This leaflet is intended as a brief general guide to those carrying out wide-ranging research on the archives of St Paul’s Cathedral. Users with more specific questions are invited to consult the staff at the Manuscripts enquiry desk.
The text below gives a history of the cathedral archives, followed by a detailed thematic analysis of the information that the archives contain. At the end is a short bibliography of works of general relevance. Other specific works are mentioned at appropriate points in the text.
The thematic analysis is arranged by letter codes (DCPA etc), which match the arrangement of the archives on the City of London LibrariesOn-Line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). The text of the thematic analysis, with necessary alterations, is reproduced on the OPAC in the form of sectional introductions to the archive catalogue entries to be found under each letter code.
You can search the OPAC by either the letter codes or by Guildhall Library Manuscript (Ms) number. First select the 'Classification' button on the search menu. Then either type a letter code into the search field, e.g. DCPA, or type 'Ms xxxxx' into the search field, e.g. Ms [insert relevant Ms no, omitting any slash (/) and following numbers]. This will present you with a list of brief descriptions arranged by manuscript number.
Select the relevant brief description and click on the information in the box marked "Title". You will then see boxes marked "Location" and "Shelfmark". Click on "Shelfmark" for details of individual volumes in the series, if any. You can consult the full catalogue description of the item by selecting "Title details" at the foot of each entry. To return to the list of brief descriptions, click on "References list" at the foot of the entry.
Please make a note of the relevant manuscript number(s) with any volume or bundle numbers. The volume numbers will be needed when ordering documents in the Manuscripts Reading Room.
If you have any comments on this leaflet, or the guidance it gives, please contact the Manuscripts enquiry desk, as above.
THE HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL ARCHIVES
The bulk of the archives of St Paul’s Cathedral were transferred to the Manuscripts Section of Guildhall Library in September 1980. They relate inter alia to the constitution, administration, services, finances and fabric of the cathedral; the Peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter (including probate); and the estates of the Dean and Chapter and cathedral officials. They have been catalogued together within the range Guildhall Library Mss 25121-821.
Other archives of the cathedral were lodged with Guildhall Library in the 1960s and later. They consist mainly of manorial and estate records deposited by the Church Commissioners, and probate records deposited by the Public Record Office. They have different ranges of Guildhall Library manuscript numbers, but are included in the thematic arrangement of the archives, detailed below. Records of the cathedral which have been independently acquired by the Manuscripts Section are also included in the arrangement. The provenance of these items, where known, is reflected in individual catalogue descriptions.
The archives of the cathedral were sorted and boxed in the 18th and 19th centuries by a succession of cathedral officials, most notably WH Hale (Archdeacon of London, 1842-70) and Revd W Sparrow Simpson (Cathedral Librarian, 1862-97). The press marks devised by Sparrow Simpson in particular, with loose items in two series of boxes (‘A’ and ‘B’) and volumes in two cupboards, East (‘E’) and West (‘W’), and then on shelves ‘A’ onwards within them, remained in use until the archives were transferred to Guildhall Library in 1980.
These press marks were published in H Maxwell Lyte’s list of the cathedral’s archives, printed as an Appendix to the Ninth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts in 1883. (An annotated copy of this list, which remains an access point for many modern users, is available at the Manuscripts Section’s enquiry desk.) However, many of the records deposited by the Church Commissioners and the Public Record Office do not have St Paul’s press marks, since they did not pass through Sparrow Simpson’s hands.
The Manuscripts Section’s catalogues continue to indicate the St Paul’s press marks, and a concordance of references is available. The arrangement of Mss 25121-821 is as follows: Mss 25121-610, items generally arranged to reflect Maxwell Lyte’s published list; Mss 25611-17A, old lists of records and other redundant finding aids (see section DCPP); Mss 25618-821, items not mentioned in Maxwell Lyte’s list, many without press marks. A fuller breakdown is available in the hard copy catalogue available at the Section’s enquiry desk.
The cathedral archives appear to have been well protected from damage during World War Two, and to have suffered little or no loss. However the same was not true of administrative books and papers which were too recent to have been added to the archives, and which may have been stored in the Chapter House. Any such papers perished when the Chapter House was destroyed by enemy action in 1940. The sole known survivor, which bears obvious fire damage, is the Seal book, 1931-40 (Ms 25660/8, section DCPC).
A full history of record-keeping at St Paul’s prior to the transfer of the archives to Guildhall Library is given in Geoffrey Yeo’s ‘Record-keeping at St Paul’s Cathedral’, Journal of the Society of Archivists, vol.8, no.1 (April 1986), pp.30-44.
The bulk of the records of the Diocese of London held by the Manuscripts Section have been catalogued separately, but the activities of diocese and cathedral were often closely inter-linked and their records stored in close proximity within the cathedral. Indeed, many diocesan records were among the records transferred from the cathedral to Guildhall Library in 1980, and are now included among Mss 25121-821. Those records of the diocese which directly relate to the cathedral, especially those which concern the ‘Old Work’ (the portion of the cathedral built before 1256 and, uniquely, the responsibility of the Bishop of London, not the Dean and Chapter; see section DCPH), are included in the thematic arrangement.
A few records of provincial dioceses, chapters, monasteries and other ecclesiastical institutions outside London, which had strayed into the cathedral’s custody, were also deposited at Guildhall Library in 1980. In most cases these records have been catalogued and assigned a Guildhall Library manuscript number (with any St Paul’s press mark acknowledged) and then transferred to the appropriate local repository. These records are excluded from the thematic arrangement.
The majority of the cathedral’s archives have now been catalogued by Guildhall Library. However some of these are only partly processed and have incomplete catalogue descriptions. Those partly-processed items which were arranged by Sparrow Simpson and/or described by Maxwell Lyte can be requested using Maxwell Lyte’s list and the concordance of St Paul’s press marks/ Guildhall Library Manuscript numbers. The remainder were scheduled briefly in 1999 and 2002 by Christine Faunch and Stephen Freeth as CF1-136 (a copy of the schedule is held at the Manuscripts enquiry desk). They should therefore be requested by those CF references.
This partly-processed material will be included in the computerised catalogue and in the thematic arrangement as soon as full catalogue descriptions are compiled in each case. However at present they do not appear in the computerised catalogue or in the thematic arrangement, and must be searched for separately.
Guildhall Library also holds various uncatalogued material, comprising deeds, leases and estate papers received from the Church Commissioners, mostly 19th century. These items are not routinely produced, and written application for access should be made to the Keeper of Manuscripts.
The Cathedral Library continues to hold the St Paul’s volumes of medieval manuscript religious or literary texts numbered ‘St Paul’s Mss 1-4’ and ‘6-20’. [‘Ms 5’, also known as ‘WD24’, has been deposited at Guildhall Library and catalogued as GL Ms 25524.] A full description of these items is given in NR Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, Vol.1: London (1969), pp.240-62. The Cathedral Librarian also retains custody of certain other records, including Chapter minutes from 1833; personal papers of cathedral dignitaries; modern baptismal, marriage and burial registers; the surviving archives of the Vicars Choral; collections of music manuscripts; and printed sermons.
A guide to the holdings of the Cathedral Library (before the transfer of the archives to Guildhall Library) is given in W Sparrow Simpson, St Paul's Cathedral Library: A Catalogue [of ] ... Works Relating to London and Especially to St Paul's Cathedral, Including … Paul's Cross Sermons; Maps, Plans, and Views of London, and of St Paul's Cathedral (1893). See also E Anne Read, A Checklist of Books, Catalogues and Periodical Articles Relating to the Cathedral Libraries of England (Oxford Bibliographical Society, Occasional Publication no.6, 1970), with later supplement, Library History, vol.4, no.5 (1978), pp.141-67, and F Atkinson, St Paul's Cathedral, London: The Library of the Dean and Chapter (1990).
For general histories of the cathedral, see W Dugdale, A History of St Paul’s Cathedral, (3rd edn, 1818, with additions by H Ellis); HH Milman, Annals of St Paul’s Cathedral (2nd edn, 1869); W Longman, A History of the Three Cathedrals Dedicated to St Paul in London (1873); WR Matthews and WM Atkins eds, A History of St Paul’s Cathedral (1957); and Ann Saunders, St Paul’s: The Story of the Cathedral (2001). See also P Burman, St Paul’s Cathedral (New Bell’s Cathedral Guides, 1987). See also the forthcoming (April 2004) Derek Keene, Arthur Burns and Arthur Saints eds, St Paul’s, The Cathedral Church of London, 604-2004 (Yale University).
THE THEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE ARCHIVES
The catalogued archives of St Paul’s have recently been assigned computerised ‘archival classification numbers’ to facilitate and reflect a new, thematic arrangement of the archives, although items should still be requested by Guildhall Library manuscript numbers. (NB Some partly- processed material is excluded from this arrangement, as explained above.) The principal themes of this new arrangement are given below, and are explained in greater detail in the following pages.
DCPB Statute and evidence books
DCPC Muniment books
DCPD Chapter minutes
DCPE Appointments of officials
DCPF Cathedral services
DCPG Financial records
DCPH Cathedral fabric pre-1630
DCPI Cathedral fabric post-1630
DCPJ City churches rebuilding
DCPK Peculiar jurisdiction
DCPL Dean and Chapter estates
DCPM Dean’s Peculiar estates
DCPN Dignitaries’ and Prebendaries’ estates
DCPO Chantries and obits
Royal charters, originals and copies, 11th-17th centuries (Ms 25241/1-84)
Ms 25241/1-80 are listed in an 18th-century calendar, Ms 25616/1 (see section DCPP); Ms 25241/1-50 are also calendared by Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report, boxes A59-60).
Charter roll, probably compiled during the late 13th century (Ms 25272)
For further information, see GRC Davis, Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain (1958), no.598.
The earliest surviving royal charter, by William II, dates from 1099/1100 (Ms 25241/4). This and other medieval charters of the cathedral, and various Anglo-Saxon grants whose texts are preserved in the cathedral’s cartularies (see section DCPB), have been edited by Marion Gibbs, ‘Early Charters of the Cathedral Church of St Paul, London’, Camden Society, 3rd series, vol.58 (1939). See also PH Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters: An Annotated List and Bibliography (Royal Historical Society, Guides and Handbooks no.8, 1968).
DCPB, Statute and evidence books (including cartularies)
‘Liber L’, cartulary and statute book (original press mark WD4, now GL Ms 25504), early 12th-early 14th centuries, containing inter alia: copies of charters from the reign of Ethelbert (860-6) onwards; manorial inquisitions (see also section DCPL, including DCPLE-G) and visitations within the cathedral's Peculiar jurisdiction (see also section DCPKB), 11th-14th centuries; and cathedral statutes, (?)13th century.
Calendared, with extensive extracts edited, by Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report). See Davis, Medieval Cartularies, no.596. Parts of this volume are also described in sections DCPO, DCPP below.
‘Liber A, sive Pilosus’, cartulary (WD1, now GL Ms 25501), 1241-1340, with additional entry 1505x1550, containing copies of charters from the reign of Edward the Confessor (1042-66) onwards relating to cathedral property, rights and privileges in the City of London, Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Essex, Middlesex, Surrey, Warwickshire and Wiltshire. Folios 1-37v are edited in full by Marion Gibbs, ‘Early Charters’. See also Davis, Medieval Cartularies, no.597.
Statute and evidence book, ca. 1250-ca. 1300 (WD19) (Ms 25519)
Statute and evidence book, late 13th century-1486 (WD2) (Ms 25502)
[Parts of this volume are also described in sections DCPG and DCPO]
‘Statuta Majora’, 14th century (WD9) (Ms 25509)
[Parts of this volume are also described in sections DCPL, DCPO-P]
‘Statuta Minora’, early 15th century-1813 (WD20) (Ms 25520)
Statute and evidence book, early 15th century (WD8) (Ms 25508)
Statute book, 15th century (WD7) (Ms 25507)
Statute and evidence book, late 15th century (WD5) (Ms 25505)
Many of the cathedral's early statutes have been edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum Statutorum et Consuetudinum Ecclesiae Cathedralis Sancti Pauli Londinensis (1873). His compilation, from the volumes described above (except for Ms 25501, WD1) includes statutes by Ralph de Diceto (Dean, 1180-ca. 1200), William de Montfort (Dean, 1285-94), Ralph de Baldock (Dean, 1294-1304, and Bishop of London, 1304-13), Stephen de Gravesend (Bishop, 1318-38), Robert Braybrooke (Bishop, 1381-1404) and William Warham (Bishop, 1501-3). Sparrow Simpson's Registrum also includes extracts from Mss 25506 (WD6), ca. 1611-ca. 1613; 25510 (WD10), 1502; and 25624 (WC39), a transcript made in 1874 of Ms 25520.
DCPC, Muniment books
Dean’s registers, 1536-1642 & 1660-1909 (Ms 25630/1-47)
Chiefly recording: leases of property, rectories etc belonging to the Dean and Chapter collectively (but including some leases of property of individual dignitaries or prebends - see also sections DCPL-N); Chapter Acts (see also section DCPD); institutions of incumbents to benefices in the cathedral’s patronage and within the Peculiar jurisdiction (see also sections DCPE and DCPK); elections of bishops (to 1633) and deans (to 1782), and admissions of cathedral and diocesan officials (see also section DCPE); and admissions of manorial and estate officers, to ca. 1848 (see also section DCPE).
There is some overlap with the Bishop’s (episcopal) registers of London Diocese (Ms 9531), especially before 1631. The episcopal registers include: confirmations of elections of deans of St Paul's, to 1827 (see also section DCPE); confirmations of leases of St Paul's precentorship, chancellorship, treasurership and prebendal estates, mid 16th-early 19th centuries (see also section DCPN); and institutions and collations to dignities, prebends, incumbencies and other cathedral offices (see also section DCPE), 1321-37/8, 1361-74/5, 1381/2-1646 and 1660-1939 (including details of admissions of chantry priests, to ca. 1547; see also section DCPO). In addition, details of institutions and collations between 1761 and 1937 are recorded in the London Diocesan Act books (Mss 9532A/1-15 and 9548-9). The Manuscripts Section also holds diocesan mandates for induction and installation to prebends, including a deed of institution, 1970-8 (Ms 20882).
Seal books, 1660-1940 (Mss 25660/1-8 & 25661)
Abstracts of documents to which the seal of the Dean and Chapter was attached. Comprise leases (see also section DCPL, especially DCPLG), powers of attorney, presentations, nominations, appointments of officials and (1803-ca. 1847) licences for curates and lecturers within the Peculiar jurisdiction (see also sections DCPE and DCPK).
Dean and Chapter muniment books, 1660-1912 (Ms 25664/1-8)
These contain installations of officials, and (to ca. 1847) petitions for consecrations, faculties, institutions etc within the Peculiar jurisdiction. For the period ca. 1792-ca. 1847 they also contain licences for curates, lecturers, parish clerks etc within the Peculiar jurisdiction (see also sections DCPE and DCPK).
Dean and Chapter Commissary’s muniment book, 1694-1779 (Ms 25665)
A supplement to Ms 25664 above, chiefly recording faculties issued, but also including copies (from 1756 only) of licences for curates, lecturers, parish clerks and dissenting meeting houses within the Peculiar jurisdiction (see also sections DCPE and DCPK).
DCPD, Chapter minutes
Chapter Act books, 1411-48 (‘Liber Goodman’, WD13) (Ms 25513) and 1667-87 (Ms 25739)
The Act book for 1411-48, the only surviving such volume before 1660, chiefly concerns the cathedral’s benefices, prebends, canonries and chantries (for chantries, see also section DCPO); elections and installations of bishops, deans, and heads of religious houses (see also section DCPE); orders for the regulation of internal disputes and discipline of chapter members and cathedral officers; dispensations for non-residence; and commissions for visitations within the Peculiar jurisdiction (see also section DCPK).
The volume covering 1667-87, started with the purpose of registering Acts to extend leases of cathedral tenants whose property had been destroyed in the Great Fire, is mainly blank. A ‘stray’ volume of minutes of chapter meetings for the renewal of leases, 1728-44, is now Bodleian Library Ms Rawlinson B.371.
Certain Chapter Acts are also included in the Dean's registers (see section DCPC).
Chapter minute books, 1660-1821 (Mss 25738/1-6 & 25795)
These relate mainly to the estates of the Dean and Chapter and to livings in their gift (see also sections DCPE and DCPL). The minute books are Ms 25738/1-6. Ms 25795 comprises memoranda of business at chapter meetings, 1661-2, which are more detailed than the corresponding entries in the minute book. The minutes for 1822-32 have not survived. The minutes from 1833, which contain a much wider range of information, are retained by the Cathedral Librarian.
DCPE, Appointments of officials
Commission for induction of Thomas Lisieux as dean, 1441 (Ms 25121/3011)
Papers concerning the election and confirmation of certain deans, 1664-1827 (Ms 10950/1-15)
[For the election of John Barwick as dean in 1661, see Ms 25596 below.]
For confirmations of elections of deans, see also Mss 25513 (section DCPD), 25630 (section DCPC), and the episcopal registers of London Diocese to 1827 (see details in section DCPC).
Subscription book, 1686-1723 (Ms 25801)
Includes subscriptions by archdeacons; prebendaries; minor canons (NB the College of Minor Canons is described more fully in Other sources, at the end of the page); vicars choral and other cathedral personnel; incumbents presented to benefices in the Dean and Chapter’s patronage and within the Peculiar jurisdiction; incumbents instituted or collated; and curates, lecturers, schoolmasters, parish clerks, and (1700-13 only) physicians and surgeons within the Peculiar jurisdiction. (For the licensing of lecturers, schoolmasters, parish clerks, physicians, surgeons and midwives within the Peculiar jurisdiction, see section DCPK.)
Presentations to and resignations from livings, 1660-66 (Ms 25596)
Mostly livings held by cathedral dignitaries or within the gift of the Dean and Chapter. Includes papers concerning the election of John Barwick as dean in 1661.
Other sources for appointments of bishops, deans, cathedral officials, incumbents instituted or collated by the Dean and Chapter, and incumbents instituted or collated within the Peculiar jurisdiction are listed in sections DCPC and DCPD. For the functions of individual officials, particularly in the 14th century, see K Edwards, The English Secular Cathedrals in the Middle Ages (2nd edn, 1967). See also Victoria County History (VCH), London Vol.1 (1909), pp.420-28.
The cathedral’s deans, treasurers, precentors, chancellors and prebendaries (see below) are listed in J Le Neve’s Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300 (compiled by DE Greenway, 1968), and 1300-1541, and 1541-1857 (compiled by JM Horn, 2 vols, 1963 and 1969). For officials in the period 1857-98, see G Hennessy, Novum Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense (1898). After 1898, consult individual volumes of Crockford’s Clerical Directory and the London Diocese Book (both issued annually).
For further details of medieval deans, see CNL Brooke, ‘The Deans of St Paul’s ca. 1090-1499’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, vol.29 (1956), pp.231-44. For the medieval Chapter, see CNL Brooke, ‘The Composition of the Chapter of St Paul’s 1086-1163’, Cambridge Historical Journal, vol.10 (1951), pp.111-132, and CNL Brooke and G Keir, ‘London and the Kingdom: The Chapter of St Paul’s’, in their London 800-1216: The Shaping of a City (1975), pp.338-59. For relations between the Chapter and the bishops of London in the period 1426-48, see IA Zadnik, The Administration of the Diocese of London, Bishops William Gray, Robert Fitzhugh and Robert Gilbert (1426-1448) (University of Cambridge, PhD dissertation, 1993), pp.112-146.
The Printed Books Section of Guildhall Library has lives of a number of individual deans of St Paul’s, as well as Papers of British Churchmen 1780-1940 (Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Guides to Sources for British History no.6, 1987). For a list of Surveyors to the Cathedral Fabric, 1675-1987, see P Burman, St Paul’s Cathedral, p.181. A (typescript) list of virgers, 1598-1974, compiled by AJ Morrison, is also held by the Printed Books Section (Fo Pam 6422). A copy of W Sparrow Simpson's ‘The Charter and Statutes of the College of the Minor Canons in Saint Paul's Cathedral’, held by the Printed Books Section, being a reprint from Archaeologia, vol.43 (1871), pp.165-200, includes MS lists by JS Bumpus of the following officials: minor canons, 1306-1908 (see also Other sources at the end of the page); sub-deans,* 1414-1904; vicars choral, 1622-1909; succentors, 1672-1906; sacrists, 1660-1901; and cathedral librarians, 1728-1903.
* the office of sub-dean was instituted in 1295 and was held by a minor canon appointed by the dean, invested with authority over the ‘inferior’ clergy.
The cathedral’s [thirty] prebends are as follows: Broomesbury [i.e. Brondesbury]; Brownswood; Caddington Major; Caddington Minor; Cantlers [i.e. Cantlowes]; Chamberlainwood; Chiswick; Consumpta-per-Mare; Ealdland; Eald Street; Finsbury; Harleston [i.e. Harlesden]; Holbourn [i.e. Holborn]; Hoxton; Islington; Mapesbury; Mora; Nesden [i.e. Neasden]; Newington [i.e. Stoke Newington]; Oxgate; Pancratius [i.e. St Pancras]; Portpool; Reculversland [i.e. Reculverland]; Rugmere; Sneating; Totenhall [i.e. Tottenham Court]; Twiford [i.e. Twyford]; Weldland; Wenlocksbarn; Wilsden [i.e. Willesden]. Note: there are a number of variant spellings for certain prebends. For manorial and estate records associated with most of these prebends, see section DCPN.
Financial records, including salary information for cathedral personnel, are described in the full catalogue of section DCPG which can be found by typing ‘DCPG’ in the classification search on the computer catalogue.
DCPF, Cathedral services
Register of marriages, 1697-1740 (Ms 25740)*
Register of burials, 1760-1812 (Ms 25741)*
London Diocese burial register transcripts, 1814-20 & 1825-38 (Ms 11232)*
(* NOTE – ALL THESE REGISTERS MUST BE CONSULTED ON MICROFILM)
Baptisms 1708-13 & 1875-1975, marriages 1740-58 & 1877-1982, and burials 1814-date are retained by the Cathedral Librarian. No earlier registers are known to survive. No marriages were recorded during the years 1758-1876.
For transcripts and indexes of baptisms 1708-13 & 1875-97, marriages 1697-1758 & 1877-96, and burials 1760-1899, see Harleian Society, vol.26 (1889). After these dates, for indexes only of baptisms (to 1939), see Ms 25743/1; marriages (to 1939), see Ms 25743/2; and burials (to 1936), see Ms 25743/3. A typescript index of burials 1813 [sic]-53, compiled by Monnica Stevens, is held by the Printed Books Section of Guildhall Library (Fo Pam 8935). See also ‘Special’ licences among the records of London Diocese, issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury for marriages at St Paul’s, 1877-1980 (Ms 21648/1-21, incomplete).
For records of monuments in the cathedral, see section DCPI; for marriage licensing records for the Peculiar jurisdiction, see section DCPK.
Register of preachers at Sunday morning services, Holy Days etc, 1726-1925 (Ms 25805)
Registers of preachers at Sunday afternoon and evening services, and on weekdays etc, 1871-1912 & 1928-55 (Ms 25806/1-5)
London Diocese list of confirmation services at St Paul’s, 1889-94 & 1898-1900 (not recording names of candidates) (Ms 17847)
London Diocese list of candidates for confirmation services at St Paul’s, 1979-81 (Ms 20883)
Details of ‘The Ritual and Religious Services of the Cathedral’ are given by W Sparrow Simpson in Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s (1881), pp.41-58. Certain ‘Ceremonials at, and Processions to St Paul’s’ are recorded in Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.431-66, including the funeral arrangements for Lord Nelson in 1806, pp.455-63. For papers concerning the Duke of Wellington’s funeral at St Paul’s, 1852-3, see Ms 25783/368 (among the ‘Shenley deeds’, see section DCPLH).
For music at the cathedral, see W Sparrow Simpson, Gleanings from Old St Paul’s (1889), pp.155-244; JS Bumpus, The Organists and Composers of St Paul’s Cathedral (1891); and Watkins Shaw, The Succession of Organists: of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales (1991). For the cathedral's organ and bells, see section DCPI.
The performances of cathedral choir boys in the ‘Paul's playhouse’ are described by Reavley Gair, The Children of Paul's: The Story of a Theatre Company, 1553-1608 (1982), which lists the Masters of the Choristers, choristers/actors and playhouse managers (pp.184-185), as well as plays known to have been performed in the period (pp.186-187). NB Gair appears to have found little of relevance in the cathedral archives.
For details of the medieval ‘Boy Bishop’ Ceremony held at Old St Paul’s on St Nicholas’ Day (6th December), and an edition of a sermon preached at St Paul’s by a Boy Bishop, ca. 1490-6, see Camden Miscellany, vol.7 (1875), introduction and pp.1-13. The sermon was usually prepared by the cathedral’s almoner. A statute of 1263 concerning the ceremony is edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.91-94.
The Printed Books Section has a number of printed sermons delivered at St Paul's, described at L 12.75 in their ‘London Subject Catalogue’, as well as service sheets for certain important cathedral occasions (described at L 12.71 in the ‘London Subject Catalogue’). Printed sermons held by St Paul's Cathedral Library are described in W Sparrow Simpson's St Paul's Cathedral Library: A Catalogue, pp.48-55 & 85-120.
For sermons and other (civic, papal or political) pronouncements delivered at Paul's Cross, see W Sparrow Simpson, Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s, pp.149-232; ME Cornford, Paul’s Cross: A History (1910); PE Jones, ‘St Paul's Cross’, Guildhall Historical Association Transactions, vol.2 (1957), pp.14-22; and M Maclure, The Paul’s Cross Sermons 1534-1642 (1958). The current cross in the cathedral churchyard is a 20th-century memorial of the famous preaching cross first recorded in the late 12th century. The cross was originally built in stone, but was replaced ca. 1450 by a wooden cross with a covered pulpit. These were destroyed in 1643 by order of Parliament. During the medieval period, in bad weather, Paul’s Cross sermons were often delivered in the cathedral crypt (‘Shrouds’): see Other sources, at the end of the page. From the 17th century the sermons were delivered in the cathedral itself, the City of London Corporation extending hospitality to the preachers: see PE Jones, ‘St Paul's Cross’ (above). For payments to Paul’s Cross preachers, see section DCPG.
Note: meetings of Convocation of the southern province were regularly held at St Paul's.
DCPG, Financial records
Few financial records of the cathedral survive before the 16th century, when records of the Chamberlain and Receiver General appear with increased frequency (the two offices were combined in 1666). Earlier records include:
Register of rents and other payments due, ca. 1222-ca. 1225 (WD12) (Ms 25512)
Accounts of expenses of the Sacrist, 1276-80 & 1306-10 (Ms 25171/1-2)
Accounts of the Keeper of the Bakehouse and Brewhouse, 1282-3 & 1286-7 (in Mss 25516 & 25502) *1
Accounts of the Sacrist, 1310-12 (section DCPLH) (Ms 25121/1887)
Accounts of the Keeper of the Bakehouse and Brewhouse, 1340/1 (Ms 25172)
Account of receipts from the collecting box near the north door, 1342-4, with account of payments from the Cathedral Treasury, 1349 (Ms 25169) *2
‘Quietus’ (i.e. receipt) rolls for accounts rendered to the royal Exchequer, 1519-1724 (incomplete) (Ms 25439/1-46)
*1 both accounts are edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.165-72 & 172-5. Ms 25502 is described in more detail in section DCPB and Ms 25516 in section DCPLF;
*2 the accounts for 1342-4 have been edited by HH Milman, Annals (1869), pp.516-18.
Cathedral accounts before ca. 1666 which include references to the City of London are described in D Keene and V Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources for Property Holding in London before the Great Fire (London Record Society, vol.22, 1985), pp.46-50.
A 17th- or 18th- century transcript of a medieval register of the cathedral’s almoner (British Library, Harley Ms 4080), has been edited by Maria Hackett, Registrum Eleemosynariae D. Pauli Londoniensis (1827 edn). For the original register and for other documents relating to the office of almoner, ca. 1345, see St John’s College Cambridge, Ms S.25, described by MR James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts of the Library of St John’s College, Cambridge (1913), no.272, p.318. See also Davis, Medieval Cartularies, no.602.
Notebook of Michael Shaller, Virger and Under-Chamberlain, late 16th century, including financial accounts and some details of monuments (Ms 25532)
Signed receipts for payments to Paul’s Cross preachers, 1748-9 & 1756-7 (incomplete) (Ms 25599)
The following later accounts may be especially useful:
Accounts of the Chamberlain and Receiver General, 1666-1805 (Ms 25643/1-45)
Dean and Chapter ledgers, 1938-72 (CF136/1-17)
Dean and Chapter cash books, 1930-71 (CF 135/1-12)
However many financial records for the 19th and early 20th centuries were almost certainly destroyed in the bombing of the Chapter House in 1940.
For other series of accounts, see sections DCPH-J, DCPL, DCPO.
DCPH, Cathedral fabric pre-1630
The first cathedral on the present site was begun in 604 by Mellitus, Bishop of London, and was probably constructed in wood. This cathedral was rebuilt in stone by Erkenwald (Bishop of London, 675-693), destroyed by Vikings in 961, and again rebuilt. Following fires in 1086/7 and 1136, an ambitious Romanesque church in Caen stone was initiated on an enlarged site. This phase of building was completed in 1241 when the cathedral was re-dedicated. The Gothic ‘New Work’ at the east end of the cathedral, which was started in 1256, elongated the choir (completed in 1314), and constructed a new central tower and spire (completed in 1315) and a new south aisle (completed in 1332). The upkeep of the ‘New Work’ was the responsibility of the Dean and Chapter, while the ‘Old Work’, the western portion of the cathedral built before 1256, was, uniquely, the responsibility of the Bishop of London. In 1300 all offerings in the cathedral were assigned to the completion of the New Work.
Few changes were made to the medieval cathedral after this period, except for rebuilding the spire after it was damaged by lightning in 1444. The spire (again), roof and much of the cathedral were damaged by fire in 1561. Extensive repairs were effected in 1561-4 (although the spire was not rebuilt), but by the early 17th century the cathedral had suffered a long period of neglect, and urgently required repair. In 1608 James I initiated a survey of the building, which resulted in an estimate for the cost of repairing the fabric and rebuilding the spire. The commissioners appointed in 1620 to investigate the necessary repairs launched a national subscription, and quantities of Portland stone were brought to the site, but again there was a lapse of interest. Subsequent repair and rebuilding work is described in section DCPI.
The body of St Erkenwald, patron of London Diocese, survived the 1086/7 fire which destroyed the Anglo-Saxon cathedral, and was (supposedly) translated in both 1140 and 1148 to a new shrine behind the high altar screen. In February 1326 there was a further translation to a new shrine. The shrine was a major pilgrimage attraction, but was mostly destroyed in September 1547 or shortly after, although a drawing by Hollar records the surviving pedestal of the shrine in 1657: see Dugdale (1818 edn), facing p.74. In 1552 many chapels, altars and much other stonework were demolished: see VCH (1909), p.415, and Dugdale, who records certain monuments damaged in the Reformation period (1818 edn, pp.31-32). The remains of Erkenwald’s shrine were totally destroyed by the Great Fire. The only memorial from Old St Paul's to survive the Fire undamaged was that of Dean John Donne (erected 1631/2), which still survives in the current cathedral. For monuments generally, see section DCPI below.
Fabric accounts and related records: few fabric accounts survive, by contrast with some other great churches such as Westminster Abbey. Many of those that do exist are effectively strays amongst the series of ‘London’ deeds of City properties (Ms 25121, see section DCPLH). Others, indicated below by an asterisk (*), are records of London Diocese:
1175x1176: copy appeal of Richard [of Ilchester], Bishop of Winchester, for funds to help rebuild St Paul's Cathedral (Ms 25121/1320)
This item is edited by Dugdale (1818 edn), p.63; for further details, see R Graham, ‘An Appeal about 1175 for the Building Fund of St Paul’s Cathedral’, British Archaeological Association Journal, 3rd series, vol.10 (1945-7), pp.73-6.
1323 Fragment of ‘New Work’ accounts (Ms 25121/1911)
1326/7 Payments to carpenters, labourers etc (Ms 25170)
1389-1454 Accounts of the Keeper of the ‘Old Work’ (incomplete) (Ms 25413/1-5)*
1422/3 Account of the Keeper of the ‘Old Work’ (Ms 10311)*
1430 Inventory of building materials (Ms 25121/1900)
1478/9 Payments to workmen of the ‘Old Work’ (Ms 25414)*
1561-4 Payments to workmen following the 1561 fire (Ms 25618)
1566 Account of money received for repair following 1561 fire (Ms 25589)
1584 Inventory of building materials after the re-edifying of the steeple (section DCPG) (in Ms 25532)
1608 Estimates for repair and restoration work (Ms 25619)
1620 Survey of repairs to stonework etc (Ms 25490)
See also London Diocese rentals of property assigned to the ‘Old Work’, 1350 (Ms 25423/1); 1421 (Ms 25423/2); and 1482 (Ms 25423/3). Further documents concerning repairs to the cathedral, 1561-6, are now Public Record Office, E164 (King’s Remembrancer, Miscellaneous Books, Series 1), vol.66.
For indulgences issued for the rebuilding of the cathedral, 1201-1387, and for inventories of the medieval cathedral, see section DCPP.
GH Cook, Old St Paul’s Cathedral (1955); Martin S Briggs, ‘A Brief History of the Fabric’, in WR Matthews and WM Atkins eds, A History of St Paul’s, pp.326-59; and articles on the architecture of the medieval cathedral by R Gem, JP McAleer and RK Morris in British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions, vol.10 (1990), pp.47-100. McAleer discusses various sketches and drawings of Old St Paul's (pp.64-73); see also W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Some Early Drawings of St Paul’s’, in Gleanings from Old St Paul’s, pp.119-36; and ‘A Walk Round Old St Paul’s, The Interior’, in Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s, pp.77-94. For a reconstruction of the pre- Fire cathedral, see RHC Finch, ‘Old St Paul's: A Reconstitution’, The Builder, no.148 (1935), pp.728-30, 772-3 & 778-9.
Accounts of the fire of 1561 are edited by W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Documents Illustrating the History of St Paul’s Cathedral’, Camden Society, new series, vol.26 (1880), pp.113-127, and Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s, pp.129-145. See also CJ Kitching, ‘Re-roofing Old St Paul’s Cathedral’, London Journal, vol.12 (1986), pp.123-33. For the 1620s, see Sir Robert Somerville, ‘St Paul’s Cathedral Repairs: The Propaganda of Henry Farley’, London Topographical Record, vol.25 (1985), pp.163-75.
For the cathedral nave, see W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Paul’s Walk’, in Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s, pp.235-50; and LW Cowie, ‘Paul’s Walk until the Great Fire’, History Today, vol.24 (1974), pp.41-9. Hollar’s seventeenth-century images of the interior (including certain monuments) and exterior of ‘Old St Paul’s’ are reproduced in Dugdale (1818 edn); see also R Pennington, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Etched Work of Wenceslaus Hollar, 1607-77 (1982), especially nos.1015-30.
For details of the medieval buildings in the cathedral precinct, and modern sketch plans of the area ca. 1250 and ca. 1500, see Roderick Macleod, ‘The Topography of St Paul’s Precinct, 1200-1500’, London Topographical Record, vol.26 (1990), pp.1-14. More detailed is Peter WM Blayney, The Bookshops in Paul’s Cross Churchyard, London (The Bibliographical Society, Occasional paper no.5, 1990), which includes modern diagrams of Paul's Cross Churchyard in 1545, 1600, 1640, 1665 & 1675 (pp.75-79), and a detailed modern plan of the whole precinct in 1600 (facing p.3). Blayney also provides other valuable material on the 17th-century topography of the precinct. See also James Raven, ‘Memorializing a London Bookscape: The Mapping and Reading of Paternoster Row and St Paul's Churchyard, 1695-1814’, in RC Alston ed., Order and Connexion: Studies in Bibliography and Book History (1997), pp.177-200.
The cathedral's medieval cloister and chapter house, constructed ca. 1332-35 by William Ramsey on land in the angle of the (then) south transept and nave, were very small, being only 32 feet 6 inches in internal diameter. The Manuscripts Section holds three deeds of 1332 for their construction: see Ms 25121/865, 1077 and 1902 (section DCPLH). For further information, see JH Harvey, ‘The Origin of the Perpendicular Style’, in EM Jope ed., Studies in Building History, Essays in Recognition of the Work of BH St J O' Neil (1961), pp.134-165; Christopher Wilson, The Development of the Perpendicular Style (University of London, PhD dissertation, 1980); and GH Cook, Old St Paul’s Cathedral, p.43. See also FC Penrose, ‘On the Recent Discoveries of Portions of Old Saint Paul's Cathedral’, Archaeologia, vol.47 (1883), pp.381-92, on excavations of the remains of the chapter house and Paul's Cross (see section DCPF). Most of the cloister was demolished in 1549: see Blayney, Bookshops in Paul’s Cross Churchyard, p.4.
St Faith’s parish church, within the cathedral precinct, was demolished ca. 1255 to lengthen the cathedral. A chapel in the cathedral crypt subsequently acted as the parish church. A chapel dedicated to St Faith survives in the current cathedral, although parish services no longer take place. The parish church of St Gregory by St Paul, which stood at the south west corner of the cathedral, was destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt. Cathedral services were held in St Gregory’s between June and November 1561. Inigo Jones had attempted to partly demolish this church in 1641 to make way for the cathedral portico (described in section DCPI), but following the complaints of parishioners was forced to return the stonework he had taken down. The Manuscripts Section holds the surviving parish records of St Faith under St Paul and St Gregory by St Paul.
The Bishop of London had a palace in the medieval precinct, originally sited in the area across from the north door of the cathedral and moving some time after the late 13th century to a more extensive site to the north west. See Roderick Macleod and Peter Blayney (above), and W Sparrow Simpson, ‘The Palaces and Town Houses of the Bishops of London’, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS) Transactions, new series, vol.1 (1905), pp.13-73. The Manuscripts Section holds a number of title deeds and related sources (dating from ca. 1582) for London Diocese properties around the cathedral: see section DOLDK of the thematic arrangement of the records of London Diocese, and Keene and Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources, pp.51-2.
For St Paul’s School, formerly in the cathedral precinct, see the section Other sources, at the end of the page.
DCPI (A-E), Cathedral fabric post-1630
Following the appointment by letters patent in 1631 of a second commission to investigate repairs, plans for restoration work on the cathedral started under Inigo Jones (who had been appointed Surveyor of the King’s Works in 1628). By May 1633 new sums of money had been raised from subscriptions (paid into the Chamber of London, see section DCPIB) to allow repairs to the Gothic choir. This work lasted about two years, during which time further funds were collected to recase and classicize the exterior of the nave and transepts. The work on the nave and transepts, the remodelling of the cathedral's west front and the addition of the Corinthian west portico, continued until at least September 1642. In addition, certain buildings adjacent to the cathedral were demolished in the period 1632-6: see VCH (1909), p.416, and Peter Blayney, Bookshops in Paul’s Cross Churchyard, pp.3 & 62-63. See also a list of houses adjoining the cathedral ‘necessary to be taken down ... to secure it from further spoil and annoyance’, 1664/5 (Ms 25190/8, section DCPLF), and an account of materials taken from demolished houses adjoining the cathedral and used to repair it, January-August 1666 (Ms 25679).
For further details of this period of restoration work, see J Harris and G Higgott, Inigo Jones, Complete Architectural Drawings (1989), especially pp.238-47; Sir John Summerson, ‘Lecture on a Master Mind: Inigo Jones’, Proceedings of the British Academy, vol.50 (1964), pp.169-92; and Sir John Summerson, The History of the King’s Works, ed. HM Colvin et al., vol.5 (1975), especially pp.147-52.
In October 1642 (under the Commonwealth), the Chapter was abolished by order of Parliament, and the cathedral building turned over to presbyterian worship. The cathedral was later occupied by a parliamentary army which caused considerable damage. See W Sparrow Simpson, ‘St Paul’s during the Interregnum’, in Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s, pp.253-81, and VCH (1909), pp.53-54. For the dispersal of the Cathedral Library in this period, see section DCPP.
The restoration of the Dean and Chapter in 1660 was followed in 1663 by the appointment by letters patent of new commissioners for repairing the cathedral: see Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.116-23. Repair work was just beginning when the Great Fire of September 1666 destroyed most of the cathedral. In 1668 a warrant (for copies, see Ms 11770 and 25783/413) was issued to raze what remained of the eastern parts of the building [the old choir and tower], although services continued to be held in the nave until the collapse of stonework there in 1673. Letters patent were subsequently issued in November 1673 for the building of an entirely new cathedral: see Wren Society, vol.13 (1936), pp.25-31. Certain ‘old materials’ from the cathedral had already been sold by the commissioners in April 1671: see Wren Society, vol.13, p.25.
For repairs proposed immediately before the Great Fire, see Wren Society, vol.13 (1936), pp.13-19; for Wren's report on the Fire (Bodleian Ms Tanner 145, no.129), see Wren Society, vol.13, pp.20-22; and for details of preliminary repair works, 1668-75, see Wren Society, vol.16 (1939), pp.183-213.
Wren (Surveyor-General of the King’s Works from 1669, and adviser to the cathedral’s repair commission since 1663) was appointed Surveyor of St Paul’s in 1675. The first stone of the new cathedral was laid in the same year, and the medieval alignment of the building was altered. Wren tried to lay the foundations for the entire new cathedral, rather than building in stages, although work continued at different speeds on various parts of the building. The choir was finished (and the first services held) in 1697, the dome finished in 1708, and the whole building declared complete in 1711. Annual summaries of expenditure, 1675-1710, are given in Wren Society, vol.13, p.11: see section DCPIB for further details.
The decoration of the dome by James Thornhill was completed in 1716-20. Other minor works continued after this date, including repairs to the south transept in 1781-2 (see DCPIE below). Later repairs have included the embellishment of the choir and crossing, the addition of mosaics in 1864 and 1892-1904, and the (controversial) construction of a marble reredos in 1886-8 (see DCPIE below). The reredos was damaged in World War Two and replaced between 1949 and 1958 with a baldacchino. For surviving decorations, see Nikolaus Pevsner and Simon Bradley, The Buildings of England Series: London 1, The City of London (revised edition, 1997), pp.155-183. Many records of 19th-century embellishments are not yet fully catalogued by Guildhall Library: see the CF series, especially CF18, 57 and 84. Others are retained by the Cathedral Librarian.
Records of monuments in the cathedral:
Notebook of Michael Shaller, Virger and Under-Chamberlain, late 16th century, including financial accounts and some details of monuments (Ms 25532)
See also John Weever, Ancient Funerall Monuments (1631); Henry Holland, Ecclesia Sancti Pauli Illustrata: The Monuments ... of Kings ... and Others, Buried in the Cathedrall Church of St Paul ... Continued untill ... 1633 (1633 edn); and Payne Fisher, The Tombs and Monuments etc Visible in St Paul’s Cathedral ... Previous to its Destruction by Fire A.D.1666 (1684, edited by G Blacker Morgan in 1885 reprint). Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.37-74, 199-214 & 469-72, also lists monuments (continued to 1816), as well as including drawings by Hollar of certain pre-Fire monuments. See also AJ Jewers, manuscript transcripts of inscriptions, compiled in 1919 (Ms 2480/4, pp.1109-1255).
For surviving monuments, see Pevsner and Bradley, Buildings of England Series: London 1, The City (1997), pp.155-183. Note: most of the surviving monuments are from the period after ca. 1790.
For the Duke of Wellington’s monument in the cathedral, see J Physick, The Wellington Monument (Victoria and Albert Museum, 1970), and Public Record Office, Works 6 (Miscellanea), which includes papers on the monument, 1853-1907. For Wellington’s funeral, see section DCPF.
Minute book of the commissioners for repair and rebuilding, 1664-83 (incomplete) (Ms 11770)
Minute books of the commissioners for rebuilding, 1674-1724 (Ms 25622/1-2)
[Note: much of Ms 25622/2, 1685/6-1724, has been edited in Wren Society, vol.16, pp.33-137.]
Minute book of the trustees of the fund for preserving the fabric of the cathedral, 1832-82, with copy accounts of the fund, 1850-85 (Ms 25807)
Works committee minute book, 1925-30 (Ms 25749)
An Act of Parliament of 1667 introduced a levy on the coal brought by sea into the Port of London, to pay for the rebuilding of the City of London. A further Act of 1670 directed that a specified part of this income should be set aside for rebuilding the cathedral and the City churches destroyed in the Great Fire (see section DCPJ). This money was paid into the Chamber [treasury] of the City of London and then paid to Wren as Surveyor to the cathedral, on receipt of warrants from the rebuilding commissioners. Note: after the completion of the cathedral and the City churches, the Coal Duty continued to fund rebuilding and general street improvement works in the City of London until the 19th century.
Audited accounts of restoration and rebuilding works, 1633-41 & 1663-1749 (Ms 25471/1-59)
[Note: Wren Society, vols.15-16 (1938-9), edit much of Ms 25471/16A, 16B & 52-53 (1668-75 & 1710-14).]
Accounts of restoration and rebuilding works (not audited, but with additional information), 1633-42, 1672-1710 & 1714-49 (Ms 25473/1-43)
[Note: Wren Society, vols.13-15 (1936-8), edit much of Ms 25473/11-41 (1675-1710).]
Daybooks recording money received by the Chamberlain of London for restoration and rebuilding works, 1631-44 & 1664-85 (Ms 25475/1-2)
Acquittance books, containing signed receipts for sums paid to craftsmen and suppliers for rebuilding work, 1666-1767 (Ms 25481/1-8)
[Signatories include Wren, Francis Bird, Langley Bradley, Caius Gabriel Cibber, Grinling Gibbons, Nicholas Hawksmoor, James Thornhill and Jean Tijou.]
Annual abstracts of accounts of money raised by the Coal Duty, 1687-1748 (Ms 25555/1-62
Paymasters’ ledgers of the fund for ‘completing and adorning’ the cathedral, 1700-1805 (from 1759 in the form of annual abstracts, continuing Ms 25555 above), (Ms 25621/1-2)
Benefactions from individuals and institutions towards the restoration and rebuilding of the cathedral are described in the following series:
Register of benefactors towards repair, 1631-41 (compiled ca. 1641) (Ms 25792)
Rolls listing benefactors towards repair and rebuilding, 1660-85 (Mss 25558-61, 63)
List of subscriptions towards rebuilding by persons of noble rank, 1678 (Ms 25521)
Returns from ca. 3300 parishes etc to briefs, ca. 1678, naming many thousands of individual subscribers towards rebuilding (Ms 25565/1-28, 25568 & 25747)
Note: for further details, including indexes of parish names by county, and a composite index of parish names. There is no index of the names of individual subscribers.
List of subscribers to 1925 restoration appeal (Ms 25810)
Note: the City of London Corporation records contain a day book of receipts and payments of charitable contributions towards the rebuilding, 1664-87.
Supply of materials (DCPID):
Registers of materials used in rebuilding, 1675-1703 (Ms 25494/1-4)
Memoranda, accounts etc about provision of Portland stone, 1663-78 (Ms 25579/1-2)
Letters and bills from Portland concerning supply of stone, 1691-2 & 1700 (Ms 25580)
In-letters relating to repair and rebuilding, 1638 & 1660-82 (Ms 25200)
‘Call books’, registers of workmen employed on rebuilding the cathedral, 1668-1726 & 1848 (incomplete) (Ms 25485/1-2)
Annotated printed Acts of Parliament and Royal Commissions relating to the rebuilding of the cathedral, 1685-1715 (Ms 25609)
Registers of ships bringing coal from Newcastle to London, compiled in connection with the Coal Duty, 1687-95/6 & 1700-5 (Ms 25472/1-3)
Scrapbooks relating to the cathedral fabric etc, 1752-1923 (Ms 25809/1-2)
Surveyor’s report book, with annual reports on the fabric, 1888-1918 (Ms 25808)
A number of other documents concerning the rebuilding, 1702-16, among the ‘Portland Papers’, are described in the Report on the Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Portland, Vol.10 (Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1931), pp.96-131. Papers relating to the 18th- and 19th-century fabric of the cathedral are also held at Lambeth Palace Library. These include fabric accounts for 1752-5, 1761-2 and 1778 (LPL Fulham Papers, ‘Sherlock’, ‘Osbaldeston’ and ‘Lowth’); papers of Robert Mylne, Cathedral Surveyor 1766-1811, including a report on the fabric in 1781 compiled as a prelude to repairs to the south transept in 1781/2, when the cathedral was closed for public worship (LPL Mss 1489, 2027 and 2552-3); and correspondence on the reredos, 1885-92 (LPL Fulham Papers, ‘F. Temple’).
The Manuscripts Section also has correspondence concerning the reredos, 1888-90 (Ms 24781, 12 items), among the records of London Diocese. See also, for the cathedral fabric 1805-1916, Public Record Office, Works 6 (Miscellanea). Drawings by Robert Whellock of internal architectural features and furnishings, 1858-83, are Guildhall Library Ms 21753/1-5 (not part of the cathedral archives).
For Wren’s rebuilding of the cathedral, see: J Lang, Rebuilding St Paul’s after the Great Fire of London (1956); and JH Bettey, ‘The Supply of Stone for Rebuilding St Paul’s Cathedral’, Archaeological Journal, vol.128 (1971), pp.176-85, which concentrates on the supply of Portland stone. For the use of Portland and other types of stone, see D Knoop and GP Jones, The London Mason in the Seventeenth Century (1935), pp.29-31; and R Crayford, ‘Fluctuations in the Price of Lime in the Period 1672-1711 Recorded in the Accounts for the Rebuilding of Saint Paul’s Cathedral’, Association for Studies in the Conservation of Historic Buildings, Transactions, vol.8 (1983), pp.25-27.
For Wren, his assistants and other masons and craftsmen employed at the cathedral, see: HM Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840 (3rd edn, 1995); C Wren [son of the architect], Parentalia (London, 1750; facsimile reprint, Farnborough, 1965); Michael Hunter, ‘The Making of Christopher Wren’, London Journal, vol.16, no.2 (1991), pp.101-116; and Vaughan Hart, St Paul’s Cathedral: Sir Christopher Wren (1995).
See also K Downes, ‘Sir Christopher Wren, Edward Woodroffe [Assistant Surveyor to the Dean and Chapter, 1669-75], JH Mansart, and Architectural History’, in Architectural History, vol.37 (1994), pp.37-67. Note: many of the craftsmen employed at St Paul's are recorded in the index (vol.20, 1943) to those records of the cathedral which have been edited by the Wren Society.
Many of Wren’s original drawings for the reconstruction of the cathedral are now held by the Prints and Maps Section of Guildhall Library. They are calendared in Kerry Downes, Sir Christopher Wren: The Design of St Paul’s Cathedral. Introduction and Catalogue (1988). Further drawings are at All Souls College, Oxford: see Wren Society, vol.1 (1924). Additional volumes of the Wren Society, especially volumes 2-3, 8 and 13-16 (1924-39), with index (vol.20, 1943), include copies of the drawings now held at Guildhall Library and extracts from other related records.
For details of the fabric of the cathedral from the mid 18th century, see: Rev RS Mylne, ‘The Fabric of St Paul’s 1760-1810’, RIBA Journal, 3rd series, vol.23 (1916), pp.207-8; J Mordaunt Crook, ‘William Burges and the Completion of St Paul’s’, Antiquaries Journal, vol.LX, part 2 (1980), pp.285-307; and GF Browne, An Account of the Recent Decoration of St Pauls, 1891-1906 (1906) (Guildhall Library, Printed Books Section, Pam 2153). See also WR Matthews, Saint Paul’s Cathedral in Wartime, 1939-45 (1946), and St Paul’s in War and Peace, 1939-58 (1960), for details of war damage and repairs, and the work of the St Paul’s Watch.
The cathedral organ is described by JS Bumpus, The Organists and Composers of St Paul’s Cathedral (1891), Appendix A, pp.199-212. For the cathedral bells and the Ancient Society of College Youths (a bell ringing society founded in 1637 and based at St Paul's since 1878), see William T Cook, The Bells of St Paul’s: An Account of the Bells of St Paul’s Cathedral (2nd revised edn, 1984), and The Society of College Youths, 1637-1987: A New History of the Society (1987). The Manuscripts Section holds microfilm copies only of various of the society's records, including ‘Name books’ of members, 1637-1959 (Ms 21656/1-2), and ‘Peal books’, 1754-1974 (Ms 21657/1-4).
The medieval chapter house, see section DCPH, was damaged in the Great Fire and not rebuilt. Wren’s Chapter House was constructed in 1712-14 on a new site on the north side of the cathedral. The rebuilding accounts (Ms 25471/53) have been edited in Wren Society, vol.15 (1938), pp.211-17. Wren’s Chapter House has largely been rebuilt since 1945 following damage in World War Two. Two scrapbooks concerning the cathedral fabric (Ms 25809/1-2, see section DCPIE) also include details of the Chapter House.
Since 1878 St Paul’s Churchyard, the open space around the cathedral, has been managed by the City of London Corporation. For the cathedral precinct and surrounding area, see two articles in London Journal, vol.16, no.2 (1991): R Thorne, ‘The Setting of St Paul’s in the Twentieth Century’ (pp.117-128), and P Murray, ‘Paternoster - post Holford’ (pp.129-139).
DCPJ, City churches rebuilding
The Great Fire of 1666 destroyed or damaged not only the cathedral, but also 87 of the City’s parish churches. By 1670 agreement had been reached that 51 of those churches would be rebuilt or repaired. A commission, comprising the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London and the Lord Mayor, was appointed to oversee the rebuilding work, again financed by the Coal Duty (see section DCPIB). Wren, as the King’s Surveyor-General, was appointed to supervise the work. The repair of the damaged churches was very advanced by 1686, but continued until 1717.
Copy orders of the commissioners for rebuilding churches, 1670-1717 (Ms 25540/1-2)
Accounts of expenditure on temporary ‘tabernacles’ for worship, pending rebuilding of churches, 1671-7 (Ms 25547)
Abstract of accounts of Coal Duty money spent on temporary ‘tabernacles’ and church rebuilding, 1670-96 (Ms 25527)
Audited accounts of expenditure on rebuilding the churches, recording the work of individual craftsmen, 1670-94 (Ms 25536/1-14)
Accounts of expenditure on rebuilding the churches, with signatures and details of the work of individual craftsmen, 1670-1717 (Ms 25539/1-12)
Balance books, recording sums paid to individual craftsmen, 1673-1717 (Ms 25541/1-4)
Note: the Corporation of London Records Office holds accounts of money advanced by parishes and paid into the Chamber of London towards rebuilding parish churches, 1670-84; warrants for payments to Wren, 1670-88; and accounts of payments to Wren, 1670-84.
‘The Parochial Churches of Sir Christopher Wren 1666-1718’, in Wren Society, vols.9 and 10 (1932-3). Volume 9 consists mainly of drawings and plans. Volume 10 also includes photographs, details of craftsmen employed, and extracts from Bodleian Library Ms Rawlinson B.387 (‘Register of charges and bills of 49 [sic] parochial churches rebuilt by Wren’), as well as extracts from the vestry minutes and churchwardens’ accounts of individual City parishes. In most cases these parish records are now also in the custody of the Manuscripts Section.
For a study of Bodleian Library Ms Rawlinson B.387 (and related papers in Rawlinson B.388-89), see L Weaver, ‘Sir Christopher Wren's Building Accounts of City Churches’, Archaeologia, vol.66 (1915), pp.1-60. See also Paul Jeffery, The City Churches of Sir Christopher Wren (1996); and J Summerson, ‘Drawings for the London City Churches’, RIBA Journal, 3rd series, vol.59, no.4 (February 1952), pp.126-9, and ‘Drawings of London Churches in the Bute Collection: A Catalogue’, Architectural History, vol.13 (1970), pp.30-42. For the temporary ‘tabernacles’, see VCH (1909), p.340.
DCPK (A-D), Peculiar jurisdiction
The Peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter extended over various parishes and precincts in the City of London, Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire. It was abolished by an Order in Council in 1845. The parishes and precincts were:
City of London: St Faith under St Paul, St Giles Cripplegate, St Gregory by St Paul and St Helen Bishopsgate; Middlesex: Chiswick, Friern Barnet, St Luke Old Street, St Pancras, Stoke Newington, West Drayton, Willesden, and the precincts of Hoxton (Shoreditch), Norton Folgate (extra-parochial) and Portpool (in the parish of St Andrew Holborn); Essex: Barling, Belchamp St Paul, Heybridge, Navestock, Tillingham and Wickham St Paul; and Hertfordshire: Albury, Brent Pelham and Furneaux Pelham.
Licensing records (DCPKA):
Certificates of good character for licensing of a parish clerk, 1660; physicians and surgeons, 1700-13 (for the related subscriptions, see section DCPE); and midwives, 1662-1711 (Ms 25598/1-3)
Register of certificates for the licensing of dissenting meeting houses, 1779-1847 (see also section DCPC, Commissary’s muniment book) (Ms 25726)
For visitation and court assignation books (Ms 25533/1-10), listing curates, lecturers, parish clerks, schoolmasters and midwives, 1667-93 & 1700-7, see section DCPKB below. For records of licences of curates, lecturers, parish clerks etc, 1756-79 and ca. 1792-ca. 1847, see section DCPC.
Marriage licensing records:
Bonds, 1670-93 (Ms 25802/1-2)
Allegations, 1686-95 (section DCPE, subscription book) (in Ms 25801)
Allegations, 1687-1841 (Ms 25803/1-14)
See also ‘Special’ licences among the records of London Diocese, issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury for marriages at St Paul’s, 1877-1980 (Ms 21648/1-21, incomplete).
1181 (in Ms 25504, section DCPB), edited by W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Visitations of Certain Churches [in the cathedral’s patronage] in the City of London ... between … 1138 and 1250’, Archaeologia, vol.55, part 2 (1897), pp.283-300; with inventories of their ornaments, vestments and books.
1249-1252 (in Ms 25504, section DCPB), edited by W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Visitations of Churches [in Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire] belonging to St Paul’s Cathedral, 1249-52’, Camden Miscellany, vol.9 (1895), pp.1-64.
1296, roll of Peculiar Court business conducted in certain parishes in Essex (Ms 25432)
1297 (in Ms 25516, section DCPLF), and 1458 (Ms 25515, below): edited by W Sparrow Simpson, ‘Visitations of Churches belonging to St Paul’s Cathedral in 1297 and in 1458 [in the City of London, Middlesex, Essex, Hertfordshire and Herts/Bedfordshire]’, Camden Society, new series, vol.55 (1895), pp.1-64  & 65-114 ; with inventories of their furniture, plate, vestments and books.
1328, Peculiar Court business conducted in certain parishes in Herts (Ms 25433)
1335, visitations of manors and churches in Essex (Ms 25122/1112)
1378, visitation of churches in Essex (Ms 25165)
1458, visitation of churches in the City of London, see 1297 above (Ms 25515)
1506, Dean Colet’s visitation expenses (in Ms 25187)
1667-1825, visitation and court assignation books (incomplete) (Ms 25533/1-10)
1667-1726, churchwardens’ presentments (incomplete) (Ms 25800/1-116)*
*Roll 16 includes returns for the Peculiar jurisdiction to the ‘Compton Census’, 1676. See A Whiteman ed., The Compton Census of 1676: A Critical Edition (British Academy, Records of Social and Economic History, new series, vol.10, 1986), pp.37 & 60.
1552, inventories of church goods in ten parishes in the cathedral's Peculiar jurisdiction: Public Record Office, E315 (Augmentation Office, Miscellaneous books), vols.497-8 etc. These have been edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Camden Society, new series, vol.55 (1895), pp.115-22.
Note: after 1846 presentments of some of the former peculiar parishes or precincts of the Dean and Chapter are included among the records of the Archdeaconry of London (Ms 9811).
For visitation commissions in the Chapter Acts, 1411-48, see section DCPD; for records of metropolitan and episcopal visitations of the cathedral, see section DCPP.
Probate records (DCPKC):
Probate records of the Peculiar Court survive for the period 1535 to 1837, although very few wills were proved or administrations granted after ca. 1781. The records were sent by the Dean and Chapter to the Principal Probate Registry in 1868 and 1879, these records being forwarded to the Public Record Office in the 1950s. Much of the material was returned to the Cathedral Library in 1958, from where it was transferred to Guildhall Library in 1980. Other items however, including probate inventories, were transferred directly to Guildhall Library from the Public Record Office at various dates.
Probate and administration act books, 1646-50 & 1660-1837 (Ms 25625/1-9)*
Will registers, 1535-1643 & 1660-183 (Ms 25626/1-14)*
Original wills, 1660-1837 (Ms 25628/1-120)
Probate inventories, 1660-1725 (Ms 19504/1-77)
(* NOTE - USE OF MICROFILM COMPULSORY)
Ms 25625/1-9 are calendared in photocopied volumes of contemporary calendars (Ms 25625A/1-2) held in the Manuscripts Section Reading Room. Ms 25626/1-6 are indexed in Ms 25627, and Ms 25626/7-14 are calendared in Ms 25627A, both of which are held in the Manuscripts Section Reading Room. There are no printed indexes. An on-line index to probate inventories 1685-1725 (Ms 19504/32-77) is available.
In addition to wills proved in the Peculiar Court, the Manuscripts Section holds a number of original and copy wills of cathedral officers and benefactors: see section DCPP.
Accounts of fees for licensing, legal and other business, 1748-57(Ms 18003) and 1757-1800 (Ms 25736/1-2)
DCPL (A-I), Dean and Chapter estates
The cathedral and its officials had extensive land holdings within the City of London, as well as in Middlesex, Essex, Hertfordshire and elsewhere. It is important to distinguish estates held by the Dean and Chapter collectively, as here, from those held by the dean or other dignitaries and prebendaries individually, for which see sections DCPM-N.
The manors held by the Dean and Chapter collectively (and for which series of records survive) included:
Middlesex: Acton, Edmonton, Friern Barnet, Kingsbury, Norton Folgate, ‘Paul's House Bowes and Edmonton’, Shadwell, Sutton Court, Tottenham Rectory and West Drayton; Essex: Barling, Belchamp St Paul, Bewchamps, Boyton Hall, Chingford, Hawksbury, Heybridge, High Easter, Kirby, Mucking, Navestock, Runwell, Thorpe, Tillingham, Walton, Westlee, Wickham St Paul; Hertfordshire/Bedfordshire: Caddington, Kensworth; Hertfordshire: Codicote, Paul's Walden, Sandon, Therfield, Yardley alias Ardeley; Surrey: Barnes.
For appointments of manorial and estate officials, see section DCPC; financial records, often including salary information for the cathedral's manorial officials, are in section DCPG. The full catalogue of DCPG can be seen by typing ‘DCPG’ into the classification search on the computer catalogue.
In ca. 1872 the corporate estates and manorial lordships of the Dean and Chapter, with the sole exception of Tillingham in Essex, were transferred to the Ecclesiastical (later Church) Commissioners. In most cases the relevant manorial records held at Guildhall Library continue until the mid 20th century, as the result of separate deposits of records by the Church Commissioners. The Dean and Chapter were permitted to retain Tillingham, the only episcopal or cathedral estate not to be transferred to the Commissioners, because it was believed to be the oldest continuous landholding in England, having been given to the Dean and Chapter by Ethelbert, King of Kent, in ca. 604.
Early references to cathedral estates and manors include:
1086x1107, list of manors rendering payments in kind to the cathedral (in Ms 25504, section DCPB). Edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), p.152
ca. 1130, survey of cathedral property in London (in Ms 25504). Edited by HWC Davis in AG Little and FM Powicke eds, Essays in Medieval History Presented to TF Tout (1925), pp.45-55
1181, inquisition of cathedral manors (fragment of ‘Liber B’, now Bodleian Library Ms Rawlinson B.372). Edited by WH Hale, ‘A Fragment of the Domesday of Ralph de Diceto’, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.109-117
1181, inquisition of cathedral manors (in Ms 25504). Edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.140-152
1222, ‘Domesday of St Paul’s’, also known as ‘Liber K’, Ms 25514 (see section DCPLF)
ca. 1243-54, rental of Dean and Chapter revenue and expenditure (in Ms 25509, section DCPB)
ca. 1290-ca. 1390, survey and visitation book, also known as ‘Liber I’, Ms 25516 (see section DCPLF)
Late 13th century, rental of Dean and Chapter revenue and expenditure (in Ms 25509). The manorial portions were edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.154-64
1315-1488, accounts of collectors of rents in London and its suburbs (Ms 25125/1-99, see section DCPLD)
Further reading: Rosamond Faith, ‘Demesne Resources and Labour Rent on the Manors of St Paul’s Cathedral, 1066-1222’, Economic History Review, vol.47 (1994), pp.657-78.
Records of individual manors survive with increased frequency from the 17th century. The following are among the earliest survivals, in some cases from the 13th century, although later series are available in each case:
Court rolls and books (DCPLA):
Barnes, Surrey, 1433-1675 (incomplete) (Ms 25275/1-6)
Heybridge, Essex, 1381-1413 & 1417-1642 (Ms 25281/1-7)
Norton Folgate, Middlesex, 1439-94 & 1509-18 (Ms 25287)
Paul’s Walden, Hertfordshire, 1351, 1424, 1493-1531 & 1541-58 (Ms 25297)
Sandon, Hertfordshire, 1301-3, 1309, 1311-42 (Ms 25290/1-12)
West Drayton, Middlesex, 1394-1423, 1435-58 (Ms 25279/1-2)
Wickham St Paul, Essex, 1400-1690 (incomplete) (Ms 25299/1-2)
Court accounts (DCPLB):
Accounts of fines and perquisites of manorial courts, 1661-1773, arranged by manor (Ms 14213A/1-3)
Accounts of fines and perquisites of manorial courts, 1661-1719, 1738-54 & 1776-9, arranged chronologically (Ms 14213/1-6)
Steward's accounts of fees received from manorial courts, 1745-73 (Ms 14213B/1-2)
Manorial accounts (DCPLC):
Acton, Middlesex, 1295-7, 1299-1301, 1323-4 (Mss 25122/612 & Ms 25319/1-4)
Runwell, Essex, 1352, 1355-6, 1358-60 (Ms 25322/1-4)
Sandon, Hertfordshire, 1259-60, 1325, 1334-5, 1339-40 (Ms 25323/1-7)
Therfield, Hertfordshire, 1444-6, 1448-9, 1460-1 (Ms 25331/1-4)
Rent accounts (DCPLD):
Accounts of the collectors of rents from estates in London and its suburbs, 1315-1488, incomplete and with varied contents, including (ca. 1340-ca. 1400) many individual chantry accounts (see section DCPO) (Ms 25125/1-99)
Registers of rents collected, arranged by property, 1735-1811 (Ms 25693/1-2)
Barnes, Surrey, various rentals, 1460-17th century (Mss 25122/664 & 25333/1-5)
Belchamp St Paul, Essex, 1240 (part of manor only) (in Ms 25504)
[Edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.118-121.]
Cathedral rentals before ca. 1666 which include references to the City of London are described in Keene and Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources, pp.46-50.
Surveys and related sources (DCPLF unless stated):
1222, ‘Domesday of St Paul’s’, a detailed survey of the cathedral’s manors (‘Liber K’, WD14, Ms 25514). Edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.1-107.
ca. 1290-ca. 1390, survey and visitation book (‘Liber I’, WD16, Ms 25516), including detailed surveys of many cathedral manors ca. 1297-1300
[Parts of this volume are also described in sections DCPG, DCPK, DCPP.]
ca. 1290, articles of enquiry at a visitation of cathedral manors (in Ms 25516, as above). Edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.153-6; Hale also edits the visitation articles of 1320 (in Ms 25504, section DCPB), pp.156-60.
1320, visitation articles of cathedral manors, see ca. 1290 above (in Ms 25504)
1334, visitations of cathedral manors in Middlesex, Herts and Surrey (Ms 25164)
1335, visitations of cathedral manors and churches in Essex (Ms 25122/1112)
1452, ordinance of Thomas Kempe, Bishop of London, for a visitation of the manors belonging to the Dean and Chapter (section DCPLH) (Ms 25121/1903)
Detailed ‘parliamentary’ surveys, compiled in 1649 and after, exist for many Dean and Chapter estates (Mss 11816A-B, 25190, 25595, 25631 & 25820). Individual parliamentary surveys are also to be found among the ‘London’ and ‘Shenley’ deeds described in section DCPLH.
For further parliamentary surveys for certain cathedral properties, 1647-49, see Jane Houston, Catalogue of the Ecclesiastical Records of the Commonwealth 1643-1660 in the Lambeth Palace Library (1968), pp.136 & 150.
The 1650 survey of Shadwell, Middlesex, Ms 25820 (but see also survey of 1649 in Ms 11816), has been studied by Michael Power, ‘Shadwell: The Development of a London Suburban Community in the Seventeenth Century’, London Journal, vol.4, no.1 (May 1978), pp.29-46.
Registers of contracts for the sale of the cathedral’s lands in the ‘Commonwealth’ period, 1649-58 (Ms 25633/1-2)
For original leases and sales by the Parliamentary commissioners, see the ‘Shenley deeds’ (section DCPLH); for other related papers, see Ms 25240 (section DCPLI).
Maps of estates:
Israel Amyce, survey of the manor of Belchamp St Paul, Essex, 1576; with plans, giving field names and topographical details (Ms 25517/1-2)
Israel Amyce, survey of woods and groves in Edmonton, Tottenham and Enfield, Middlesex, belonging to Robert Cecil, 1599; with plans, giving field names and topographical details (Ms 18798)
Further maps and plans of the cathedral’s estates are held by the Prints and Maps Section of Guildhall Library.
Registers of leases (DCPLG):
Dean and Chapter estates, lease abstract book, ca. 1662, with annotations to ca. 1744 (Ms 25691)
Dean and Chapter estates, register of leases, ca. 1755-1850 (Ms 25730)
Leases are also entered in:
Cartulary and statute book (section DCPB) (Ms 25504)
[Note: some 12th-century leases of manors belonging to St Paul’s are edited by WH Hale, Camden Society, 1st series, vol.69 (1858), pp.122-39.]
Chapter Act book, 1411-48 (section DCPD) (Ms 25513)
Dean’s registers 1536-1642 & 1660-1909 (section DCPC) (Ms 25630/1-47)
London Diocese Bishop’s registers, mid 16th -early 19th centuries (Ms 9531/various)
Seal books, 1660-1940 (section DCPC) (Ms 25660/1-8)
See also Chapter minute books, 1660-1821 (Ms 25738/1-6) and Chapter Act book, 1667-87 (Ms 25739), both section DCPD.
Title deeds (DCPLH):
‘London deeds’, i.e. of City properties, 12th -17th centuries (Ms 25121/1-2099 & 3000-3081)
[NB nos. 2100-2999 were never used]
Draft catalogue slips of deeds 1-1789 are available at the Manuscripts Section enquiry desk. Keene and Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources, pp.40-44, index the City deeds before ca. 1666 by parish. For items concerning chantries among the ‘London deeds’, see section DCPO.
‘Country deeds’, mainly relating to properties in Middlesex, Essex, Hertfordshire etc, 12th-16th centuries (Ms 25122/1-1523).
No catalogue slips are available, although deeds 1-1463 are listed, and indexed by parish, in an 18th -century calendar, Ms 25616/2 (see section DCPP).
Note: a number of the earlier deeds from both the ‘London’ and ‘Country’ deeds series have been edited by Marion Gibbs (‘Early Charters’), or calendared by Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report).
‘Gilbertson deeds’, deeds and other papers, 17th-19th centuries (Mss 25764-82)
Items numbered and calendared ca. 1882-86 by Rev L Gilbertson, Minor Canon and (1897-1903) Librarian of St Paul's. Their origins are diverse, and some have no apparent connection with the cathedral. Gilbertson’s calendar of the deeds has been catalogued as Ms 25613A/2 (see section DCPP). Guildhall Library draft catalogue slips so far exist for Mss 25764-9 only. These are available at the Manuscripts Section enquiry desk. Certain items with no London or cathedral connections have been transferred from Guildhall Library.
‘Shenley deeds’, deeds and other papers, 17th -19th centuries (Mss 25783/1-726, 25784-96A)
Items found in Shenley, Hertfordshire, in 1949, and deposited at Hertfordshire Record Office. They were later returned to the cathedral, and transferred to Guildhall Library with the bulk of the archives in 1980.
Guildhall Library draft catalogue slips for certain items within Ms 25783/1-726 are available at the Manuscripts Section enquiry desk. The remainder of the Shenley material (Mss 25784-96A) is fully catalogued. A schedule of all the ‘Shenley deeds’ was compiled at Hertfordshire Record Office and is now GL Ms 25796A/2. Keene and Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources, pp.40-44, give an index by parish of the pre-1666 deeds for the City of London only. NB Ms 25783/1-726 comprises around 400 items in total, with many gaps in the numbering system.
Papers, including original leases and sales, relating to various properties, apparently sold by the Parliamentary commissioners in the Commonwealth period, 17th century (Ms 25240). See also similar material among the ‘Shenley deeds’ (in Ms 25783/1-726), section DCPLH.
DCPM, Dean’s Peculiar estates
The Dean’s Peculiar estates, from which the dean personally drew the income, were located in the City of London, Middlesex, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire.
For papers relating to the estates of William Worsley (Dean, 1479-99), including the revenues of the Deanery, his other ecclesiastical preferments, and numerous estates held privately in London, Middlesex, Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Berkshire (almost all leased from the Dean and Chapter), see Mss 25166-8. (Note: these items are excluded from the thematic arrangement of the cathedral's records.) Mss 25166-8 have been edited by Hannes Kleineke and Stephanie R Hovland, The Estate and Household Accounts of William Worsley, Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral, 1479-1497 (London Record Society in association with the Richard III and Yorkist History Trust and Shaun Tyas, Donnington, vol.40, 2004).
For ‘parliamentary’ surveys of the Dean’s Peculiar estates, compiled in 1649 and after, see Mss 11816 and 25190. For ‘parliamentary’ surveys of the estates of the Dean and Chapter, which may contain further information about the Dean’s Peculiar estates, see sections DCPLF and DCPLI.
Dean’s Peculiar estates, register of leases, 1664-1848 (Ms 19931)
From 1840 (after the holder’s life-interest) the ownership of the estates and manorial lordships of the cathedral’s dignitaries and prebends was transferred to the Ecclesiastical (later Church) Commissioners. In most cases the relevant manorial records held at Guildhall Library continue until the mid 20th century, as the result of separate deposits of records by the Church Commissioners.
DCPN, Dignitaries and prebendaries’ estates
Precentorship estate records are held for the manor of Stortford Rectory (Hertfordshire); Treasurership estate records are held for the manors of Whitebarns and Albury Parsonage (Herts).
Prebendal and other dignitaries’ estates, registers of leases, 1721-1861 (Ms 25745/1-3)
The Section has records of the following manors held by the cathedral’s prebendaries:
Middlesex: Brondesbury, Brownswood, Cantlowes, Chamberlainwood, Chiswick, Eald Street, Finsbury*, Hoxton, Islington, Neasden, Oxgate, Stoke Newington, Tottenhall alias Tottenham Court**, Wenlocksbarn; Essex: Reculverland, Sneating Hall, Wyland Fee.
*The prebendal manor of Finsbury, Middlesex, was leased to the City of London Corporation during the years 1514-1867. Further records relating to the manor (including court books 1581-1867) are now held by the Corporation of London Records Office.
**Records of the manor of Tottenhall (Tottenham Court), Middlesex, 1306-78 (incomplete), are Ms 25346/1-8. Note that court rolls for 1664-1875 are held by London Metropolitan Archives.
For ‘parliamentary’ surveys made in 1649 of dignitaries’ and prebendaries’ estates, see Ms 25632. For ‘parliamentary’ surveys of the estates of the Dean and Chapter, which may contain further information about dignitaries’ and prebendaries’ estates, see sections DCPLF and DCPLI.
From 1840 (after the holder’s life-interest) the ownership of the estates and manorial lordships of the cathedral’s dignitaries and prebends was transferred to the Ecclesiastical (later Church) Commissioners. In most cases the relevant manorial records held at Guildhall Library continue until the mid 20th century, as the result of separate deposits of records by the Church Commissioners.
For records of property of the College of Minor Canons, see the section Other sources at the end of the page.
DCPO, Chantries and obits
ca.1222-1225, calendar of obits and payments due (section DCPG) (in Ms 25512)
mid 13th century, list of chantries and their rents (section DCPB) (in Ms 25504)
1271, list of chantry priests (in Ms 25504)
14th century, calendar of chantries and rents assigned to them (in Ms 25504)
14th century, calendar of obits (section DCPB) (in Ms 25509)*
14th century, calendar of chantries, obits and sums assigned to them (ditto) (in Ms 25502)
14th or 15th century, calendar of obits (Ms 25134)
1541-7, account of money paid for obits (Ms 25648)
ca.1547, chantry certificates, giving details of foundations, income and expenditure, and inventories of plate, vestments etc (Ms 25526)
* arranged by name and edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Camden Society, new series, vol.26 (1880), pp.61-106. Sparrow Simpson also gives a list of obits, arranged by date, pp.194-202. See also additional list of obits, arranged by date, in HH Milman, Annals (1869), pp.504-15.
Accounts of individual chantries (mainly concerning the collection of rents):
1332 & 1367-(?)70, 1410-18 & 1514-17, chantry of Ralph de Baldock (Ms 25137/1-6)
1413-27, 1431-3, chantry of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (Ms 25151/1-8)
1315-16 & 1341-3, chantry of Henry de Guildford (Ms 25140/1-2)
1461-2 & 1470-1, chantry of John Hiltoft (Ms 25144/1-2)
1403, chantry of Alan de Hotham (Ms 25150)
1454-78 (incomplete series), chantry of Sir John Pulteney (Ms 25158/1-7)
1477-78, chantry of Roger Walden (Ms 25160)
1363-1418 (incomplete series), chantry of Roger de Waltham (Ms 25161/1-10)
1361-69, chantry of Nicholas de Wokyndon (Ms 25163)
Further material concerning obits and chantries (including ordinances and inventories of chapels) can be found among the ‘London deeds’ series (see section DCPLH), particularly Ms 25121/1917-99, which relate to chantries at St Paul’s Cathedral, and Ms 25121/2000-17, which relate to chantries elsewhere. They include a list of 73 chantries and their chaplains, compiled ca. 1370 (Ms 25121/1954). For a calendar of all the items, see Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report), boxes A74-76. See also Ms 25502 (section DCPB), which includes certain 14th-century chantry ordinances; and relevant entries in the Chapter Act book, 1411-48 (section DCPD).
A number of the cathedral’s chantries were united and amalgamated in 1391 by Robert Braybrooke, Bishop of London (Ms 25121/1953). For an edition of this charter and of a confirmation charter of Richard II of the same year (Ms 25241/53), see W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.142-8; and Rosalind Hill, ‘"A Chaunterie for Soules": London Chantries in the reign of Richard II’, in FRH Du Boulay and CM Barron eds, The Reign of Richard II, Essays in Honour of May McKisack (1971), pp.242-55. See also W Sparrow Simpson, ‘On a Newly Discovered Manuscript Containing the Statutes Compiled by Dean Colet for the Government of the Chantry Priests and Other Clergy in St Paul’s Cathedral’, Archaeologia, vol.52 (1890), pp.145-74.
Further reading: Dugdale (1818 edition), pp.18-23 & 27-29; CJ Kitching, London and Middlesex Chantry Certificate 1548 (London Record Society, vol.16, 1980), compiled from Public Record Office, E301/34; and Nichola Gear, The Chantries of St Paul's Cathedral (Royal Holloway & Bedford New College, MA dissertation, 1996). John of Gaunt’s tomb and chantry are described by JB Post, ‘The Obsequies of John of Gaunt’, Guildhall Studies in London History, vol.5, no.1 (October 1981), pp.1-12.
Selective extracts from the no longer extant, so-called ‘Register of Fulk Basset’ (Bishop of London, 1241-59), relating to churches belonging to the Dean and Chapter in the 13th century. Compiled in the 17th century (Ms 25788).
Original and copy wills of cathedral officers and benefactors, 13th-17th centuries (Mss 25262-71), calendared by Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report, boxes A66-68).
Inventories of cathedral goods and records:
1245, inventory of plate, reliquaries, ornaments, vestments, books and furniture (in Ms 25509, section DCPB). Edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Archaeologia, vol.50 (1887), pp.464-500. See also Sparrow Simpson, ‘The Treasury of the Cathedral Church of St Paul in 1245’, in St Paul’s Cathedral and Old City Life (1894), pp.3-32.
1255, inventory of ornaments, cloths and books (in Ms 25504, section DCPB). The lists of books only have been edited by NR Ker, ‘Books at St Paul’s Cathedral before 1313’, in AEJ Hollaender and W Kellaway eds, Studies in London History (1969), pp.49-60.
1295, inventories of plate, vestments and books in the Cathedral Treasury (with additions to 1299), and belonging to the cathedral’s chapels and altars (in Ms 25516, section DCPLF). Edited in Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.310-35, with corrections by W Sparrow Simpson in Archaeologia, vol.50 (1887), pp.460-63. See also 1315-ca. 1336 (Ms 25503-3A), below.
1313, list of books bequeathed to the cathedral by Ralph de Baldock, Dean of St Paul's, 1294-1304, and Bishop of London, 1304-13 (Ms 25271/17). The titles of most of these are listed by AB Emden, Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, vol.III (1959), pp.2147-8. See also Maxwell Lyte (HMC Ninth Report), box A66, no.17, now Ms 25271/17.
1315-ca. 1336, copies of the 1295 inventory of the Cathedral Treasury, with additions to ca.1330 (WD3, Ms 25503) and ca. 1336 (WD3A, 25503A, a photocopy of Bodleian Library Ms Ashmole 845, ff.172-87).
1358, list of books (in an indenture attached to the will of William de Ravenstone, late almoner, Ms 25271/46) for the use of the cathedral's Almonry (i.e. Cathedral School, see also the section Other sources at the end of this leaflet). Listed by E Rickert, ‘Chaucer at School’, Modern Philology, vol.29 (1952), pp.257-74. (NB This journal is not held at Guildhall Library.)
1402-ca. 1413, 1445/6, inventories of plate, vestments, furniture, books etc (WD8A, Ms 25508A). Edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Archaeologia, vol.50 (1887), pp.500-524. See also W Sparrow Simpson, St Paul’s Cathedral and Old City Life, pp.35-46.
1447, Dean Thomas Lisieux’s extensive inventory (with draft version) of the cathedral’s title deeds, cartularies and record books (WD11 & WD11A, Ms 25511 & 11A). See Davis, Medieval Cartularies, nos. 600-1.
1451, list of vestments bequeathed to the Dean and Chapter by the late Robert Gilbert, Bishop of London 1436-48 (Ms 25436).
1458, inventory of the Cathedral Library (British Library, Cotton Charters XIII, no.11). See Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.392-98.
1486, inventory of books in the Cathedral Treasury (B.L., Cotton Charters XIII, no.24). See Dugdale (1818 edn), pp.399-401.
1552, inventory of the cathedral's plate, jewels, vestments etc (Public Record Office, E117 (King’s Remembrancer, Inventories of Church Goods), no.4/71). Edited by JO Payne, St Paul’s Cathedral in the Time of Edward VI (1893).
1553, short inventory of the cathedral's plate, jewels etc. Edited by Dugdale (1818 edn), p.391. NB The source of this reference is unclear.
1559, list of books and documents ‘appertaining to the Cathedral Church …, to the Dean … and [to] the Dean and Chapter’, which were passed by Henry Cole (Dean, 1556-9) to William May (Dean, 1559-60) (Ms 25184). Extracts are printed by Dugdale (1818 edn), p.401.
ca. 1622, list of manuscripts in the Cathedral Library, compiled by Patrick Young, Royal Librarian and, 1621-52, Treasurer of St Paul's (currently only partly processed, ref. CF56). For the context, see Young's list for Worcester Cathedral, edited by I Atkins and NR Ker, Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Wigorniensis, Made in 1622-1623 (1944).
ca. 1647, catalogue of manuscripts and printed books transferred from the cathedral to Sion College in the Commonwealth period (Bodleian Ms Rawlinson D.888, ff.2-5). See NR Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, vol.1, pp.240 & 263.
1650, alphabetized shelflist of the cathedral's library held at Sion College (‘Sion College Arc.L.24.1/Si 7M’, now held at Lambeth Palace Library). Note: this collection of manuscripts and books was almost totally destroyed in the Great Fire (see ca. 1666 below).
1659, list of writings ‘belonging to St Paul’s church’ (British Library, Lansdowne Ms 364).
ca. 1666, manuscripts, transferred to Sion College, which survived the Great Fire. These are listed in Ms 25121/1916 (section DCPLH). However this list is now missing, and was probably never passed to Guildhall Library. See NR Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, vol.1, p.240 for a [full?] transcription. The surviving items returned to the cathedral in 1670.
1803, account of the plate belonging to the cathedral, compiled by JP Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum: Or an Antient History and Modern Description of London, III (1807), pp.144-5. Also edited by W Sparrow Simpson in St Paul’s Cathedral and Old City Life, pp.52-53.
The Manuscripts Section holds a number of 18th- and 19th-century inventories of cathedral records, some compiled by WH Hale and W Sparrow Simpson. These have been catalogued as Mss 25612-17A. Note: Matthew Hutton's extracts from the cathedral’s records (British Library, Harley Ms 6956, made in the late 17th century) include details of a number of medieval volumes which have not survived. See G Yeo, ‘Record-keeping at St Paul’s Cathedral’, especially pp.34-36.
For inventories of plate, vestments etc of the cathedral’s chantries, see section DCPO; for inventories of churches in the cathedral’s patronage, see section DCPKB.
Issued for the rebuilding of the cathedral, 1201-1387 (Ms 25124/1-76 & extra item). All but the extra unnumbered item are listed by W Sparrow Simpson, Camden Society, new series, vol.26 (1880), pp.175-7. Eight of the items are edited by Sparrow Simpson in the above volume, pp.1-8; three others are edited by HH Milman, Annals (1869), pp.519-21.
For further indulgences, see: Guildhall Library Ms 25122/1140 (section DCPLH), indulgence granted by the Bishop of London, ca. 1123-7; and copies in the medieval episcopal registers of London Diocese (Ms 9531). Other indulgences towards the repair of the cathedral exist in the episcopal registers of other dioceses: see David Smith, Guide to Bishops' Registers of England and Wales (1981), which includes details of those registers calendared by the Canterbury and York Society.
Records of metropolitan visitations of the cathedral:
St Paul's claimed exemption from metropolitan visitations, most famously in 1249/50 when Archbishop Boniface was denied access: see VCH (1909), p.420, and Camden Miscellany, vol.9 (1895), pp.v-viii. However after a protracted struggle a papal mandate allowed the principle of metropolitan visitation of the cathedral. A subsequent visitation by Archbishop Winchelsey is recorded in Registrum Roberti Winchelsey Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi A.D. 1294-1313, edited by Rose Graham (Canterbury and York Society, vols.51-52, 1952-6).
A sede vacante visitation of the cathedral in 1594 by Archbishop Whitgift is recorded in his archiepiscopal register, held at Lambeth Palace Library (‘Whitgift’, register 2, ff.246-66).
For details of Archbishop Laud’s visitation of the cathedral in 1636, extracted from records at the House of Lords Record Office, see HMC Fourth Report, part 1 (1874), pp.154-7. See also Laud’s archiepiscopal register, held at Lambeth Palace Library. For the petition from the Dean and Chapter to the Crown concerning the visitation, and the reply, see Dugdale (1818 edn), p.415. After the Restoration metropolitan visitations almost entirely ceased.
Records of episcopal visitations of the cathedral:
Episcopal visitation of the cathedral seems to have gone unchallenged. However in 1289 the cathedral's prebends were declared free of episcopal and archidiaconal jurisdiction: see W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, p.89.
Account of episcopal visitation business, 1438 (section DCPB) (in Ms 25520)
[edited by W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.169-71]
Episcopal visitation books, 1561, 1574, 1598, 1607, 1696-7& 1724 (i.e. records of London Diocese) (Ms 9537/2-3, 9-10, 26 & 30)
Copies of presentments at the episcopal visitation of 1598, by minor canons, virgers etc, making various allegations (Ms 25175)
[edited by Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.272-80]
Bishop’s register, recording 1696 visitation (i.e. record of London Diocese) (Ms 9531/16)
Transcripts of injunctions issued at episcopal visitations, 1696 & 1724-5 (Ms 25663/1-2)
[edited by Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.281-316. See also an original injunction of 1724, Ms 25121/3014, section DCPLH]
1) The College of Minor Canons. The Minor or Petty Canons were established as a distinct body within St Paul’s Cathedral from an early date, and attended all cathedral services. The sub-dean of the cathedral was traditionally appointed from the Minor Canons. In 1366 the Minor Canons were left a common hall in the cathedral close, and in 1394 became a corporate body by royal charter (see below). See W Sparrow Simpson, ‘The Charter and Statutes of the College of the Minor Canons in St Paul’s Cathedral’, Archaeologia, vol.43 (1871), pp.165-200; and Sparrow Simpson, ‘Statutes of the College of the Minor Canons in St Paul’s Cathedral’, LAMAS Transactions, vol.4 (1875), pp.231-52.
The main records of the Minor Canons were deposited separately with the Manuscripts Section in 1993 and after (although a number of items had been transferred with those of the Dean and Chapter in 1980 or earlier still). The records include: royal charters of 1394, 1414, 1468, 1511 and 1566 (Ms 29410 & 29412-5); ratification of the new constitution by the Bishop of London, 1395 (Ms 29416); statute book, 1397-1521 (Ms 29418); minute books of college meetings, 1760-1981 (Ms 29420/1-5); account books, 1722-1958 (Ms 29425/1-3); memorandum book concerning estates and revenues, 1649-1770 (Ms 29432); and lease registers, 1722-1873 (Ms 29433/1-2, incomplete).
Further reading: ARB Fuller, The Minor Corporations of the Secular Cathedrals ... with Special Reference to the Minor Canons of St Paul’s Cathedral (University of London, MA dissertation, 1947). A microfilm copy is held by the Printed Books Section of Guildhall Library.
2) St Paul’s Cathedral Choir School. The archives of the Choir School, which date only from the 19th century, were also deposited separately with the Manuscripts Section, in 1994 and after. A brief history of the school, first mentioned in 1127, is given in the catalogue of its archive (Guildhall Library Mss 29518-45, 29746). The school, formerly in Carter Lane, is now in New Change.
A list of known choristers, early18th century to 1873, compiled by KI Garrett, can be found in Guildhall Studies in London History, vol.1, no.2 (1974), pp.82-93. Payments to choristers (with surnames of recipients), 1873-6, may be found in Ms 25725/1, and, 1876-81, in Ms 25725/2. There is also a register of applicants to the school (giving the names of those who were successful), 1879-1938 (Ms 29518). A printed register of the choir school, 1873-1964, is held by the Printed Books Section of Guildhall Library.
The medieval choir school, run by the almoner, was distinct from the grammar school, run by the chancellor (and later re-founded by Dean Colet in 1510). See AF Leach, ‘St Paul’s School before Colet’, Archaeologia, vol.62 (1910), pp.191-238. This school was originally near the cathedral, but was destroyed in the Great Fire. It was rebuilt in 1670 and 1822, moving in 1884 to Hammersmith and in 1968 to Barnes. Until 1876 the school was run by the Mercers’ Company, who continue to hold administrative records of it.See AH Mead, A Miraculous Draught of Fishes: A History of St Paul's School (1990); Sir M McDonnell, The Annals of St Paul's School (1959), and Registers of St Paul's School 1509-1748 (1977); and RB Gardiner, Admission Registers of St Paul's School, from 1748-1876 (1884), and 1876-1905 (1906).
3) The Fraternity (or Brotherhood) of Jesus in the Crowds, which met in the cathedral crypt (popularly called ‘Shrouds’ or ‘Crowdes’), was incorporated in 1457/8. A volume of letters patent, ordinances, charters, deeds etc, 1459-ca. 1536, is now Bodleian Ms Tanner 221. For extracts, see W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum, pp.435-62 & 483-4. For a history of the fraternity, see Elizabeth Ann New, The Cult of the Holy Name of Jesus in Late Medieval England, with Special Reference to the Fraternity in St Paul’s Cathedral, London, c. 1450-1558 (University of London, PhD dissertation, 1999). A copy is held by the Printed Books Section of Guildhall Library.
4) Chronicles. The Annales Paulini (Lambeth Palace Library, Ms 1106) have been edited for the years 1307-41 by WS Stubbs as Chronicles of the Reign of Edward I and Edward II, Vol.1 (Rolls Series, vol.76, 1882), pp.255-370. Lambeth Palace Library Ms 590 (with extracts from LPL Ms 1106) is edited in W Sparrow Simpson, ‘A Short Chronicle of St Paul’s Cathedral from A.D. 1140 to 1341’, LAMAS Transactions, 1st series, vol.5 (1881), pp.311-26, and in Sparrow Simpson, ‘Documents Illustrating the History of St Paul’s Cathedral’, Camden Society, new series, vol.26 (1880), pp.41-60 & 222-8. This last reference also includes extracts from the ‘Chronicle of St Paul's London to 1399’ (British Library, Add Ms 22142).
Further details of these and other chronicles are given in A Gransden, Historical Writing in England, vols.1-2 (1974, 1982).
This only lists works of general relevance, or which are cited frequently above. Works of specific relevance are cited at the appropriate point in the text.
F Atkinson, St Paul's Cathedral, London: The Library of the Dean and Chapter (1990).
Peter WM Blayney, The Bookshops in Paul’s Cross Churchyard, London (The Bibliographical Society, Occasional paper no.5, 1990).
P Burman, St Paul’s Cathedral (New Bell’s Cathedral Guides, 1987).
GH Cook, Old St Paul’s Cathedral (1955).
GRC Davis, Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain (1958), no.598.
W Dugdale, A History of St Paul’s Cathedral, (3rd edn, 1818, with additions by H Ellis).
Marion Gibbs, ‘Early Charters of the Cathedral Church of St Paul, London’, Camden Society, 3rd series, vol.58 (1939).
D Keene and V Harding, Survey of Documentary Sources for Property Holding in London before the Great Fire (London Record Society, vol.22, 1985).
D Keene, Arthur Burns and Arthur Saint, St Paul’s, the Cathedral Church of London, 604-2004 (Yale University, 2004)
NR Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, Vol.1: London (1969)
WR Matthews and WM Atkins eds, A History of St Paul’s Cathedral (1957).
H Maxwell Lyte – see Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts
HH Milman, Annals of St Paul’s Cathedral (2nd edn, 1869).
Nikolaus Pevsner and Simon Bradley, The Buildings of England Series: London 1, The City of London (revised edition, 1997), pp.155-183.
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (HMC), Ninth Report, Part 1 (1883). The Appendix to this report includes a list of the cathedral archives by H Maxwell Lyte.
Ann Saunders, St Paul’s: The Story of the Cathedral (2001).
W Sparrow Simpson, Chapters in the History of Old St Paul’s (1881).
W Sparrow Simpson, Gleanings from Old St Paul’s (1889).
W Sparrow Simpson, Registrum Statutorum et Consuetudinum Ecclesiae Cathedralis Sancti Pauli Londinensis (1873).
W Sparrow Simpson, St Paul's Cathedral Library: A Catalogue [of ] ... Works Relating to London and Especially to St Paul's Cathedral, Including … Paul's Cross Sermons; Maps, Plans, and Views of London, and of St Paul's Cathedral (1893).
W Sparrow Simpson, St Paul’s Cathedral and Old City Life (1894).
Victoria County History (VCH), London Vol.1 (1909).
Geoffrey Yeo, ‘Record-keeping at St Paul’s Cathedral’, Journal of the Society of Archivists, vol.8, no.1 (April 1986), pp.30-44.
Last updated June 2007
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