2010: KADOC Archive visit, 2 September 2010
On 2nd September 2010 the History of Women Religious in Britain and Ireland conference delegates attended an informative introductory talk in which Kristien Suenens acquainted us with KADOC and the DiBIKAV project. This was followed by a visit to KADOC II, the repository, where Godfried Kwanten gave us a tour after which we were given the opportunity to view some captivating archival material from the archives of the religious institutions held there. KADOC is a successful example of centralisation of archives and provides a fascinating if unique case study for other countries, which are faced with similar challenges regarding how best to ensure preservation of the religious heritage. A summary of KADOC and its work is given below.
KADOC –a documentation and research centre for Religion, Culture and Society is an interfaculty centre belonging to the Humanities and Social Science Group of the KU Leuven (the Catholic University Leuven). KADOC came about in 1976 due to a concern that the archives were at risk due given the diminishing number of religious vocations and an aging population in religious orders. The foundation of KADOC was supported by the Flemish government, Flemish Catholic hierarchy and by Catholic groups in Flanders. Official recognition as a cultural heritage centre was granted in 1985, which ensured ongoing financial support -KADOC is funded c. 80% by the Flemish government. It has a budget of €2-3 million and employs over 50 people.
The centre is situated in a former Franciscan monastery in the centre of Leuven. It has a reading room, exhibition space and library of wide ranging publications. It holds the Catholic records of Flanders: the collection includes the archives of religious orders, Christian groups and organisations. The centre stores the publications and audio visual material in its onsite repository, which has 15 linear km of storage space. These records are stored in archival enclosures (boxes and folders) on rolling shelving. The audiovisual materials are stored in a separate room.
The reading room is situated in the former monastery’s dining room. There are c. 72,000 visitors to the KADOC each year. Records have to be booked in advance so that they can be retrieved and transferred from KADOC II (an offsite storage facility, see below) for consultation. Access is made in compliance with international standards and best practise. KADOC is increasingly making access available electronically.
Ownership of the archives remains with the religious institute and KADOC conforms to international access restrictions. However, a basic condition of transferral to KADOC is that at some point the collection needs to be open for research. There is a good relation between KADOC and institutions, which is visible in the fact that a second repository was necessary and in the extensive library collection as the institutions have donated their convent library once they no longer require these.
Part of the success of KADOC can be accredited to the Catholic University background as this helped to establish confidence in the centre. The centre has gained a good reputation and built up trust and credibility in its service. Centralisation of Catholic institutional archives has preserved these records for the future and provided a cheaper solution. Centralisation also supports the archives by allowing for specialisation and collaboration. The fact that the private and public sector are working together is typical of Belgium. This makes it a unique system worthy of study in considering a centralised archive for Catholic records elsewhere even if it cannot be reproduced.
KADOC is focused specifically on the interchange between religion, culture and society as it evolved from the second half of the 18th century. The three central missions are:
- Conservation of heritage
They actively collect, preserve, maintain and make available diverse material in a variety of formats. This is done in a professional way with future generations in mind and conforming to archival standards and record keeping rules and regulations. KADOC provides guidance and practical conservation assistance in situ to those orders who still wish to maintain their own archive, in preparation for a future transfer of the collection to KADOC.
Scholarly and scientific examination of the heritage it explores is encouraged. They not only stimulate external research, but carry out their own research. Most of the research projects have been ordered by the institutions, whilst some are academically requested. Their research policy is to:
- Set up multidisciplinary research groups
- Support and prepare publications and exhibitions on specific topics
- Organise scholarly colloquia, seminars, workshops and symposia
- Issue scholarly publications-including KADOC Studies and KADOC Artes
- Participate in international research groups, projects and meetings
- Produce their findings in various publications
- Provide assistance to researchers and expert assistance to other institutions.
- Public service
KADOC aims to increase greater public awareness and appreciation of heritage concerns by:
- Responding to requests from institutions and individuals
- Supporting and publishing popular publications
- Putting on exhibitions and other events aimed at general public
- Offering training, advice and support
- Creating and supporting networks related to heritage conservation and research
- Participating in bi-monthly network meetings with state archives and others to discuss issues in the archiving world.
Due to closures of convents there was a growth in records being transferred to KADOC and therefore a second depot was needed. In 2005 KADOC II was opened in Heverlee, a short drive from KADOC. KADOC II provides off site storage for 30 linear km, of which currently 2/3 has already been filled. The documents are stored in archival boxes on rolling shelving. The temperature and relative humidity are monitored. The building is anti-theft and fire proof.
When documents are delivered they are stored in a delivery room, which is a large warehouse type room with boxes stacked up high on palates on shelves. There are several offices in which the documents can be appraised and catalogued before being repackaged into the correct archival boxes. These boxes are then moved on a palate using fork lifts to the correct upper storey store room and put on the shelf. The repositories have a wide enough central corridor to allow two fork lifts to pass each other.
At present the archives of 42 different female institutions are stored, which equals c. 400 linear meters of storage.
LIAS-Leuven Integral Archive System (KADOC III) was created with the assistance of KU Leuven’s ITC department for the management of digital records. KADOC III is a digital repository which has been constructed with the assistance of the Leuven’s University ITC department to provide secure storage of modern digital media and electronic records. Those wishing to transfer their digital records to this repository have to pay to do so to meet the cost.
DiBIAV is a digital inventory of religious archives in Flanders, a project that was started in 2004/5. The project is supported by the Flemish government, dioceses, convents and KADOC. Its concern was that religious archives represent an unknown field and with the threat represented by the current situations in convents. It therefore aims to provide information for future preservation.
The goals can be summarised as registration in the digital database and providing a systematic search for archives of private churches and religious institutes. The priority is with in situ archives, which are mostly congregational archives rather than individual. The search provides basic data about i) the content of the archives and the consultation procedure and ii) the congregation and its history.
In 2005 a survey of c. 320 autonomous in situ religious institute archives was carried out with follow ups in 2006, 2007 and 2010. Some archives were also visited to establish contact. An immediate transferral is not required. With permission (c. 1/2 agreed) systematic registration was made available in 2 databases, which is freely accessible in Dutch. KADOC are currently working on an English version. Temporary result of the projects is that c. 250 archives were registered in 2005-10, which equals 70%. Contact has been established and advice given. The analysis of first results and future perspectives and recommendations for both convents and government was published in Ad fontes by K Suenens in 2008. This publication is available only in Dutch.
For the preservation of Catholic cultural heritage material such as embroidery a sister institution- the Centrum voor Religieuze Kunst en Cultuur vzw (CRKC)-was set up in Heverlee in 1997. It was founded by five dioceses of Flanders in conjunction with KU Leuven. The objective is to safe the cultural and artistic religious heritage. It is hoped to open a museum as part of the re-organisation project of van Park Abbey, a building dating to the 12th century and in which CRKC is situated.