Princes et principautÃ©s russes, Xe-XVIIe siÃ¨cles
It was only in 1547 that the ruler of Moscow, Ivan the Terrible, was formally proclaimed tsar, emperor, yet in reality the title had long been in use. Professor Vodoff’s concern in these articles has been to uncover the significance of such usages, as part of the political vocabulary of medieval Russia, and to reveal the ideolgy behind them. The period covered extends from Kievan times, when the titulature reflects the close relationship - and rivalry - with the Byzantine empire, but the main focus is on the later period, when the different princes competed for the heritage of the Kievan state and the notion of ‘Russia’ itself became part of the political conflict. This struggle was won by the rulers of Moscow, though only in the face of determined opposition from the neighbouring principality of ‘Tver’, and its history effectively suppressed or neglected in suceeding centuries, is a major theme in this volume.