); nundinae recorded ante 12 Apr 1308, held by burgesses of Brecon (W. Rees, ‘The charters of the boroughs of Brecon and Llandovery’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, ii (1923–5), pp. 244–9). The fair was stated to last eight days before and eight days after the feast. It is assumed that the fair was also held on the feast day itself. The fair was mentioned in a charter of Edward, duke of Buckingham, earl of Hereford, Stafford, Northampton and lord of Brecon on 18 Jul 1517.
F (Charter) 8+f+8, Leonard (6 Nov); nundinae gr 12 Apr 1308, by Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, Constable of England and lord of Brecon to burgesses of Brecon (W. Rees, ‘The charters of the boroughs of Brecon and Llandovery’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, ii (1923–5), p. 244). It is assumed that the fair was also held on the feast day itself. The fair was to be held just as the burgesses already held the fairs on the Nativity and Decollation of John the Baptist. The fair was mentioned in a charter of Edward, duke of Buckingham, earl of Hereford, Stafford, Northampton and lord of Brecon on 18 Jul 1517.

BRIDGEND / PEN-Y-BONT AR OGWR 2905 1801. There were originally two settlements, Newcastle and Nolton or Oldcastle, separated by the river Ogmore. Newcastle appears to have developed when the Normans arrived, by c.1106. A town grew up around the castle and small ch. The smaller settlement of Nolton or Oldcastle dates from at least the late twelfth century. In the early fifteenth century, a bridge was constructed across the river from Newcastle. The name ‘Bridgend’ dates from after the medieval period (Soulsby, pp. 84–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive) Soulsby states that Newcastle became an important market centre in the medieval period, but provides no further information (Soulsby, p. 85).

BUILTH WELLS / LLANFAIR-YM-MUALLT 3045 2510. Area conquered by the Normans in the mid-1090s. Castle first mentioned in 1168. The first reference to a town dates from 1217, when it was taken by the Welsh. The castle was destroyed in 1260 and rebuilt in 1276. Builth was granted its first charter in 1277 (Soulsby, p. 86). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).

CAERLEON / CAERLLION 3341 1905. Borough 1324 (CChR, 1300–26, p. 461). Major Roman settlement (Isca) with fort. Traditionally the site of a collegiate ch founded by St Dubricius in the sixth century. The Normans had arrived by 1086 and a manor is noted in Domesday Book. A motte was built by the Roman fort in the late eleventh century. This castle was held by the Welsh in the twelfth and early thirteenth century. The town is first mentioned in 1171. This was probably burnt by the Welsh in 1231. It was attacked by Owain Glyndwr in 1402. The town was small (Soulsby, pp. 86–8). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 27 Jan 1296, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, lately deceased (CIPM, iii, no. 371).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 27 Jan 1296, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, lately deceased (CIPM, iii, no. 371).
On 27 Jan 1296, it was stated that the market and fair paid 5s. annual toll (CIPM, iii, no. 371).

CAERNARFON 2479 3628. Borough 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 278). Site of a Roman fort called Segontium, maintained until the late fourth century. It may have been used as a civil settlement thereafter, as the ch of St Peblig was constructed nearby. Hugh de Avranches, earl of Chester built a motte in c.1090. He may also have granted borough status to Caernarfon. However, the main settlement appears to have developed after the castle was taken by the Welsh. This became a royal residence and the administrative centre of Gwynedd. Following the conquest of Wales, K Edw I ordered work to begin on a new castle and town in 1283. It became the administrative and judicial centre of the Principality of North Wales. Despite an attack in 1294, the town quickly developed. There was a small market place within the walls and a larger one outside. A small suburb beyond the east gate had grown up by the early fifteenth century, which was destroyed during the Glyndwr revolt. Caernarfon remained more important as a political, than commercial, centre (M.D. Lobel, Historic Towns: maps and plans of towns and cities in the British Isles: with historical commentaries from earliest times to 1800 (London, 1969), pp. 1–6; Soulsby, pp. 88–91; Griffiths, pp. 73–101). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Prescriptive) recorded post 1352. Lobel states that there were four annual fairs after 1352, but provides no further details (M.D. Lobel, Historic Towns: maps and plans of towns and cities in the British Isles: with historical commentaries from earliest times to 1800 (London, 1969), p. 5).

CAERPHILLY / CAERFFILI 3156 1870. Borough ante 1281. In 1268, the first castle was begun by the earl of Gloucester. This was destroyed by the Welsh in 1270 and reconstructed the following year, when a town was laid out. Welsh attacks in the late thirteenth century and in 1316 prevented the growth of the town (Soulsby, pp. 92–3). In 1428–9, the income from the markets and fairs at Caerphilly was farmed for 4 each year. By the early sixteenth century, the settlement had greatly declined and it lost its borough status (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 355).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded ante 1314. Before his death in 1314, Earl Gilbert de Clare granted the townsfolk of Caerphilly freedom to buy and sell in the market (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 341). Soulsby states that the market continued until the mid twentieth century (Soulsby, p. 92).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1428–9 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 355).

CAERSWS 3032 2910. Borough possibly twelfth or thirteenth century. Site of a Roman fort. The regular street pattern suggests that it was planned, perhaps in the late twelfth or early thirteenth century. It was apparently a borough and was still referred to as such in the sixteenth century, although its urban character had ceased. The weekly market had been abandoned by Leland’s time (1532–6) (Soulsby, pp. 93–4).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the medieval market.

CAERWYS 3127 3728. Borough late thirteenth century. Part of the chain of boroughs created in the late thirteenth century. It received its first charter in 1290. This was a mainly Welsh town. Without a castle, or town defences, this appears to have been a commercial centre. An important town in the fourteenth century. An attack by Glyndwr and the growth of Rhuddlan, Wales (q.v.) contributed to the decline of Caerwys in the later medieval period (Soulsby, pp. 94–5). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Soulsby, pp. 94–5 .
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded c.1300 (Beresford, p. 549). Market recorded in the fourteenth century; it continued until the nineteenth century (Soulsby, p. 95).
F (Prescriptive) recorded c.1300 (Beresford, p. 549). Soulsby indicates that there was more than one fair in the fourteenth century. The fairs continued until the nineteenth century (Soulsby, p. 95).

CARDIFF / CAERDYDD 3181 1766. Mint under K William I (d. 1087) and until 1140s. Borough by 1120x37. In the 1080s, the Normans reoccupied a Roman fort and constructed a motte here. The town and castle were burnt during a Welsh attack in 1185. Cardiff developed quickly in the thirteenth century, becoming the largest town in Wales. Much of the town was burnt by Owain Glyndwr in 1404. In Mar 1349, the tolls of the market and fair were estimated at 6s. 8d.; by 1491 the fair tolls had declined severely (Soulsby pp. 95–9; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 348). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Griffiths, pp. 103–28.
M (Prescriptive: mint, borough) by 1087. On 19 Apr 1340, trading outside the markets of Cardiff was outlawed in the charter of liberties granted by Hugh, lord Despenser (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 336, 346).
F (Prescriptive) feria recorded 1121–2x1147, held by Robert fitz Regis, earl of Gloucester, who granted to Tewkesbury abbey the tithe of the rents and tolls of his fair at Cardiff (R.B. Patterson ed., Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. 283). In 1147–83, this grant was confirmed by a charter of Earl William of Gloucester (R.B. Patterson, Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. 268) A fair (nundine) was recorded in 1188 (PR, 34 Hen II, p. 11). In 1189–99, John, count of Gloucester confirmed the charter of Earl William of Gloucester (R.B. Patterson, Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. 272). A fair held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, is recorded on 3 Feb 1296. The feast of the fair was not given (CIPM, iii, no. 371). These fairs may have been held on either of the feasts below.
F (Prescriptive) 23 Jun; recorded 19 April 1340. This was one of two fairs recorded in a charter of liberties granted to Cardiff by Hugh, lord Despenser on 19 Apr 1340. The normal trading of the borough was suspended whilst the fairs were held (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 346).
F (Prescriptive) 7 Sept; recorded 19 Apr 1340. This was one of two fairs recorded in a charter of liberties granted to Cardiff by Hugh, lord Despenser on 19 Apr 1340. The normal trading of the borough was suspended whilst the fairs were held (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 343).
A fair held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, is recorded on 3 Feb 1296. The feast of the fair was not given; it could relate to either of the fairs above (CIPM, iii, no. 371).

CARDIGAN / ABERTEIFI 2179 2461. Borough 9 Dec 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). A Norman motte was constructed in 1093 a mile west of the present town, at Hen Castell. The first castle at Cardigan was built in the reign of K Hen I. The settlement probably developed around the castle. Taken by the Welsh from 1165, the castle was not secure in English hands until the 1240s. Cardigan grew in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, but thereafter contracted (Soulsby, pp. 99–101). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded twelfth century (Soulsby, p. 99).
M (Letter Close) Sat; mercatum, gr 4 Feb 1227, by K Hen III to men of Cardigan. This letter close is to the men of Cardigan, but no mention is made of their heirs or successors. It is therefore unclear if this was a grant in hereditary right (RLC, ii, p. 168b). It is possible that this was a recognition of an existing market. A market was recorded in 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 298, 366).
F (Letter Close) vf, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); feria gr 4 Feb 1227, by K Hen III to men of Cardigan. This letter close is to the men of Cardigan, but no mention is made of their heirs or successors. It is therefore unclear if this was a grant in hereditary right (RLC, ii, p. 168b). A fair on f Holy Trinity was recorded in 1298–1301 and 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 82, 99, 202, 298, 366).

CARMARTHEN / CAERFYRDDIN 2408 2200. Borough twelfth century. Roman fort and regional centre. Traditionally a Welsh settlement around ch of St Teulyddog, which remained as ‘Old Carmarthen’ throughout the medieval period. Site of Norman castle from 1094, below which a new settlement developed which was granted its first privileges by K Hen I in 1109. This borough grew into a small town in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Formally granted a borough charter in mid thirteenth century. After the Edwardian conquest, it became the focus for royal government in south Wales. In 1326, the town was made a staple port licensed to deal in wool, pelts, leather, lead and tin. As an adminstrative and economic centre, it grew rapidly in the fourteenth century. With Cardiff and Caernarfon, Carmarthen was the most urbanised area in Wales (Soulsby, pp. 101–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Griffiths, pp. 131–63.
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded thirteenth century (Griffiths, p. 147).
M (Charter) Mon; gr 20 Sept 1394, by K Ric II to P and C of St John the Evangelist of Carmarthen (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 349).
F (Prescriptive) Peter’s Chains (1 Aug); nundinae recorded 1298–9 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, p. 88). The fair later lasted for 7 days (Griffiths, pp. 146–7).
F (Prescriptive) George (23 Apr); nundinae recorded 1298–9 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, p. 88).
F (Charter) vf, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 20 Sept 1394, by K Ric II to P and C of St John the Evangelist of Carmarthen (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 349).

CASTELL Y BERE 2667 3085. Borough 22 Nov 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). Welsh castle captured by K Edw I in 1283. A small borough was subsequently laid out. There were a very small number of tax-payers by 1292–3. The castle and settlement were abandoned following a Welsh attack in 1294 (Soulsby, pp. 104–5).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

CEFNLLYS 3090 2614. Borough 1297. A motte built two miles north in c.1100 by Ralph Mortimer was abandoned in 1240x46 and a new stone castle constructed at Cefnllys. The Mortimer family rebuilt the castle in 1273–4 and founded a small borough by 1297. The borough was recorded in 1304, 1332, 1360 and 1383. However, Cefnllys had begun to decline by the mid fourteenth century. No remains of the medieval settlement survive (Beresford, p. 570). The grid reference is to the site of Cefnllys castle.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded Jul 1297, when K Edw I inspected and confirmed a charter of Edmund de Mortimer, granted in 1297. Pleas touching the markets of Cefnllys were to be heard in its hundred (CPR, 1292–1301, p. 290).

CHEPSTOW / CAS-GWENT 3536 1940. Borough 1306. The castle and St Mary’s priory date from c.1070, whilst the town had been laid out by 1075. It was known as ‘Strigoil’ (after the castle and lordship) until the fourteenth century. In 1306, Chepstow was a successful borough and port. It declined in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The town was not directly affected by the various Welsh wars (Soulsby, pp. 106–9). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

CILGERRAN 2195 2431. Borough possibly thirteenth century. Possibly a religious site in the early middle ages. The layout indicates it was planned. It is ascribed borough status. Castle first mentioned in 1166 and the town in 1204. Despite being the adminstrative centre of a lordship until the sixteenth century, the town remained small. A weekly market was held. Speed named Cilgerran as one of the main market centres in Pembrokeshire in the early seventeenth century (Soulsby, pp. 109–10).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

COLWYN 3107 2540. Colwyn was a hundred in Radnorshire, in the deanery of Elwel. The map reference is to the site of Colwyn Castle, but the market and fair may have been held at one of the nearby settlements in the hundred.
M(Charter) Sat; gr 30 Jul 1299, by K Edw I to Robert de Tony (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479). To be held at his manor of ‘Colewent in Elvel, Co. Heref.’.
F(Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 30 Jul 1299, by K Edw I to Robert de Tony (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479). To be held at his manor of ‘Colewent in Elvel, Co. Heref.’.

CONWY 2782 3776. Borough 8 Sept 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). Site of a Welsh hall and a Cistercian abbey from c.1192. K Edw I founded the castle and borough, which were virtually completed by 1287. Conwy took over the defensive role of Deganwy, Wales (q.v.) on the main route into north Wales. The success of Conwy meant that extra-mural development occurred as early as 1312. The degree of damage sustained during the attack by Glyndwr in 1401 is not known. By the early fifteenth century it appears that Conwy had almost completely recovered (Soulsby, pp. 110–15). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

COWBRIDGE / Y BONT–FAEN 2985 1743. Borough ante 1262–3. Roman settlement had disappeared by the end of the fourth century. The medieval settlement, which may already have existed, developed rapidly from the mid twelfth century onwards under the lordship of Richard de Clare. Earl Richard may have granted the burgesses of Cowbridge the liberties of Cardiff, Wales (q.v.) in 1254. The borough quickly developed into an important commercial centre. In the early years of the fourteenth century, it was one of the foremost towns in Wales. The town walls may have been built in the late thirteenth century; there was probably suburban growth from very early on in its history. It had contracted by the sixteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 115–17; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 340; Beresford, p. 554). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 5 Feb 1296, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford (CIPM, iii, no. 371).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 5 Feb 1296, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford (CIPM, iii, no. 371).

CRICCIETH 2498 3378. Borough 22 Nov 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). Welsh castle constructed here by 1239, with a ch and possibly an associated settlement. After capture by K Edw I in 1283, the castle was extended. A new borough was founded in 1284. The town was not walled. It had hardly grown by 1294 and remained small in 1319. In 1404, the town and castle were burnt by Glyndwr. Although the castle was not repaired, the borough made some recovery. In the 1530s, Leland described Criccieth as ‘clene decayed’ (Soulsby, pp. 117–19).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Thurs (Soulsby, p. 118).
F (Prescriptive) Soulsby states that there were two annual fairs, but provides no further information (Soulsby, p. 118).
F (Prescriptive) Soulsby states that there were two annual fairs, but provides no further information (Soulsby, p. 118).

CRICKHOWELL 3217 2184. Borough 26 Nov 1281. On 26 Nov 1281, the burgesses and bailiffs of the town of Crickhowell received a murage grant. Crickhowell went into decline after the castle was attacked in 1403 (CPR, 1281–92, p. 2; Soulsby, p. 119). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Soulsby, pp. 119–20.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr ante 10 Feb 1281, by Reginald son of Peter to Hugh de Turberville. Market held at the manor. Hugh granted the market to Grimbald Pauncefot, by a charter which K Edw I inspected. The king had ratified the gifts (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 248).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Mon (Soulsby, p. 119).
F (Charter) vfm, Ascension (Easter dep); gr ante 10 Feb 1281, by Reginald son of Peter to Hugh de Turberville. Fair held at the manor. Hugh granted the fair to Grimbald Pauncefot, by a charter which K Edw I inspected. The king had ratified the gifts (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 248).
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr ante 10 Feb 1281, by Reginald son of Peter to Hugh de Turberville. Fair held at the manor. Hugh granted the fair to Grimbald Pauncefot, by a charter which K Edw I inspected. The king had ratified the gifts (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 248).

DALE 1811 2059.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 5 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Robert de Val (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Exaltation of the Cross (14 Sept); gr 5 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Robert de Val (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). To be held at the manor.

DEGANWY 2782 3794. Borough 21 Feb 1252 (CChR, 1226–57, pp. 378–9). Possibly occupied by the Romans. Site of a Welsh castle. A Norman castle built here in the late eleventh century changed hands several times. The castle was destroyed in 1241, the same year as a Welsh vill is first mentioned. K Hen III ordered the castle to be strengthened in 1245 and planned a town in 1248. The castle was destroyed by the Welsh in 1263 and it is likely that the new town shared its fate. After Conwy, Wales (q.v.) was founded across the river, Deganwy was revived. The market reappeared by 1290. It was still being held in the late fifteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 120–1). See also Soulsby, p. 120.
M (Letter Close) Tues; mercatum, gr 21 Aug 1250, by K Hen III. To be held at the town. Mandate to the Justiciar of Chester to make the market known and henceforth be held (CR, 1247–51, pp. 314–15). On 21 Feb 1252, K Hen III granted the Tues market to the burgesses of Degannwy (CChR, 1226–57, p. 379).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Mon; recorded thirteenth century (Beresford, p. 546).
F (Letter Close) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); feria gr 21 Aug 1250, by K Hen III (CR, 1247–51, pp. 314–15). To be held at the town. Mandate to the Justiciar of Chester to make the fair known and henceforth be held.
F (Charter) vfm+6, Martin (11 Nov); gr 21 Feb 1252, by K Hen III to burgesses of Diganwy (CChR, 1226–57, p. 379).
F (Prescriptive) Oct; recorded thirteenth century (Beresford, p. 546).
Market recorded in ?1285–95; no details of the market were given (W. Rees ed., Calendar of Ancient Petitions Relating to Wales (Cardiff, 1975), no. 13715).

DENBIGH / DINBYCH 3054 3662. Borough 1285. The main period of occupation dates from the reign of K Edw I, when Henry de Lacy established a castle and borough. The town trebled in size between 1285 and 1305, with substantial extra-mural development. This expansion continued in the later fourteenth century, with the commercial activity of the town focused beyond the walls (Soulsby, pp. 121–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). Fair 1587, Mon before Lady day in Lent [presumably the Mon before 25 Mar]; 14 Sept (Harrison, pp. 393, 395).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market. By the sixteenth century, the market was on Wed (Griffiths, p. 172).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1311. By the sixteenth century, two fairs were held, on 3 May and 14 Sept (Griffiths, p. 172).

DINAS-MAWDDWY 2858 3147. Borough 1393. A small borough with a predominantly Welsh population. The borough was also recorded in 1423 (Soulsby, pp. 126–7).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

DINEFWR 2617 2230. Borough by 1298. Also known as Dynevor. The castle is first recorded in 1163. By the twelfth century there was a tradition that it had been held by the princes of Deheubarth for at least two hundred years. Dinefwr castle and its demesne was taken into K Edw I’s hands in Jun 1277. The earliest mention of the old, upper settlement dates from the late thirteenth century; it may have been exclusively Welsh. A new development, Newton or Newtown, was founded in 1298 to the north, on lower ground. This was almost entirely English. Within three years, the Newtown had expanded. The Newtown was burnt in 1316. Both settlements recovered in the mid fourteenth century and in 1360 the Newtown in particular was flourishing. Dinefwr received its formal borough charter on 1 Jun 1363, with the right to hold a guild merchant. From the early fifteenth century, Dinefwr lost its role as a defensive site and went into decline. In the 1530s, Leland described Newtown as ruinous. Both settlements have now disappeared. Just over one mile west of Llandeilo, Wales (q.v.) (R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 254–71).
M (Letter Patent) gr 4 Dec 1280, by K Edw I. Mandate to Bogo de Knovill, justice of west Wales, to cause to be proclaimed in the town of Dynavor a weekly market to be held there (CPR, 1272–81, p. 417). Day of the market was not given. This market was in the old, upper settlement. In the borough charter of 1 Jun 1363, the Wed market was confirmed; this was confirmed by K Ric II on 24 Sept 1394 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 266–71; CPR, 1391–6, p. 505).
F (Letter Patent) gr 4 Dec 1280, by K Edw I. Mandate to Bogo de Knovill, justice of west Wales, to cause to be proclaimed in the town of Dynavor a yearly fair to be held there (CPR, 1272–81, p. 417). No details of the fair were given. This fair was in the old, upper settlement. It was associated with the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary (8 Sept). In 1360, the tolls of the fair were 4. On 1 Jun 1363, Edw the Black Prince granted that the fair was to be extended to three days; K Ric II confirmed this on 24 Sept 1394 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 263–6; CPR, 1391–6, p. 505).
F (Prescriptive) John the Baptist (24 Jun); nundinae recorded 1299 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, p. 88). This fair was abandoned by 1302–3 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 265).
F (Letter Patent) gr 1 Jun 1363, by Edw, the Black Prince to burgesses of Newtown in south Wales. K Ric II confirmed the letters patent on 24 Sept 1394. The fair was held for three days on 18 Oct (CPR, 1391–6, p. 505; R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 263–6).

DOLFORWYN 3154 2951. Borough 1273. Castle, borough and market were established by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1273. It was captured by the English in 1277. The history of the borough and castle over the next century is uncertain, although the castle was in ruins by 1398 (Soulsby, pp. 130–1). The grid reference is to Dolforwyn castle.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1273, held by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (Soulsby, p. 130).

DOLGELLAU 2728 3178. Small Welsh settlement appears to have developed here during the thirteenth century. It experienced rapid development in the fourteenth century and its weekly market became an important trading centre. In the mid sixteenth century there were three annual fairs (Soulsby, pp. 131–3). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive) recorded fourteenth century (Soulsby, p. 131).

DRYSLWYN 2554 2204. Borough 1287. Welsh castle first mentioned in 1246, with a settlement beside it in 1271, when it was held by Rhys ap Maredudd. Town reorganised along English lines in 1287 and burgages laid out. The small borough continued during the fourteenth century. In 1403, the castle was destroyed by Owain Glyndwr; this probably contributed to the decline of the settlement (Soulsby, pp. 133–4).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 25 Mar 1324, by K Edw II to burgesses of Dryslwyn (CChR, 1300–26, p. 461). To be held at the town.
F (Charter) f+3, Bartholomew (24 Aug); gr 12 Jul 1281, by K Edw I to Rhys son of Meredith. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 253). Fair on the feast of Bartholomew held in the town recorded in 1298–1300 and 1303–5. A fair was recorded in 1300–1; the feast was not given (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 70, 88, 194, 304, 370).

DYSERTH 3056 3793. Borough 1248. Present village of Dyserth probably dates from at least the eleventh century. The medieval settlement was half a mile away, centred on the castle established there by K Hen III in 1241. Burgages near the castle were being taken up seven years later. The settlement and the castle were destroyed by a Welsh attack in 1263. The castle was not repaired and by 1292 the number of taxpayers had declined (Soulsby, pp. 128–30). The grid references are to the modern settlement.
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

FAGWYR GOCH 2053 2308.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 5 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Robert de Val. To be held at the manor of Redwalles, co. Pembroke (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433).
F (Charter) vfm, Edward the king (13 Oct); gr 5 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Robert de Val. To be held at the manor of Redwalles, co. Pembroke (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). It has been assumed that the feast does not relate to K Edw the Martyr, but to K Edw the Confessor; the date of the latter’s translation has been used.

FELINDRE 2704 2275.
F (Charter) vf, Katharine (25 Nov); gr 4 Mar 1383, by K Ric II to Nicholas de Audley, kn. To be held at the town of Melynaresavey within the lordship of Lanymdevery [Llandovery] (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 281).

FISHGUARD / ABERGWAUN 1960 2369. There may have been a market here during the medieval period. Founded by the Normans in the late eleventh century. Medieval Fishguard was small and its status as a borough is uncertain, although it was regarded as a borough in the seventeenth century (Soulsby, pp. 134–5).

FLINT / Y FFLINT 3244 3730. Borough 8 Sept 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 277). K Edw I began the construction of this castle and town in Jul 1277. Although the borough was burnt by the Welsh in 1294–5, it recovered during the fourteenth century. However, after the attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1400, the town went into decline (Soulsby, pp. 135–7). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded ?1285x95 (W. Rees ed., Calendar of Ancient Petitions Relating to Wales (Cardiff, 1975), no. 13715). No details of the market were given.

GLASCWM 3156 2532. Also known as Glascombe.
M (Charter) Sat; gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a Sat market (Willis-Bund, p. 291).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 20 Sept 1291, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405).
F (Charter) vf+2, Martin in the Winter (11 Nov); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 20 Sept 1291 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on the feast of Martin (Willis-Bund, p. 291).

GOLDCLIFF 3366 1831.
F (Charter) vf+6, Mary Magdalene (22 Jul); gr 14 Jun 1290, by K Edw I to P and C of Goldcliff. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 356). Charter of K Edw I granting the P of Goldclyve the fair (Abb Plac, p. 232b).

GROSMONT 3404 2244. Borough 1250. K Steph acquired Grosmont in 1137. The first mention of the castle dates from 1163. Burgages may have been established in 1219; the borough had certainly been laid out by 1250. The market was held twice weekly. Grosmont was a sizeable settlement in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Its decline was probably the result of an attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1405 (Soulsby, pp. 137–8). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

HARLECH 2581 3312. Borough 22 Nov 1284 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). K Edw I began work on the castle and town in 1283. It was the smallest of the Edwardian planned boroughs and development was limited. Almost the whole town was destroyed by Owain Glyndwr. The history of the town in the later middle ages is sparsely documented (Soulsby, pp. 138–9). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market, although Soulsby states that it was held on Sat (Soulsby, p. 138).
F (Charter) vfm, Cuthbert (20 Mar); gr 23 Sept 1334, by K Edw III to burgesses of Harlech (CChR, 1327–41, p. 319). To be held at the town.
F (Charter) vfm, Corpus Christi (Easter dep); gr 23 Sept 1334, by K Edw III to burgesses of Harlech (CChR, 1327–41, p. 319). To be held at the town.
Soulsby states that there were four annual fairs (Soulsby, p. 138).

HAVERFORDWEST / HWLFFORDD 1953 2157. Borough 1189x1219. Town and castle were founded c.1110 by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Pembroke. In the second half of the thirteenth century, the borough was enlarged and the castle rebuilt. An important port, connecting Wales with Ireland and continental Europe. In 1405, the town was destroyed by Owain Glyndwr, but recovered (Soulsby, pp. 139–42). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sun; recorded 17 Nov 1207, mercatum, held by Robert son of Richard de Haverford’. The market, which was formerly held on Sun, was henceforth to be held on Sun (RCh, p. 173). Usually, this form of words is used in John’s reign when the day of a market was changed from Sun to another day of the week. It is therefore probable that this was a scribal error and that the market day was being or had been moved from Sun. A market, the day of which was not given, was recorded on 23 Jul 1451. It had been granted to Roland Lenthale, kn, and his wife Margery for life; now that both were deceased, it was granted to Qu Margaret [of Anjou] in dower (CCR, 1447–54, p. 224). The market was held in St Mary’s churchyard (Soulsby, p. 141).
F (Charter) v+15, Philip and James (1 May); feria gr 17 Nov 1207, by K John to Robert son of Richard de Haverford’ (RCh, p. 173). A fair was recorded on 23 Jul 1451, which had been granted to Roland Lenthale, kn, and his wife Margery for life; now that both were deceased, it was granted to Qu Margaret [of Anjou] in dower (CCR, 1447–54, p. 224).

HAY-ON-WYE / Y GELLI GANDRYLL 3226 2421. Borough thirteenth century. Area conquered by the Normans: a castle and priory are mentioned in the early twelfth century. No foundation or borough charter survives for Hay. The earliest date for the town is 1216, when it was burnt by K John. It was burnt by the Welsh in 1231. Hay was thereafter fortified in the mid and late thirteenth century and a new castle constructed. The town declined in the later medieval period, probably the result of Owain Glyndwr’s attack in 1400 (Soulsby, pp. 142–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Thurs (Soulsby, p. 143).

HENLLYS 3268 1937.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 18 Jun 1338, by K Edw III to John de Langeton (CChR, 1327–41, p. 447). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul the Apostles (29 Jun); gr 18 Jun 1338, by K Edw III to John de Langeton (CChR, 1327–41, p. 447). To be held at the manor.

HOLT 3412 3541. Borough ante 1315. Castle and town here were laid out soon after 1282 by John de Warenne, earl of Surrey. The foundation charter may have been granted in 1285. The first mention of the castle dates from 1304. By 1315, the borough had developed into an important centre. This growth continued until the mid fourteenth century. The impact of plague and an attack by Glyndwr probably contributed to Holt’s decline (Soulsby, pp. 144–7). Fair 1587, 11 Jun; 17 Oct (Harrison, pp. 394, 396).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for market.

HOLYWELL / TREFFYNNON 3190 3771. Settlement appears to have begun with the founding of Basingwerk abbey, the grant of a market to the M of Basingwerk and the construction of a motte by Ranulph, earl of Chester in 1210. The market failed. The modern town is to the south of the medieval settlement (Soulsby, pp. 147–8).
M (Grant: other); gr c.1210, to M of Basingwerk (Soulsby, pp. 147–8). No further details of the market are given.
M (Charter) Fri; gr 20 Aug 1292, by K Edw I to A and C of Basingwerk (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 423). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 20 Aug 1292, by K Edw I to A and C of Basingwerk (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 423). To be held at the manor.

HOPE / YR HOB 3310 3584. Borough 1347 (Soulsby, p. 148). Although Hope appears in Domesday Book, it was probably not until the thirteenth century that the town developed. It was granted borough status in the fourteenth century, when the Welsh inhabitants were expelled. After an attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1403, Hope was burnt and the burgesses fled. The town went into decline and did not recover in the medieval period.
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

KENFIG 2803 1813. Borough twelfth century. Settled during and after the Roman period. Recorded in the late ninth century. Site of a Welsh castle in 1080. Norman castle and town established and enclosed with defences by 1135x54. Destroyed by the Welsh in 1167 and 1183; attacks continued in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Although apparently a fairly large town in the fourteenth century, Kenfig was abandoned by 1470 as sand dunes encroached upon it. It is now buried beneath the dunes (Soulsby, pp. 149–52). The grid references are to the modern settlement of Kenfig.
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Prescriptive) nundine recorded 1188 (PR, 34 Hen II, p. 8). Fair held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, recorded on 7 Feb 1296 (CIPM, iii, no. 371). This may relate to either of the fairs below.
F (Prescriptive) 24 Jul; recorded 14 May 1360. This was one of two fairs at Kenfig recorded in a charter of privileges granted by Edward, lord Despenser on 14 May 1360 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 351).
F (Prescriptive) Mon in Whitsun week (Easter dep); recorded 14 May 1360. This was one of two fairs at Kenfig recorded in a charter of privileges granted by Edward, lord Despenser on 14 May 1360 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 351).

KERRY / CERI 3147 2900.
F (Charter) vf+3, Michaelmas (29 Sept); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343).

KIDWELLY / CYDWELI 2409 2067. Borough possibly twelfth century. The town and castle were constructed by Roger, bp of Salisbury in c.1110. From this early date there is evidence of a ‘new town’ on the opposite bank of the River Afon. The men of ‘Cadweli’ were granted freedom from toll in 1106–14. Flemish settlers established a cloth industry, which encouraged the development of the town. From the early thirteenth century, Kidwelly was an important port. During the reign of K Edw I, the borough and castle were refortified. The old town was destroyed by Owain Glyndwr in 1403 and, although repaired, was thereafter eclipsed by the importance of the ‘new town’ across the river (Soulsby, pp. 152–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Tues; gr 22 Oct 1268, by K Hen III to Payn de Chaworth (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 113).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 22 Oct 1268, by K Hen III to Payn de Chaworth (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 113).
F (Charter) vfm+5, Mary Magdalene (22 Jul); gr 22 Oct 1268, by K Hen III to Payn de Chaworth (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 113).

KNIGHTON / TREF Y CLAWDD 3286 2725. Borough ante 1304. The manor was described as ‘waste’ in Domesday Book. William de Braose was building a castle at Knighton in 1191–2, which may have encouraged the development of a town. The earliest reference to a settlement apart from the castle is 1292–3. Most of the taxpayers were Welsh, which suggests this was a native settlement that had been enlarged by English plantation. Within ten years, Knighton had grown and incorporated a large number of burgages. The market place was originally immediately to the north of the castle; it was subsequently moved to the junction of High Street and Broad Street (Soulsby, pp. 155–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for market.
F (Charter) vf+2, Matthew (21 Sept); gr 26 Oct 1230, by K Hen III to Roger de Mortimer. To be held at the manor of ‘Cnihtiton, Shropshire’ (CChR, 1226–57, p. 125). A fair was being held by Edmund de Mortuo Mari on 25 Jul 1304. The feast was not recorded (CIPM, iv, no. 235).

KNUCKLAS / CNWCLAS 3250 2745. Borough 1246. Settlement here was extremely limited and focused on the important castle which was constructed by the Mortimer family in the 1240s. They probably also founded the adjacent borough, which is mentioned in 1246. The castle was captured by the Welsh in 1262 and both it and the settlement fell into decline. It is possible that a few burgesses remained during the later middle ages (Soulsby, pp. 156–7).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

LAMPETER / LLANBEDR PONT STEFFAN 2575 2484. Borough 1271–7 (Beresford, p. 539). Site of a Norman motte, which was destroyed in 1137. The earliest date for this Welsh town is 1285. It developed in the early fourteenth century, particularly as a result of its fair (Soulsby, pp. 157–8). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 22 Jun 1285, by K Edw I to Res son of Meredut. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 303). A market was recorded in 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 308, 376). On 3 Mar 1318, K Edw II granted Res ap Griffith, king’s yeoman, a Thurs market to be held at the manor, which he held for life (CChR, 1300–26, p. 374). Soulsby states that the market was ‘insignificant’ (Soulsby, p. 157).
F (Charter) vfm, Denis the Martyr (9 Oct); gr 22 Jun 1285, by K Edw I to Res son of Meredut. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 303). A fair was recorded in 1300–1; the feast was not given. A fair on the feast of Denis was recorded in 1303–5 (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 210, 308, 374).

LAMPHEY 2016 2004. Site of an episcopal palace (R.F. Isaacson ed., The Episcopal Registers of the Diocese of St. David’s, 1397 to 1518 (London, 1917–20), ii, p. 873).
F (Charter) vf+3, Decollation of John (29 Aug); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor of Lantefei in west Wales (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 20 Sept 1291 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405).

LAUGHARNE 2302 2110. Borough early thirteenth century. Also known as Talacharn or Abercoran. A small borough was laid out by the castle in the early thirteenth century. This was burnt by the Welsh in 1257 and the new borough was not set out until 1278–82 (Soulsby, pp. 158–60).
M (Grant: other) Thurs; gr 1247, by K Hen III to Guy de Brionne (Soulsby, p. 158).
F (Charter) vfm, Michael (29 Sept); gr 15 Dec 1247, by K Hen III to Guy de Brion. To be held at the manor of Talachar (CChR, 1226–57, p. 328).

LLANARMON MYNYDD MAWR 3136 3279.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 7 Nov 1279, by K Edw I to Llewellyn son of Griffin de Bromfeud (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Cilin and Garmon (not known); gr 7 Nov 1279, by K Edw I to Llewellyn son of Griffin de Bromfeud. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). Garmon may have been Germanus of Man, whose feast was celebrated in Wales on 31 Jul or 1 Oct. He is often confused with Germanus of Auxerre (D.H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford, 1979), p. 169; N. Orme, The Saints of Cornwall (Oxford, 2000), p. 128). St Cilin has not been identified.

LLANDAFF 3157 1778. Episcopal see from 1107.
M (Charter) Sun; mercatum, gr 9 Sept 1205, by K John to Henry bp of Llandaff (RCh, p. 159b).
F (Charter) m+3, Pentecost (Easter dep); feria gr 9 Sept 1205, by K John to Henry bp of Llandaff (RCh, p. 159b).

LLANDDEW 3054 2307. Site of episcopal palace. See also Rachfynydd, Wales (q.v.).
F (Charter) vf+3, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on Holy Trinity (Willis-Bund, p. 293).
F (Charter) vf+3, Luke (18 Oct); gr 20 Sept 1291, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor of Llanthew (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on the feast of Luke (Willis-Bund, p. 293).

LLANDDEWI-BREFI 2665 2554.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p, 258). Market granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a Mon market (Willis-Bund, p. 197).
F (Charter) vfm, Assumption (15 Aug); gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on the Assumption of Mary (Willis-Bund, p. 197).

LLANDEILO 2630 2223. Borough by 1326. A small Welsh settlement grew up around the ch of St Teilo, which traditionally was founded in the sixth century. This was an important ‘mother ch’ with a large estate. In the late thirteenth century, the area came under the control of the bps of St David’s and a new town was laid out. It was situated on a crossing point of the river Tywi. In 1326, it was one of the smallest and least profitable of the towns held by the bp of St David’s, with only fourteen burgesses. In 1403, Glyndwr burnt much of Llandeilo. Just over one mile east of Dinefwr, Wales (q.v.) (R.A. Griffiths, ‘A tale of two towns: Llandeilo Fawr and Dinefwr in the Middle Ages’, in R.A. Griffiths, Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales (Stroud, 1994), pp. 254–71). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded 1326, held by bp of St David’s (Willis-Bund, p. 264).
F (Charter) vf+3, Barnabas (11 Jun); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 20 Sept 1291 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on the feast of Barnabas the apostle (Willis-Bund, p. 263).

LLANDOVERY / LLANYMDDYFRI 2768 2344. Borough 1185. Area conquered by the Normans in early twelfth century. The castle (first mentioned in 1116) and the founding of a Benedictine priory (dissolved in 1185) may have encouraged local settlement. A town had grown up by the end of the twelfth century, with English burgesses recorded in 1185. Control of Llandovery passed regularly between the English and Welsh. In 1276, the borough was granted to John Giffard, who strengthened the castle. The population of the town increased in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Captured by Owain Glyndwr in 1403 and thereafter declined. The market square was to the north of the castle. According to Leland, there was ‘a poore market’ (Soulsby, pp. 162–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded Dec 1316, when an inquisition recorded markets worth 40s. (Beresford, p. 542).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 26 Jan 1485, by K Ric III to bailiffs and burgesses of Llandovery (CChR, 1427–1516, pp. 261–2). To be held in the borough.
F (Prescriptive) recorded Dec 1316, when an inquisition reported fairs worth 53s. 4d. (Beresford, p. 542).
F (Charter) vfm, Martin (11 Nov); gr 17 Nov 1335, by K Edw III to James Daudele (CChR, 1327–41, p. 350). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) Tues, Wed and Thurs after Whitsuntide (Easter dep); gr 26 Jan 1485, by K Ric III to bailiffs and burgesses of Llandovery (CChR, 1427–1516, pp. 261–2). To be held at the borough.

LLANDRILLO YN RHOS 2832 3806.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 2 Feb 1334, by K Edw III to Griffith son of Maddock de Hendour. To be held at the town of Lantrithlou in North Wales (CChR, 1327–41, p. 307). An identical grant on the same day gives the day of the weekly market as Thurs (CChR, 1327–41, p. 308). Tues market granted again by K Edw III to Griffyth son of Maddok de Hendour on 26 May 1335, to be held at the town of Lantrithlou in North Wales (CChR, 1327–41, p. 328).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 23 Feb 1335, by K Edw III to Evan ap Thwelin ap David (CChR, 1327–41, p. 322). To be held at the town of Lantrillo in North Wales.
F (Charter) vfm, Michael (29 Sept); gr 2 Feb 1334, by K Edw III to Griffith son of Maddock de Hendour. To be held at the town of Lantrithlou in North Wales (CChR, 1327–41, p. 307). Fair granted again by K Edw III to Griffyth son of Maddok de Hendour on 26 May 1335, to be held at the town of Lantrithlou in North Wales (CChR, 1327–41, p. 328).
F (Charter) vf, Trithlou (15 Jun); gr 2 Feb 1334, by K Edw III to Griffyth son of Maddock de Hendour. To be held at the town of Lantrithlou in North Wales. This was granted in a separate charter from the fair on Michael (CChR, 1327–41, p. 308). The saint can probably be identified as Trillo, whose feast was celebrated elsewhere on 15 Jun (D.H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford, 1979), p. 383).
F (Charter) f, Clement (23 Nov); gr 30 Jan 1335, by K Edw III to Evan ap Thwelin ap David (CChR, 1327–41, p. 322). To be held at the town of Lantrillo in North Wales.

LLANDYGWYDD 2242 2438.
F (Charter) vf+3, Michaelmas (29 Sept); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 20 Sept 1291 (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair at ‘Landogy’, which Willis-Bund identifies as Llandygwydd (Willis-Bund, p. 229).

LLANDYSUL 2419 2406.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 10 Nov 1291, by K Edw I to Llewellyn ap Oweyn (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 407). To be held at the manor of Landussil, co. Cardigan.
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 10 Nov 1291, by K Edw I to Llewellyn ap Oweyn (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 407). To be held at the manor of Landussil, co. Cardigan.

LLANELLI 2506 2006. Borough possibly twelfth century. Ch of St Ellwy here dates from at least the eleventh century. Castle mentioned in 1190 and 1215. It was held by the lordship of Carnwallon and was subsequently part of the Welsh estates of the Duchy of Lancaster (Soulsby, pp. 164–6; Beresford, p. 543). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Beresford provides no details for the market (Beresford, p. 543).
F (Prescriptive) Beresford provides no details for the fair(s) (Beresford, p. 543).

LLANERCHYMEDD 2418 3840.
M (Prescriptive) recorded 1346. According to Richards, there was a market here from 1658 onwards. It is not clear whether this was a continuation of the medieval market (M. Richards, Atlas of Anglesey (Anglesey, 1972), p. 67).

LLANFAES 2605 3779. Borough thirteenth century (Soulsby, p. 166). In the thirteenth century, Llanfaes was one of the main trading centres of Gwynedd, developed with the encouragment of the Welsh princes. Burnt by the Welsh in 1294, Llanfaes was not repaired, as K Edw I constructed nearby Beaumaris, Wales (q.v.). By 1303, the population of Llanfaes had departed to Beaumaris and to Newborough, Wales (q.v.), whilst by 1318 the town was becoming ruinous.
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded 23 Nov 1296. The Sat market was henceforth to be held at Beaumaris, Wales (q.v.) (CCR, 1296–1302, p. 1).

LLANFAIR-DISCOED 3444 1926. Identified as ‘probably Llanfair-Discoed’ in the index of the CChR.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 8 Nov 1308, by K Edw II to Ralph de Monte Hermerii (CChR, 1300–26, p. 123). To be held at the manor of Lanveyr in the marches of Wales.
F (Charter) vf+3, Philip and James (1 May); gr 8 Nov 1308, by K Edw II to Ralph de Monte Hermerii (CChR, 1300–26, p. 123). To be held at the manor of Lanveyr in the marches of Wales.
F (Charter) vf+3, Simon and Jude (28 Oct); gr 8 Nov 1308, by K Edw II to Ralph de Monte Hermerii (CChR, 1300–26, p. 123). To be held at the manor of Lanveyr in the marches of Wales.

LLANFOR 2939 3367.
M (Prescriptive) recorded ante c.1310, when the market was moved to Bala, Wales (q.v.) (Beresford, p. 557; Soulsby, pp. 74–6).
F (Prescriptive) recorded ante c.1310. There was at least one fair here, which in c.1310 was moved to Bala, Wales (q.v.) (Beresford, p. 557; Soulsby, pp. 74–6).

LLANFYLLIN 3142 3196. Borough 1310 (Soulsby, p. 167). Founded in the early 1290s by the princes of upper Powys. The town remained small throughout the medieval period. Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 7 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Lewis de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Philip and James (1 May); gr 7 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Lewis de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Simon and Jude (28 Oct); gr 7 Dec 1293, by K Edw I to Lewis de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 433). To be held at the manor.

LLANGADOG 2707 2283. Borough ante 1326. Probably a Welsh community reorganised as a borough by the bps of St David’s. A college founded here by Bp Bek in 1283 survived only four years (Soulsby, pp. 168–9). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Market granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a Thurs market (Willis-Bund, p. 277).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on Peter and Paul (Willis-Bund, p. 277).
Soulsby states that there were up to seven annual fairs, but provides no further details (Soulsby, p. 168).

LLANGEITHO 2619 2597.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 25 May 1292, by K Edw I to Geoffrey Clement (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 421).
F (Charter) vfm, Exaltation of the Cross (14 Sept); gr 25 May 1292, by K Edw I to Geoffrey Clement. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 421).

LLANGOLLEN 3213 3420. Probably originated as a Welsh settlement that developed around St Collen’s ch and the castle of Dinas Bran (a Welsh foundation dating from c.1270). It remained a small settlement throughout the medieval period (Soulsby, pp. 169–70).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Dunstan (19 May); gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Martin in winter (11 Nov); gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.

LLANIDLOES 2955 2846. Borough 1272x93. First mentioned in 1263, Llanidloes appears to have grown rapidly around the turn of the fourteenth century. The borough was founded in the reign of K Edw I; the borough court is first recorded in 1293 (Soulsby, pp. 170–2). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Sat; gr 15 Nov 1280, by K Edw I to Owen son of Griffin son of Wenunwyn. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 236). On 27 Apr 1286, K Edw I granted the market to Owen son of Griffin son of Wennunwen (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 330). In 1293, the markets of Llanidloes were worth 5 6s. (Beresford, p. 564). On 2 May 1375, a Sat market was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vf, Margaret the Virgin (20 Jul); gr 15 Nov 1280, by K Edw I to Owen son of Griffin son of Wenunwyn (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 236). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf, Luke (18 Oct); gr 15 Nov 1280, by K Edw I to Owen son of Griffin son of Wenunwyn. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 236). On 27 Apr 1286, K Edw I granted Owen son of Griffin son of Wennunwen a fair on vfm of Luke the Evangelist (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 330). Fair of St Luke recorded in 1332 (Beresford, p. 564). On 2 May 1375, a fair on the feast of Luke was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vfm, Trans of Thomas (7 Jul); gr 27 Apr 1286, by K Edw I to Owen son of Griffin son of Wennunwen. To be held at the town of Llanidloes (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 330). Fair of St Thomas recorded in 1332 (Beresford, p. 564). On 2 May 1375, a fair on the feast of Translation of Thomas was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
In 1293, the fairs of Llanidloes were worth 5 6s. (Beresford, p. 564). The market and fairs were worth 4 in 1401; this had declined to 23s. 4d. in 1421 (Soulsby, p. 171).

LLANRHAEADR-YM-MOCHNANT 3124 3260.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Seven Sleepers (27 Jul); gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Simon and Jude (28 Oct); gr 16 Jul 1284, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 276). To be held at the manor.

LLANRWST 2798 3617. Borough fourteenth century. In 1334, this was a borough with a largely Welsh population, suggesting that it existed as a settlement before the Edwardian conquest. An attack by Owain Glyndwr appears to have been devastating (Soulsby, pp. 172–3).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

LLANSADWRN 2696 2314.
M (Charter) Tues; gr 12 Oct 1335, by K Edw III to Res ap Griffith (CChR, 1327–41, p. 349). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) Michaelmas (29 Sept); gr 12 Oct 1335, by K Edw III to Res ap Griffith (CChR, 1327–41, p. 349). To be held at the manor. The duration of the fair was not given.

LLANTRISANT 3047 1834. Borough ante 1262. This may have been a Welsh community that grew up around a ch. Castle first recorded in 1246, whilst Welsh burgesses are mentioned in 1262. Llantrisant grew rapidly in the later thirteenth and early fourteenth century. After attacks by the Welsh in 1316 and 1321, the castle was not repaired. An increasing number of burgages fell vacant. In 1346, Llantrisant was granted the liberties of the borough of Cardiff, Wales (q.v.). The charter included the right to establish a merchant gild and also organised trade in the market place. In 1491–2, the market was not producing any tolls. By the early sixteenth century, the markets and courts were abandoned. However, the town revived from 1530 (Soulsby, pp. 173–5; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 339, 353). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1312, when Earl Gilbert de Clare granted the townsfolk of Llantrisant that they could use the market free of toll for the next seven years (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 339). Beresford states that in 1316 the market was said to have been granted in 1313 (Beresford, p. 555).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1314 when the fair had to be suspended as a result of Welsh attacks in the summer. On 4 May 1346, Hugh, lord Despenser granted liberties to Llantrisant including a confirmation of the right to hold a fair on 1 Aug (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 344, 350). This was probably the same fair as that recorded in 1314.

LLANTWIT MAJOR / LLANILLTUD FAWR 2966 1687. Roman villa. According to legend, in the sixth century an important religious centre was established here by St Illtud that was only equalled by contemporary Amesbury and Glastonbury. Sacked by the Danes in 988. In K Hen I’s reign the monastery was granted to Tewkesbury abbey and was redeveloped. Extensive rebuilding was also carried out in the thirteenth century. The later history of Llantwit Major is sparsely documented (Soulsby, pp. 175–7).
M (Prescriptive) recorded thirteenth century (Soulsby, p. 176).
F (Prescriptive) feria recorded 1121–2x1147, held by Robert fitz Regis, earl of Gloucester, who granted to Tewkesbury abbey the tithe of the rents and tolls of his fair at Llantwit Major (R.B. Patterson, Earldom of Gloucester Charters (Oxford, 1973), no. 283).

LLANYRE 3045 2625.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 6 Feb 1292, by K Edw I to Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 418). To be held at the manor.
F(Charter) vf, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 6 Feb 1292, by K Edw I to Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 418). To be held at the manor.
F(Charter) vf, Leonard (6 Nov); gr 6 Feb 1292, by K Edw I to Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 418). To be held at the manor.

LLAWHADEN 2071 2173. Borough 1280x93. Evidence of a Welsh castle (destroyed 1193) and ch date from the late twelfth century. In 1280–93, Bp Bek constructed a new palace on the site of the old castle and a town was laid out. This palace was the most important of the bp’s residences and therefore Llawhaden became the principal episcopal borough. Between 1292 and 1326 the number of burgesses grew rapidly. Later evidence for the town relates only to the castle. It was refortified during Owain Glyndwr’s revolt, but dismanted in 1536–47. The market was also abandoned in the sixteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 177–9).
M (Charter) Mon; gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Market granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, although this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257).
F (Charter) vfm+2, Luke (18 Oct); gr 12 Nov 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 259). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Luke the Evangelist which lasted three days (Willis-Bund, p. 137).
F (Charter) vfm, Mark (25 Apr); gr 12 Nov 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 259). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Martin (11 Nov) which lasted three days (Willis-Bund, p. 137). Presumably, this was the same fair that was granted in 1281 and the scribe had made an error.

LLYSFAEN 2888 3773.
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 22 Nov 1284, by K Edw I to John de Knovill (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm, Barnabas (11 Jun); gr 22 Nov 1284, by K Edw I to John de Knovill (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 280). To be held at the manor.

LOUGHOR 2570 1984. Borough late thirteenth century. Roman fort and Norman castle. The town is mentioned in 1319 and again in 1322. Little is known of its history; it apparently remained small throughout the medieval period (Soulsby, pp. 179–80; Beresford, p. 556).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
Soulsby states that a fair was granted here to Guy de Brion in 1247. However, his reference is to a fair granted to Guy in that year at Laugharne, Wales (q.v.) (Soulsby, pp. 158–60, 179; CChR, 1226–57, p. 328).

MACHYNLLETH 2746 3008. Borough 2 May 1375 (CIPM, xiv, no. 19). The first evidence for this Welsh town dates from 1291. It grew rapidly in the next twenty years. Little is known of its history, although Owain Glyndwr held a ‘parliament’ here in 1404 (Soulsby, pp. 180–1). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 28 Dec 1291, by K Edw I to Owen de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 408). On 18 Feb 1310, it was described as a ‘market town’, lately held by Griffin son of Owen de la Pole, who had recently died in the king’s custody (CIPM, v, no. 214). On 2 May 1375, a Wed market was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vfm, Peter and Paul (29 Jun); gr 28 Dec 1291, by K Edw I to Owen de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 408). On 2 May 1375, a fair on the feast of Peter and Paul was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vfm, Edmund the archbp (16 Nov); gr 28 Dec 1291, by K Edw I to Owen de la Pole (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 408). On 2 May 1375, a fair on the feast of Edmund the king (20 Nov) was recorded, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19). Although associated with different St Edmund’s, the proximity of the dates of the two fairs suggest that they were the same.

MATHRY 1880 2319.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 10 Nov 1356, by K Edw III to Master Adam de Henton, king’s clerk, prebendary of the prebend of Marthyr in the ch of St David’s (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 149). To be held at the town.
F (Charter) vfm, Michael (29 Sept); gr 10 Nov 1356, by K Edw III to Master Adam de Henton, king’s clerk, prebendary of the prebend of Marthyr in the ch of St David’s (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 149). To be held at the town.

MICHAELCHURCH-ON-ARROW 3247 2506. Identified as Michaelchurch, Radnor, in the index of the CChR. (E. Davies ed., A Gazetteer of Welsh Place-Names (Cardiff, 1967), pp. 63, 80; M. Richards, Welsh Administrative and Territorial Units: medieval and modern (Cardiff, 1969), p. 157; B.G. Charles, Non-Celtic Place Names in Wales (London, 1958), p. 171).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 12 Jan 1354, by K Edw III to John de Clanevowe (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 132). To be held at the town of Michelchirch [Michaelchurch] in Wales.
F (Charter) f, Michael (29 Sept); gr 12 Jan 1354, by K Edw III to John de Clanevowe (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 132). To be held at the town of Michelchirch [Michaelchurch] in Wales.
F (Charter) f, octave of the Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 12 Jan 1354, by K Edw III to John de Clanevowe (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 132). To be held at the town of Michelchirche [Michaelchurch] in Wales.

MONMOUTH / TREFYNWY 3509 2130. Borough twelfth century. Roman site. Conquered early by the Normans: William fitz Osbern established one of the first mottes here, with an associated town, in c.1070. The market place was situated just below the castle. Monmouth probably had burgages in the twelfth century, although it was not incorporated until 1447. It was a substantial town (Soulsby, pp. 181–5). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1207, mercatum. The vill of Monmouth paid 40s. to move (removendo) the market (PR, 9 John, p. 158).

MONTGOMERY / TREFALDWYN 3224 2965. Borough 1223 (CChR, 1226–57, p. 10). One and a half miles from an existing motte at Hen Domen. Town of Montgomery established in the early years of K Hen III’s reign. The construction of a new castle began in 1223, when those settling in the new town were already being offered burghal privileges. Montgomery received its charter in 1227. This was an important strategic site. The castle and town went into decline as their strategic importance diminished in the fourteenth century. This was accentuated by Owain Glyndwr’s attack (Soulsby, pp. 185–7). On 6 Oct 1229, K Hen III confirmed a charter of Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, granting to his burgesses of Montgomery that they could have their fairs and markets, with all liberties and customs. No details of the fairs or markets were given (CChR, 1226–57, p. 101). For attempts by K Edw I to protect his market and fair here, see the entry for Trefnant, Wales (q.v.). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 13 Feb 1227, by K Hen III to burgesses of Montgomery (CChR, 1226–57, p. 10). Damaged by the market at Oswestry, Shropshire (q.v.) in 1228 (CR, 1227–31, p. 121). Enquiries as to whether it was damaged by the market at Welshpool, Wales (q.v.) 22 Feb 1252 and 11 Jun 1282 (CR, 1251–3, p. 55; CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263). The market was held in Broad Street (Soulsby, p. 186).
F (Letter Close) from the feast of All Saints lasting for 8 days (1 Nov); feria gr 19 Jan 1224, by K Hen III. To be held at the royal manor (RLC, i, p. 582). Mandate to the sh of Staffordshire and Shropshire to make it known that the royal fair would be held next to the castle from the v of All Saints for eight days, 2 Oct 1224. This was apparently not limited ‘until the king came of age’ (RLC, i, p. 623). On 13 Feb 1227, K Hen III granted the burgesses of Montgomery a fair on vf+6 All Saints (CChR, 1226–57, p. 10). Fair damaged by that at Oswestry, Shropshire (q.v.) in 1228 (CR, 1227–31, p. 121).
F (Letter Close) v+3, Invention of Holy Cross (3 May); nundinas gr 19 Apr 1225, by K Hen III. To be held next to the castle (RLC, ii, pp. 28, 31). This was apparently not limited ‘until the king came of age’.
F (Charter) vf+2, Bartholomew (24 Aug); gr 13 Feb 1227, by K Hen III to burgesses of Montgomery (CChR, 1226–57, p. 10).
In 1364–5, the fairs of Montgomery were worth 1 4s. (Beresford, p. 565). Soulsby indicates that there may have been four annual fairs (Soulsby, p. 186).

MOSTYN 3158 3807. In 1292, twenty English taxpayers were recorded at the nova villa de Moston, whilst eighteen mostly Welsh taxpayers were recorded in Mostyn Welshry. Although this has been taken as evidence of a planned town, the settlement was extremely limited. The history of the settlement during the rest of the medieval period is unknown. No evidence for a market or a fair is provided by Soulsby or Beresford (Soulsby, pp. 187–8; Beresford, pp. 550–1). However, as a planned town, it presumably had a market.

NARBERTH / ARBERTH 2109 2145. Borough thirteeth century. Little evidence survives of the medieval history of this town: it is not clear whether it was Welsh or English. Most of the references relate to the castle. The borough was linked to the castle and had been established by 1282. In 1536, Leland described Narberth as ‘a poore village’ (Soulsby, pp. 188–9).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Prescriptive) Andrew (30 Nov); recorded 1282 (Soulsby, p. 188).

NEATH / CASTELL-NEDD 2754 1977. Borough 1258. Roman fort. In 1129–30, Richard de Glanville founded Neath abbey on the west bank of the river. A motte and small settlement were established, but were apparently abandoned by 1207. A castle had been constructed by 1185. In 1231, this castle and its adjacent town were destroyed. The town recovered, but was severely damaged by an attack in 1258. Another Welsh attack in 1281 reduced the tolls on the market and fair. In the last years of the thirteenth and well into the fourteenth century, Neath developed substantially. Welsh attacks in 1316 disrupted trade at the market and fair. In 1359, Edward le Despenser restricted all trade within the lordship of Neath to the borough. By 1514, the tolls from the market and fair were no longer collected (Soulsby, pp. 189–92; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 344, 353). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1281 (Soulsby, p. 190). On 20 Feb 1397, Thomas, lord Despenser issued a charter to the burgesses of Neath, which formally recognised the market held there on Mon (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 352).
F (Grant: other) gr 16 Apr 1280, by Earl Gilbert de Clare to the borough of Neath (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 343). This was presumably the same fair as that recorded on 12 Feb 1296 held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, lately deceased (CIPM, iii, no. 371). On 20 Feb 1397, Thomas, lord Despenser issued a charter to the burgesses of Neath, which formally recognised the fair lasting four days from the eve of Corpus Christi (Easter dep) (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 352).

NEFYN 2309 3406. The villa of Nefyn is mentioned 1177x1187 and burgesses are recorded 1194x1200 (U. Rees (ed.), The Cartulary of Haughmond Abbey (Cardiff, 1985), nos. 786-7. Borough ante 1284. Settlement appears to have begun in the late twelfth century. Under the princes of Gwynedd in the thirteenth century, Nefyn rose in importance to become an adminstrative centre. Captured in 1284 by K Edw I, royal officials recognised Nefyn as having borough status. Nefyn’s position was secured by the charter of the Black Prince, which ensured that all trade within the commote was conducted within the town. Town was severely damaged during an attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1400 and remained virtually abandoned in 1413. A greatly reduced settlement was re-established, but by 1530s the market had been abandoned (Soulsby, pp. 192–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) by 1200, recorded 1284. Sat market confirmed by Edw, the Black Prince, in 1355 (Soulsby, p. 193).
F (Charter) gr 1355, by Edw, the Black Prince to burgesses of Nefyn (Soulsby, p. 193).
F (Charter) gr 1355, by Edw, the Black Prince to burgesses of Nefyn (Soulsby, p. 193).

NEW MOAT 2062 2253. Borough and ch existed by c.1200. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, New Moat was held by the bps of St David’s, who established a new borough here. This was probably situated to the north of the present village (Soulsby, pp. 198–9).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.
F (Charter) vf+2, Nicholas (6 Dec); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Nicholas (Willis-Bund, p. 127).
F (Charter) vf+13, Michael (29 Sept); gr 20 Sept 1291, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair at Michaelmas (Willis-Bund, p. 127).

NEW RADNOR 3211 2609. Borough thirteenth century. This planned town was established two miles south-east of the small settlement and motte at Old Radnor, perhaps by 1231. It declined after Owain Glyndwr’s attack in 1401 (Soulsby, pp. 206–9). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Tues; recorded 25 Jul 1304, held by Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CIPM, iv, no. 235).
F (Prescriptive) f, Luke (18 Oct); recorded 25 Jul 1304, held by Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CIPM, iv, no. 235).
F (Charter) vf+3, Holy Trinity (Easter dep); gr 14 Jul 1306, by K Edw I to Margaret, late the wife of Edmund de Mortuo Mari and her heirs. To be held at the manor of Radnor, co. Hereford (CChR, 1300–26, p. 68).

NEWBOROUGH / NIWBWRCH 2424 3657. Borough 1303. Near the Welsh village of Rhosyr, K Edw I established Newborough as a planned town to accommodate the inhabitants of Llanfaes, Wales (q.v.). The move appears to have occurred in 1303. The borough was successful in the fourteenth century, but declined thereafter. This was partly the result of encroachment by sand dunes and also due to an attack by Owain Glyndwr (Soulsby, pp. 194–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). Fair 1587, 11 Jun (Harrison, p. 394).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

NEWCASTLE EMLYN / CASTELL NEWYDD EMLYN 2308 2407. Borough 1303. The castle built here in the mid thirteenth century was known as the ‘new castle’ of the lordship of Emlyn. The adjacent borough was laid out in 1303. During the fourteenth century, it was a prosperous town but after an attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1403, it went into decline. There are few references to Newcastle Emlyn for the later medieval period, although the castle was reconstructed in the 1480s (Soulsby, pp. 196–8).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Fri; recorded fourteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 196–8).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1308, when the first tolls from the fair are recorded (Beresford, p. 543).

NEWPORT 3310 1883. In Gwent. Borough ante 1132 (Griffiths, p. 189). The Normans constructed a motte here in c.1090, which probably prompted the development of an associated settlement. A new castle was built in the early twelfth century and repaired in the early thirteenth century. Although credited with borough status in the twelfth century, this was not confirmed until 1385. Newport was one of the largest Welsh boroughs. However, it was severely damaged by an attack by Owain Glyndwr in 1402 and subsequently went into long–term decline (Soulsby, pp. 202–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1316, when 61s. was raised from market tolls (Griffiths, p. 200).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1316. A charter dated 14 Apr 1385, gr by Hugh, earl of Stafford to the burgesses of Newport mentions the fifteen day fair, beginning on the vigil of Lawrence (10 Aug). This charter was confirmed by Humphrey, earl of Stafford on 3 Apr 1427 (Griffiths, pp. 200, 209).

NEWPORT / TREFDRAETH 2058 2391. In Pembrokeshire. A planned borough, constructed c.1197 by the Normans. It became one of the largest towns in Wales. The borough went into decline from the early fifteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 199–202). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Thurs; probably gr c.1197, as part of the charter of incorporation. The market ceased by 1594 (Soulsby, p. 199).
F (Charter) probably gr c.1197, as part of the charter of incorporation (Soulsby, p. 199).

NEWTOWN / Y DRENEWYDD 3107 2917. Borough fourteenth century. The district was also known as Llanfair Cedewain, a name which survived until the sixteenth century. The town is first recorded in the mid fourteenth century, but may have existed since the late thirteenth century. It was considered to be a borough by the fourteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 209–11). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Tues; gr 16 Jan 1280, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari. To be held at the manor of Thlaneyr in Kedewy (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 221).
F (Charter) vfm, Botolph (17 Jun); gr 16 Jan 1280, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari. To be held at the manor of Thlaneyr in Kedewy (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 22).
F (Charter) vfm, Edward the king (13 Oct); gr 16 Jan 1280, by K Edw I to Roger de Mortuo Mari. To be held at the manor of Thlaneyr in Kedewy (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 221). It has been assumed that the feast does not relate to K Edw the Martyr, but to K Edw the Confessor; the date of the latter’s translation has been used.

NOTTAGE 2819 1781. In Glamorgan.
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1425–6 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 359).

OVERTON / OWRTYN 3373 3418. Borough 1292. In Maelor hundred or Maelor Saesneg. Town appears to have been planned in the late thirteenth century. Soon after Overton was granted borough status in 1292, it was seriously damaged during a Welsh attack. Town subsequently destroyed by Owain Glyndwr in 1403, after which it was largely abandoned (Soulsby, pp. 211–12).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 7 Jul 1279, by K Edw I to Robert de Crevequer (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vfm+12, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 7 Jul 1279, by K Edw I to Robert de Crevequer (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 213). To be held at the manor.

PAINSCASTLE 3167 2462. Borough c.1231. Pain fitz John constructed a castle here before the 1180s, possibly in the 1120s. It was rebuilt in 1191 by William de Braose and named Castle Maud (castrum Matildis) after his wife. This castle was captured by the Welsh and returned to English hands in 1231, when it was rebuilt. At the same time, a borough was laid out. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, this was an important borough. The castle was abandoned early on, which probably led to the decline of the town (Soulsby, pp. 212–13).
M (Prescriptive: Borough) In 1265 the toll of the market and fair there, which had belonged to the recently deceased Roger de Tony was worth £26 a year (PRO, C 132/31 (3), m. 2; CIPM, i, no. 588). On 30 July 1299 K Edw I granted a Thurs market to Robert de Tony, to be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479).
F (Prescriptive: Borough) In 1265 the toll of the market and fair there, which had belonged to the recently deceased Roger de Tony was worth £26 a year (PRO, C 132/31 (3), m. 2; CIPM, i, no. 588). On 30 July 1299 K Edw I granted to Robert de Tony a fair on vf+6, Barnabas the Apostle (11 Jun), to be held at the manorRobert de Tony, to be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 479).

PEMBROKE 1984 2015. Borough c.1100. Mint 1100–1154. After the Norman conquest of South Wales, a castle and town were established. The borough received its first charter in c.1100. The impregnable site and its role as the adminstrative and commercial centre of the earldom of Pembroke encouraged the growth of the town. Pembroke appears to have grown throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, surviving the Welsh rebellions due to the safety of its site. However, the town declined in the sixteenth century. After 1536, Pembroke lost its role as the caput of the wealthy earldom. The growth of Haverfordwest, Wales (q.v.) also contributed to the decline of the town (Soulsby, pp. 214–17). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough, mint) Sun. Subsequently, the market may have been held on Sat (Soulsby, pp. 214–17).
F (Charter) vfm, John the Baptist (24 Jun); feria gr 2 May 1201, by K John to William Marescall, earl of Pembroke (RCh, p. 95b).
Soulsby states that there were two fairs, but it is not clear whether this was in the medieval period (Soulsby, p. 216).

PRESTEIGNE / LLANANDRAS 3315 2645. Borough possibly by 1300. Situated on the west bank of the river Lugg, which served as the boundary between England and Wales. The town developed in the thirteenth century. It was considered to have borough status, although there is no recorded grant of this. After an attack by Owain Glyndwr, the town was devastated. In the late fifteenth century, Richard Martin, bp of St David’s, encouraged the redevelopment of the town. Writing in the 1530s, Leland noted the revived fortune of Presteigne (Soulsby, pp. 219–21; Guide, ii, p. 133). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Grant: other) Wed; mercatum, gr 14 Dec 1225, by K Hen III to William fitz Warin. To be held at Prestmede, Herefordshire, until the king came of age. Mandate to the sh of Herefordshire to take a palfrey from him (C 60/24 m. 8). On 28 Oct 1228, K Hen III pardoned William fitz Warin for the 5m. demanded from him by summons of the Exchequer of the fine made with the king for having a certain market at the manor of Presthemede, which certain manor he did not hold. Mandate to the sh of Herefordshire that he was to have it in peace (CR, 1227–31, p. 139).
M (Prescriptive: borough) Sat; recorded 25 Jul 1304, held by Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CIPM, iv, no. 235). It was presumably this market that was abandoned after an attack by Owain Glyndwr. In the late fifteenth century, Richard Martin, bp of St David’s, re-established the market (Soulsby, pp. 219–21).
F (Grant: other) vf, Andrew (30 Nov); feria gr 14 Dec 1225, by K Hen III to William fitz Warin. To be held at Prestmede, Herefordshire, until the king came of age. Mandate to the sh of Herefordshire to take a palfrey from him (C 60/24 m. 8). On 25 Jul 1304, Edmund de Mortuo Mari was holding a fair on the feast of Andrew (CIPM, iv, no. 235).
F (Prescriptive) f, Nativity of John (24 Jun); recorded 25 Jul 1304, held by Edmund de Mortuo Mari (CIPM, iv, no. 235).

PWLLHELI 2374 3351. Borough ante 1355. Settlement on demesne land held by the princes of Gwynedd, who had an important residence here. It was considered to have borough status long before this was formally granted in 1355. Seriously damaged during an attack by Owain Glyndwr, the borough remained waste for a decade. Reconstruction had begun by the mid fourteenth century, although the town’s recovery continued into the sixteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 221–2). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1284. When it was surveyed by K Edw I’s officials in 1284, Pwllheli was found to have an occasional (not weekly) market (Soulsby, pp. 221–2).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1284. Fair recorded in the survey by K Edw I’s officials (Soulsby, pp. 221–2).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1284. Fair recorded in the survey by K Edw I’s officials (Soulsby, pp. 221–2).

RACHFYNYDD 3047 2319. Identifed as the lost Rhiwbenmynydd, now the site of a farm called Rachfynydd, a mile from Porthgwyn and just over a mile from Llanddew, Wales (q.v.) (R. Morgan and R.F.P. Powell, A Study of Breconshire Place Names (Llanrwst, 1999), p. 132).
M (Charter) Mon; gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at Ryopenmenith (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). On 20 Sept 1291, K Edw I granted Thomas, bp of St David’s a Mon market at Rubenmenenth in parts of Breghenou (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405).
F (Charter) vf+3, Bartholomew the Apostle (24 Aug); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at Ryopenmenith (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). On 20 Sept 1291, K Edw I granted Thomas, bp of St David’s the fair at Rubenmenenth in parts of Breghenou (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405).

RAGLAN 3413 2077. Borough 1354 (Soulsby, p. 223). Site of a Norman motte and adjacent settlement. Regarded as a borough, although no borough charter survives. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the town was focused on the ch. Raglan declined in the fifteenth century and in the 1530s Leland described it as ‘bare’ (Soulsby, pp. 222–4). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

RHAYADER / RHAEADR GWY 2970 2681. Borough 1360. Apparently a planned settlement, which was regarded as a borough. A castle was built here by the Welsh in the twelfth century. No evidence of a town until 1304. Later in the fourteenth century there are references to a market and fairs. The market place was at the junction of the two main streets. Rhayader was attacked by Glyndwr. It remained a small town in the later medieval period. Under K Hen VIII, the county court and court sessions were held here (Soulsby, pp. 224–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded mid fourteenth century. Soulsby states that the market was usually held on Sun. He also indicates that there may have been more than one market. Speed noted a Sun market in 1610 (Soulsby, pp. 224–6).
F (Prescriptive) recorded mid fourteenth century (Soulsby, p. 224).

RHUDDLAN 3022 3781. Borough probably 921. Mint 1066–1087. Rhuddlan was occupied from before the Roman period through to the early middle ages. It was probably the site of the borough of ‘Cledemutha’, fortified in 921. Recaptured by the Welsh, in 1016 a stronghold was constructed here and a small vill established. This became a royal centre and was destroyed by Harold Godwinson in 1063. In 1073, the Norman earl of Chester built a new castle and a borough with a mint, adopting the name of Rhuddlan. Borough in Domesday Book. Over the next two hundred years, control of Rhuddlan passed between the English and Welsh; the castle was often destroyed and rebuilt. In 1277, a new castle–borough was laid out by K Edw I to the north of the Norman town. This was completed by 1280. However, K Edw I’s intentions for the town were thwarted after it was attacked by the Welsh in 1282. Severely damaged by Owain Glyndwr in 1400, the borough took many years to recover (Soulsby, pp. 226–31; Darby, p. 364).
M (Prescriptive: borough, mint) No further information for the market.

RUTHIN / RHUTHUN 3124 3583. Borough post 1282 (Griffiths, p. 246). Substantial Welsh settlement in Dyffryn Clywd was probably an adminstrative centre. Held briefly by the English from 1247 to 1256, it passed back to the Welsh. The construction of a castle began in 1277 and in 1282 a town was laid out. The Welsh community appears to have been reorganised into a borough. Ruthin was centered on St Peter’s square, which served as the market place. The town was burnt by Owain Glyndwr in 1400. However, a growing cloth industry allowed Ruthin to recover quickly. Ruthin continued to develop and to act as a commercial centre (Soulsby, pp. 232–5). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). Fair 1587, 30 Oct (Harrison, p. 396). See also Griffiths, pp. 245–61.
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded ?1285x95. No details of the market were given (W. Rees ed., Calendar of Ancient Petitions Relating to Wales (Cardiff, 1975), no. 13715). The market was held on Mon (Griffiths, p. 246).
F (Prescriptive) Pentecost (Easter dep) (Griffiths, p. 246).
F (Prescriptive) (Griffiths, p. 246).
F (Prescriptive) (Griffiths, p. 246).

ST ASAPH / LLANELWY 3039 3743. Site of a ‘cathedral’ from c.560. This became the see of the Norman bishopric of St Asaph in 1143. It remained small, mainly because of the growth of nearby Rhuddlan, Wales (q.v.) (Soulsby, pp. 235–6).
M (Charter) Mon; gr 26 Jun 1379, by K Ric II to William bp of St Asaph and the Dean and Chapter of the cathedral ch (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 258).
F (Prescriptive) vfm, Philip and James (1 May); recorded 27 Oct 1320, held by bp of St Asaph and Dean and Chapter there. Held in the town (CChR, 1300–26, p. 428). The fair on the feast of Philip and James was recorded in 1345 (J. Goronwy Edwards ed., Calendar of Ancient Correspondence Concerning Wales (Cardiff, 1935), p. 232).
F (Charter) vfm, Denis (9 Oct); gr 26 Jun 1379, by K Ric II to William, bp of St Asaph and the Dean and Chapter of the cathedral ch (CChR, 1341–1417, p. 258).

ST CLEARS / SANCLER 2281 2156. Borough possibly thirteenth century. On the main route to west Wales. A castle constructed here before 1185 was attacked several times by the Welsh. Cluniac priory established between 1147 and 1184. Although there is no record of a town before the 1280s, it is likely that the settlement began in the late twelfth century (Soulsby, pp. 237–8).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

ST DAVID’S / TYDDEWI 1752 2253. Mint 1066–1087. Celtic ch of St David was founded in the sixth century. The associated religious community is evidenced from the mid seventh century. Episcopal see, to which the first Norman bp was appointed in 1115. A civilian settlement is documented from a grant of privileges to St David’s by K Hen I in 1115. In 1120, the Pope increased the status of the cathedral as a site of pilgrimage, which probably prompted its development as a commercial centre. Encouraged by successive bps, particularly Bp Bek, St David’s became a prosperous town. By the sixteenth century, it had declined dramatically (Soulsby, pp. 238–40).
M (Charter) Mon, Thurs; gr 12 Nov 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a Thurs market (Willis-Bund, p. 13).
F (Prescriptive) nundinas recorded 11 Feb 1256 x 1260, held by bp of St David’s. William fitz David, baron of Naas, was to hold the fairs twice a year with the bp’s men. No details of the fairs were given (J. Barrow ed., St David‘s Episcopal Acta, 1085–1280 (Cardiff, 1998), no. 151).
F (Charter) vfm+2, John the Baptist (24 Jun); gr 12 Nov 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the Nativity of John the Baptist, which lasted a week (Willis-Bund, p. 13).
F (Charter) vfm+2, Whitsunday (Easter dep); gr 12 Nov 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair at Whitsuntide, which lasted a week (Willis-Bund, p. 13).
Although granted as separate fairs in 1281, in the years when Whitsun was late the two fairs must have been held very close together.

ST HARMON 2992 2725.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Market granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257).
F (Charter) vfm, German (not known); gr 9 Sept 1281, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 258). Fair granted again by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s on 12 Nov 1281, but this charter was vacated (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 257). German was probably Germanus of Man, whose feast was celebrated in Wales on 31 Jul or 1 Oct. He is often confused with Germanus of Auxerre (D.H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford, 1979), p. 169).

ST NICHOLAS / SAIN NICOLAS 3090 1743. In Glamorgan.
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1425–6 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 359).

SWANSEA / BAE ABERTAWE 2658 1931. Borough twelfth century. Mint 1135–54 (feudal coinage not in K Steph’s name). Viking settlement from the ninth and tenth centuries. Norman town from c.1106, which received its first charter between 1153 and 1184. The market was held at the upper end of Castle Square. Despite an attack by Glyndwr, Swansea developed into a successful trading port. It was described by Leland as a market town and the ‘chief place of Gower lande’ in the late 1530s (Soulsby, pp. 242–7; R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 361–79). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive: borough, mint) No further information for the market.
F (Prescriptive) Trans of Thomas the Martyr (7 Jul); recorded 1366–7 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), p. 371).
F (Prescriptive) Assumption of the Virgin Mary (15 Aug); recorded 1366–7. Fair recorded in 1400 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 371, 374).
F (Prescriptive) Martin (11 Nov); recorded 1366–7. Fair recorded in 1400 (R.A. Griffiths, ‘The medieval boroughs of Glamorgan and medieval Swansea’, in T.B. Pugh ed., Glamorgan County History, iii (Cardiff, 1971), pp. 371, 374).

TALGARTH 3158 2338. Borough early fourteenth century. Reputed to be a royal residence and a religious centre in the early medieval period. It appears to have been a planned settlement and was regarded as having borough status from the early fourteenth century (Soulsby, pp. 247–8; Beresford, p. 537).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1309. Soulsby indicates that there was more than one market (Soulsby, p. 248).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1309. Soulsby indicates that there was more than one fair (Soulsby, p. 248).

TEMPLETON 2114 2115. Borough thirteenth century. A castle was constructed here, which was attacked by the Welsh in 1116, 1215 and 1220. The Knights Templar founded a priory in the late twelfth century, which may have encouraged settlement. Town first mentioned in 1283, which was regarded as a borough. The priory had ceased to function by 1312 and although a settlement remained, it was very small (Soulsby, pp. 248–9).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the medieval market.

TENBY / DINBYCH-Y-PYSGOD 2133 2005. Borough late eleventh century. Occupied in the Roman period and possibly by Viking settlers. In the late eleventh century, the Normans established the first permanent settlement, constructing a castle and laying out a borough. In the late thirteenth century, the borough was rebuilt by William de Valence, who issued the first borough charter in the 1280s. Tenby’s economy thrived throughout the medieval period and beyond (Soulsby, pp. 250–3). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472). See also Griffiths, pp. 289–320.
M (Charter) Wed; gr 1323, by Aymer de Valence (Griffiths, p. 306).
F (Charter) f+2, Assumption (15 Aug); gr 1265–94, by William de Valencia, earl of Pembroke and countess Joan to burgesses of Tenby (CPR, 1374–77, pp. 114–15). The charter of William de Valence is not dated; Ballard and Tait suggest it was issued in 1265–94 (A. Ballard and J. Tait eds., British Borough Charters, 1216–1307 (Cambridge, 1923), p. xlvii). The charter was confirmed by Aymer de Valencia, earl of Pembroke and lord of Wexford and Montignac on 24 Apr 1323. It was then confirmed by Laurence de Hastynges, earl of Pembroke and lord of Wexford and Bergeveny, on 27 Feb 1342. The charters were inspected and confirmed by K Edw III on 8 Jun 1375 and 6 Feb 1378 (CPR, 1374–77, pp. 114–15; CPR, 1377–81, p. 112).

TRALLONG 2968 2296.
F (Charter) vf+3, Laurence (10 Aug); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Laurence at Trathallan (Willis-Bund, p. 313).
F (Charter) vf+3, Mary Magdalen (22 Jul); gr 20 Sept 1291, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a fair on the feast of Mary Magdalen at Trathallan (Willis-Bund, p. 313).

TREFILAN 2550 2571. The Welsh constructed a castle here in the early 1200s and an adjacent vill grew up. Although the castle was destroyed by the English in 1282, the ‘Welsh vill’ survived until at least 1304 (Soulsby, p. 254). This may have been a small town with a market.

TREFIN 1841 2325.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor of Trefdyn (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). On 20 Sept 1291, K Edw I granted the market again to Thomas, bp of St David’s (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405).
F (Charter) vf+2, Martin in the Winter (11 Nov); gr 20 May 1290, by K Edw I to Thomas, bp of St David’s. To be held at the manor of Trefdyn (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 343). On 20 Sept 1291, K Edw I granted Thomas, bp of St David’s a fair on vf+3 Martin in the Winter, to be held at the manor (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 405). In 1326, the bp of St David’s was holding a three day fair on the feast of Martin (Willis-Bund, p. 73).

TREFNANT 3186 3041. The identity of Trefnant is uncertain, as there is no settlement of that name in the immediate vicinity of Welshpool (for the importance of which, see below). There are however several small places called Trefnant, of which Soulsby considers that in Castle Caereinion to be the most probable relevant site. In the absence of other clear evidence, Soulsby’s identification of the site has been accepted and the grid references given here are to Trefnant Hall, approximately two and a half miles south-east of Castle Caereinion. Despite the removal of the markets and fairs in 1282, 18 taxpayers remained in 1292. However, by 1332, the taxable revenue from Trefnant had fallen drastically (Soulsby, p. 255).
M (Charter) Mon; gr 26 Apr 1279, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wennunwen. To be held at the manor of Trefnant in Powis; granted instead of the market at Welshpool, Wales (q.v.) (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 211). On 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed the market at Trefnant (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263).
F (Charter) vfm, Barnabas (11 Jun); gr 26 Apr 1279, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wennunwen. To be held at the manor of Trefnant in Powis; granted instead of the fair at Welshpool, Wales (q.v.) (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 211). On 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed the fair at Trefnant (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263).
F (Charter) vfm, Leonard the A (6 Nov); gr 26 Apr 1279, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wennunwen. To be held at the manor of Trefnant in Powis; granted instead of the fair at Welshpool, Wales (q.v.) (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 211). On 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed the fair at Trefnant (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263).

TREGARON 2680 2596. The ch here appears to date from the early medieval period, although it is first recorded in 1284. Leland described Tregaron as the chief town of the lordship of Pennarth. The market square is adjacent to St Caron’s ch (Soulsby, pp. 255–6). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) Tues; gr 25 May 1292, by K Edw I to Geoffrey Clement. To be held at the manor of Caron (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 421).
F (Charter) vfm, James (25 Jul); gr 25 May 1292, by K Edw I to Geoffrey Clement. To be held at the manor of Caron (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 421).

TRELLECH 3501 2055. Borough 1288. A motte is first recorded in 1231 and in 1288 there is evidence of a substantial borough. After a Welsh attack in 1296, a large number of burgages were permanently abandoned. The motte was abandoned before 1306. Trellech continued to be an important town in the fourteenth century. It declined slowly over the later medieval period (Soulsby, pp. 256–9).
M (Prescriptive: borough) recorded 1295–6, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, lately deceased (CIPM, iii, no. 371).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1295–6, held by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, lately deceased (CIPM, iii, no. 371).

TRETOWER 3186 2212. This charter was granted to John Pychard in lieu of an earlier grant to him at Thruxton, Herefordshire (q.v.) (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 454).
M (Charter) Wed; gr 5 Apr 1298, by K Edw I to John Pychard of Straddewy (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 471). To be held at the manor.
F (Charter) vf+2, Margaret (20 Jul); gr 5 Apr 1298, by K Edw I to John Pychard of Straddewy (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 471). To be held at the manor.

TYWYN 2586 3008. A ch founded here in the sixth century is reputed to have become the clas (mother ch) of the district. It is mentioned in the tenth and twelfth centuries. Evidence for the vill in 1420 indicates that it remained very small and that its wealth derived from its market and fairs (Soulsby, pp. 259–61).
M (Prescriptive) Fri; recorded thirteenth century. Market recorded in 1420 (Soulsby, p. 260).
F (Prescriptive) recorded 1420 (Soulsby, p. 260).

USK / BRYNBUGA 3379 2007. Borough 1262. Site of Roman fort to the late second century. Evidence of industrial and commercial activity until the fourth century. Thereafter, there is no evidence of occupation until the construction of a Norman castle in the early twelfth century. By 1262, Usk was a substantial borough. In the late thirteenth century, extensive work on the castle was accompanied by a sharp increase in the number of burgages. However, this growth appears to have been short-lived and during the fourteenth century Usk went into decline. This was presumably accelerated by attacks by Owain Glyndwr in 1402 and 1405 (Soulsby, pp. 261–5). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 471).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

WELSHPOOL / Y TRALLWNG 3224 3074. Borough thirteenth century. Also known as La Pole. Reputed to be the site of a ch founded in the sixth century. Situated two miles from Offa’s Dyke. The medieval settlement was founded by the Welsh in the thirteenth century: the borough may have been founded in the 1240s. Between 1292 and 1322 the number of burgesses doubled. Welshpool’s prosperity continued in the later medieval period. Leland described it as a market town (Soulsby, pp. 265–8). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Charter) gr 1227 x 22 Feb 1252, mercatum, by K Hen III to Griffin son of Wentounwin’. Mandate to the sh of Shropshire to enquire whether the market, which the king had granted him by charter, was detrimental to the royal market at Montgomery, Wales (q.v.). If it was found to be detrimental, the market was to be prohibited (CR, 1251–3, p. 55). Mandate to the sh of Shropshire that no one was to trade at the market sent in early Apr 1252 (CR, 1251–3, p. 209). On 19 Aug 1252, K Hen III conceded to Griffin that the Fri market that he was accustomed to hold would henceforth be held on Mon. Mandate to the sh of Shropshire to make known the market and cause it to be held (CR, 1251–3, p. 142). Griffin son of Wenunwen had a Mon market at his manor ‘by the charters of preceding kings’. K Edw I ‘removed’ the market, understanding it to be to the damage of his market at Montgomery (q.v.). Instead, on 26 Apr 1279, he granted Griffin a market at Trefnant, Wales (q.v.). However, Roger de Mortuo Mari and Bevis de Knovill informed the king that the market at Welshpool was not detrimental to the king’s market at Montgomery. Therefore, on 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed Griffin’s market at Trefnant and granted him instead a Mon market at Welshpool (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263). The burgesses of Montgomery alleged that although the pillory at Welshpool had been taken down, the market continued ‘in all other kinds of merchandise’. It therefore seems likely that some kind of trading continued at Welshpool between 1279 and 1282 (J. Goronwy Edwards ed., Calendar of Ancient Correspondence Concerning Wales (Cardiff, 1935), pp. 100–1). Mon market recorded on 6 Dec 1375, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Prescriptive) vfm, Ascension (Easter dep); recorded ante 26 Apr 1279, held by Griffin son of Wenunwen, at the manor ‘by the charters of preceding kings’. K Edw I ‘removed’ the fair, understanding it to be to the damage of his fairs at Montgomery (q.v.). Instead, on 26 Apr 1279, he granted Griffin two fairs at Trefnant, Wales (q.v.). However, Roger de Mortuo Mari and Bevis de Knovill informed the king that the fairs at Welshpool were not to the damage of the king’s fair at Montgomery. Therefore, on 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed Griffin’s fairs at Trefnant and granted him instead three fairs at Welshpool (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263).
F (Prescriptive) vfm, Edward, king and confessor (13 Oct); recorded ante 26 Apr 1279, held by Griffin son of Wenunwen, at the manor ‘by the charters of preceding kings’. K Edw I ‘removed’ the fair, understanding it to be to the damage of his fairs at Montgomery, Wales (q.v.). Instead, on 26 Apr 1279, he granted Griffin two fairs at Trefnant, Wales (q.v.). Roger de Mortuo Mari and Bevis de Knovill informed the king that the fairs at Welshpool were not to the damage of the king’s fair at Montgomery. Therefore, on 11 Jun 1282, K Edw I removed Griffin’s fairs at Trefnant and granted him instead three fairs at Welshpool (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263).
F (Charter) vfm, Augustine, the Apostle of the English (26 May); gr 11 Jun 1282, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wenunwen (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263). Fair on the feast of Augustine recorded on 6 Dec 1375, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vfm, Decollation of John the Baptist (29 Aug); gr 11 June 1282, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wenunwen (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263). Fair on feast of Decollation of John the Baptist recorded on 2 May 1375, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
F (Charter) vfm, Leonard the A (6 Nov); gr 11 Jun 1282, by K Edw I to Griffin son of Wenunwen (CChR, 1257–1300, p. 263). Fair on the feast of Leonard recorded on 6 Dec 1375, held by John de Cherleton of Powys, kn, recently deceased (CIPM, xiv, no. 19).
On 11 Mar 1314, K Edw II inspected and confirmed the charter dated 11 Jun 1282 and another charter of the same date, apparently a slightly different version which was discarded (CChR, 1300–26, p. 235).

WHITLAND / HENDY-GWYN 2200 2166.
M (Charter) Mon; gr 18 Mar 1314, by K Edw II to Roger de Mortuo Mari of Chirk. To be held at the manor of Olde Whitelond in Wales (CChR, 1300–26, p. 235).
M (Charter) Thurs; gr 20 May 1318, by K Edw II to Roger de Mortuo Mari of Chirk. To be held at the manor of La Blauncheland in South Wales (CChR, 1300–26, p. 409).
F (Charter) vfm, Assumption (15 Aug); gr 20 May 1318, by K Edw II to Roger de Mortuo Mari of Chirk. To be held at the manor of La Blauncheland in South Wales (CChR, 1300–26, p. 409).
F (Charter) vfm, Nativity of Mary (8 Sept); gr 20 May 1318, by K Edw II to Roger de Mortuo Mari of Chirk. To be held at the manor of La Blauncheland in South Wales (CChR, 1300–26, p. 409).

WISTON 2022 2180. Borough possibly twelfth century. Very little is known of the history of this small market town. The market and borough status appear to have been prescriptive. The Norman castle and town here were built in the early twelfth century. The town was burnt by the Welsh in 1220 (Soulsby, p. 269).
M (Prescriptive: borough) No further information for the market.

WREXHAM / WRECSAM 3333 3504. Possibly an Anglo-Saxon foundation. Situated in an area where control frequently passed between the Welsh and English. A castle is first recorded in 1161. The town is first mentioned in 1315, by which time it was well established. It appears to have developed from a Welsh settlement. Leland confirms its commercial importance in the 1530s, as ‘the only market towne of Walsh Maylor’ (Soulsby, pp. 269–72). Market town c.1600 (Everitt, p. 472).
M (Prescriptive) Sun; recorded 1331, when the day of the market was changed from Sun to Thurs (Soulsby, p. 270).

YSTRADMEURIG 2704 2676.
F (Prescriptive) John the Baptist (24 Jun); nundinae recorded 1298–1300. The toll and pleas of the fair were divided between the king and the knights hospitallers. A fair was recorded in 1300–1; the feast was not given. A fair on the feast of John the Baptist was recorded in 1303–5; the issues were divided between the king and the hospital of Slebech (M. Rhys, Ministers’ Accounts for West Wales, 1277 to 1306, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (London, 1936), i, pp. 74, 92, 199, 294, 362). Slebech hospital, run by the Knights Hospitallers, was large and well-known (Medieval Religious Houses, p. 306).

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