D. Phil awarded by the University of York in 1989. This was in Medieval history. Taught briefly at York, Newcastle and UEA. Held a Japanese Government scholarship from 1997-1999 and conducted research into contemporary criminal statistics at Rikkyo (St. Paul's) University, Tokyo. Research interests: Catholic missions in East and South East Asia; martyrdom in the C19th Korean Catholic Church; relations between Catholic missionaries and Buddhism. Publications: 'Parental Authority and the Problem of Clandestine Marriage in the Later Middle Ages', Law and History Review, 8:2 (1990), 189-204. 'Women and Violence in the Later Middle Ages: the Evidence of the Officiality of Cerisy', Continuity and Change, 7:1 (1992), 23-45. 'Repulsa Uxore Sua: Marital Difficulties and Separation in the Later Middle Ages', Continuity and Change, 8:1 (1993), 11-38. 'Sexual Morality and Canon Law: The Evidence of the Rochester Consistory Court', Journal of Medieval History, 20 (1994), 261-75. 'Sexual Relations and Marriage in Later Medieval Normandy', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 47:2 (1996), 236-56. 'Disciplining of the Laity in Late Medieval Normandy', French History, 10:2 (1996), 163-81. 'The Nature of Violence in the Middle Ages: An Alternative Perspective', Historical Research, 70: 173 (1997), 249-68. 'The Japanese Police's Claim to Efficiency: A Critical Examination', Modern Asian Studies, 33:2 (1999), 483-511. 'A Persecuted Church: Roman Catholicism in Nineteenth-century Korea', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, li (2000), 556-80. `Criminal Statistics in Japan: the White Paper on Crime, Hanzai Hakusho and Hanzai Tokeisho', Social Science Journal Japan, 3:2 (2000), 237-49. 'Homicide in Contemporary Japan', British Journal of Criminology, 41:2 (2001), 219-35. ‘Clandestine Marriage in the Diocese of Rochester during the Mid-fourteenth Century.’ (Published electronically with Archaeologia Cantiana: www.kentarchaeology.ac/acontents.html) ‘"A Necessary and Fruitful Labour". The Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris and the Formation of a native clergy in Korea, c.1836–66', Historical Research, 81:212 (2008), 280-91. ‘The Pursuit of Martyrdom in the Catholic Church in Korea before 1866’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 60:1 (2009), 95-118. “In their madness they chase the wind”: The Catholic Church and the Afterlife in Late Chos_n Korea’, Studies in Church History, xlv, The Church, the Afterlife and the Fate of the Soul (2009), 336-48. “The ‘Blood of the Martyrs’ and the Growth of Catholicism in Late Chos_n Korea” Forthcoming Historical Research. “French Catholic Spirituality and the Nineteenth-century Korean Church” Forthcoming The Journal of Korean Religions (April 2015).