This biography of Aurangzeb, the Mughal emperor, was written by Mountstuart Elphinstone, one of the British pioneers of Indian historiography and first published in 1841. Many factual errors in the original text were corrected in this updated edition by Sri Ram Sharma published in 1929. Authorities loosely quoted by Elphinstone have, in most cases, been exactly cited, new authorities to support or contradict statements in the text have been noted, points have been further developed, and three additional chapters have been added covering Aurangzebs character, his relations with the Sikhs, his responsibility for the downfall of the Mughal Empire and Shivajis system of government and place in history. This work is of particular value to students, teachers and academics and would also appeal to the general reader. A full chronology increases the usefulness of this edition.