%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916171742+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916171742+01'00') /Title (The Prospect Before Her: a History of Women in Western Europe Volume One 1500 - 1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2536 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Prospect Before Her: a History of Women in Western Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Volume One 1500 - 1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title was inspired by the birth, during the writing of this volume, of a child named after the author. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second volume will bring the survey to the present and to some glimpses of that young woman's prospects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prospect presented here is that of the sleepy young knitter of the 18th century pictured on the cover and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of generations before her.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 June, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olwen Hufton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978067945030X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(638pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harper Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.harpercollins.co.uk/Pages/Home.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Thane)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the stranger characteristics of the historical profession is the still widespread conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthetic survey is an inferior form of output to the monograph. Constructing a narrative and an analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a body of primary sources is entrancing, but not difficult for a trained historian. Constructing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative and an interpretation out of a large, conflicting, uneven body of monographs - striving to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justly with all one reads, always conscious that something important may be overlooked and of the need, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always evident to writers of monographs, to be accessible to inexpert readers, yet also helpful and interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the expert - is very difficult. Monographs provide the basic building blocks of history, but someone has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate them to the large historical questions - design and build the building. Syntheses, like monographs, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sloppily executed; when, like this one, they are superbly done, they are wholly invaluable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olwen Hufton starts by describing the massive expansion of women's history since the late 1960s. Not long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, Keith Thomas, characteristically, had been rash enough to offer a series of lectures on 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to Oxford undergraduates. Equally characteristically, 'His colleagues found the subject bizarre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the students simply did not turn up'. Hufton approves of this expansion but not of all its features. Especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early modern period women's history has been dominated by cultural history, influenced to varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees by Foucault, anthropologists such as Geertz or sociologists such as Elias, concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('mentalites', beliefs, attitudes, representations of gender roles, often on a micro-level. This, as in the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natalie Zemon Davis, can be exciting and illuminating, but a strong theme of Hufton's book is that it leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lot out:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, it has proved difficult to transfer this approach to a broader canvas without straying into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realm of conjecture; for many social historians the attempt has carried the risk of over-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation, the erection of the theoretical or 'generic' woman and man, versions of womanhood )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and manhood, at the expense of what was, as far as one can discern, the experience of real )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. Secondly, in some cases the search for gender attitudes, and the belief that individuals )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were made not born, have tended to discount biological differences between women and men )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to insist on gender as a cultural construct alone. The English and American women's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements have since the beginning of the century seen biological arguments as a way of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denying women equality of opportunity. In the twentieth century these arguments have much to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommend them, but they remain problematic. In the early modern period, biology has to count )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for something. No one, for example, could plough a five-inch furrow in a condition of advanced )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or even early pregnancy. Thirdly, in attempting to understand the significance of rituals and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural rules, insufficient attention has been given to the material condition of the lives of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast majority of people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is to throw down the gauntlet to currently influential approaches: to accept such categories as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('experience' and 'real people'and the capacity of the historian to discern them in the past. It is to assert, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without redundant polemic, that historians engage less naively with their sources than is sometimes thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the role of the historian in seeking to reconstruct a sense of the past from a range of sources is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from that of the literary scholar engaging with a text, and not to be judged by the same 'theoretical' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout, the volume engages refreshingly, with big issues and Big Historians and other scholars who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have generalised about history. She is never nasty, but she has an impressive line in sharp asides reserved for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what she perceives as sloppy scholarship e.g. 'At the very bottom of the social scale in Britain there existed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice ... about which claims have been made on very sparse evidence - that of wife sale'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One big issue is that of continuity or change. She comments that most writing on women's history in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon tradition since the 1960s has focused on change, and for the worse: 'It is a saga of discontinuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or of descent from a paradise'. It is a paradise of gender equality which medievalists have failed to detect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hufton comments that it is an illusion driven by awareness of women's predicament in the twentieth century. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the reality of continuing inequality in the present need in no way imply that things were once better. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They may indeed, as the book implies, have been even worse, or, very often, bad in different ways. To an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of the twentieth century, such as myself, one of the great virtues of this book is that it dispels many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the myths about the pre-industrial past which linger in the writings of those who come to modern women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history with no knowledge of a longer past. It should be compulsory reading for all who write on modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hufton is dealing with Braudel's period, from the 16th to the 18th centuries, valuing his work but critical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his picture of an 'almost motionless Europe', in which rural life is immobile, peasant experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality missing from his account, whilst activity is concentrated in urban islands mobilised by trade. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she insists most people in Europe throughout her period were peasants and their lives were not static.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Running through the volume is a parallel vein of criticism of another influential interpretation, that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norbert Elias. She is sceptical that the origins of the "civilising process" can be traced to the court at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Versailles or that it flowed so smoothly as he suggests, especially into the lives of women e.g. those of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes abused by drunken husbands in the nineteenth, or the twentieth century. One of the strengths of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is the use of women's history to engage with influential interpretations, demonstrating that it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change how we see the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more important theme is Hufton's concern \(in my view wholly justified\) that historians have too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confused the content of prescriptive writing with representation of reality. As others, such as Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have pointed out, it may be the opposite: prescription may be at its most insistent when it supposed norms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are being challenged. This is so of much writing about 'separate spheres' in the 19th century, and about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the stable family in the late t20th. This is not, of course, to say that such writing has no value, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that it must be read with care and tested against other sources, as Hufton does throughout. The book 'is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the interaction between beliefs about what was appropriate to men and women and what occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices of everyday life'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is concerned with western Europe over the three centuries. Most material is drawn from Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. They after all contained one-third of all women in the region throughout this period; and more has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been written about them than about women in other countries, especially those of eastern Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unavoidably the book is shaped by what remains an uneven historiography .Other countries are woven into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story whenever possible. Germany figures most strongly in discussion of witchcraft \(reasonably enough, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost a third of all known witch prosecutions occurred there\) and deviant aspects of marriage. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands features most in its seventeenth century golden age. Hufton argues that her geographical span is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified because there was much in common, as well as much variety, in the experiences of women within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, so far as they are known. Without disputing this, I wish she had discussed further the implications of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences which emerge throughout the book between north-western Europe and the Mediterranean south. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the latter codes of honour kept women's lives more constrained within the home, family structures were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger and more dominant. How much did this matter ? The historiography of women is not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically uneven. Witches and nuns have always excited historians more than 'spinsters' and Hufton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot go beyond the work she and other historians have done. The result is excellent chapters on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships of women with the devil and with god. But difficult as it is to find work on unmarried women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is surely enough to justify more than four pages and other occasional references devoted to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous group? Even cross-dressers merit two and a half and, intriguing though they are, they weren't so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what Hufton does write about is more important than what she doesn't. From the start we can never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forget the material reality, especially of the poor, of the worlds she describes: where ease was described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having enough bread for the household's survival, clothing was second, third or fourth hand and shoes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive luxury \(as was still the case in poor urban and rural areas in early twentieth century Europe\); ill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health, early death and deformity were normal - 'a man or women who was not pock-marked, suffering from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vitamin deficiency diseases, congenital defects or industrial malformations counted as handsome'. Fear was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all-pervasive: of harvest failure, pestilence striking animals or humans, and much more. For most people )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these fears diminished though for many they did not disappear over these three centuries. One thing that did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not change was the rarity with which people washed. The difficulties of doing so for many are obvious, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it still comes as a surprise to learn that Louis XIII did not have his legs washed \('with tepid water'\) until he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was five, in 1606, and did not have his first bath until two years later. Bathing was more common by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later 17th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one examines how women were represented in visual, literary, dramatic, didactic, medical, legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other sources, beginning at the beginning. Popular depictions of Eve, in collusion with a snake with the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a seductive woman, as responsible for the Fall of Man from the state of perfection, women responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the plight of helpless Man, appropriately open an ironic and elegant survey of a discourse largely constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by men. Yet alongside models of passive womanhood conveyed in much solemn writing and enshrined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal codes were the attractions of the Wife of Bath and her analogues in Dutch visual imagery. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare runs a genre of images of clever women, such as Portia, outwitting men, the complex images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveyed by those writers whose popularity has survived, suggests that they may have spoken to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex consciousnesses of successive generations. An ideal was always set before women, but it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal, and we cannot judge the variety of ways in which they received it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important component of the ideal was marriage and motherhood as woman's destiny. For this younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women prepared. Trained in the home if they were better off, or through work if they were not; work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household in southern Europe, in the north in paid work, often domestic service which also enabled them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(save for marriage which customarily occurred in the mid-twenties \(but much earlier in the south, at least in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early part of the period\). Hufton well describes the complex world of women's paid and unpaid work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the clear and early established gender division of labour in both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She conveys the variety of reasons to marry - financial security, dynastic arrangement, need for care in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sickness and much else but finance over-rode all. And the variety of relationships within it. The 'economy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedients' in which the poor perpetually struggled might necessitate flexibility. Hufton gives an example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a family in late eighteenth century rural Wales, following terrible harvest. The wife told her husband:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I'll make a bargain with thee: I'll see to food for us and both the children all winter if thou, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to looking after the horse, the cattle and pigs, wilt do the churning, wash up, make the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beds and clean the house.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He did, she knitted wool and they survived. The vivid, well-chosen example is an important and effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component of Hufton's technique.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few married women could be idle, save, if they chose, at the highest social levels. If they could afford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants for housework, running the household was to participate in running the business enterprise of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artisan or farmer. If they could not, domestic work was heavy and time consuming:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the eighteenth century a working class woman in cities and towns would spend up )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to two hours a day queuing for water and carrying the pails home...Mediterranean women )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waged a continuous battle against bedbugs and insects were everywhere..simple meals could )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand abundant ingenuity and even keeping the fire fuelled was another time-consuming task.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For poor women this did not change until well into the twentieth century. Modern studies which seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that women spend as much time on housework as they ever did take too little account of how its nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has changed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the nature of things not all marriages were even tolerable, but lived out 'in an unremitting hell' from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relatively high probability of widowhood was a relief. The near impossibility of obtaining divorce - )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6967 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforced by men who had never been abused or suffered an unwanted pregnancy - is vividly surveyed. So is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legal treatment, and glimpses of popular perception of rape, prostitution and extra-marital sex in the 'guilt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture' which officially pervaded early modern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on witchcraft cuts with characteristic sharpness and clarity through the clichs about witch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution as a sexual power struggle in which powerful women were crushed by men, drawing a no less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic but more complex picture in which the shifting obsessions of the Church inter-related with local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personal conflicts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For me however the most powerful and original chapter concerns the relationship of women with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches - though as a modern historian there may be things that I have missed. Without question religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framed the lives of everyone. The churches worked hard to regulate gender roles as they sought to regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything and did so in such a way as to ensure the subordination of women. At this general level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants and Catholics differed little. Yet Catholic convents offered women an alternative to marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childbirth and the opportunity to develop scholarly and artistic skills. Women formed orders, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ursulines which enabled them to work out in the world as teachers and social workers. When the Ursulines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were confined in convents from 1612, another order the Sisters of Charity soon emerged to take on their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and grew rapidly. Through the Roman Catholic church large numbers of women initiated and participated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a highly professional way in a range of essential charitable initiatives, with which married women, who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not members of religious orders might be associated. In France from the late 17th century single women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were trained by the Church as beates, to live alone in villages as ancillaries to the priest providing social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and religious instruction apparently successfully. Hufton points out that by the Revolution about one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(120 Frenchwomen was committed to a life demanding celibacy and charity and involving a clear social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose. Florence Nightingale commented that if Britain had admitted the Sisters of Charity her own efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been unnecessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the limitations the Catholic Church provided women with roles which women 'seeking to maintain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dignified single state' in Protestant Europe might well have envied. Protestantism rejected convents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celibacy. It offered some women other opportunities in particular encouragement of literacy and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression often through writing. The Dutch Calvinist church admitted women as deaconesses and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630 they could preach. Some English sects encouraged assertions of female equality \(early evident among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Levellers\). The Quakers in particular encouraged philanthropic work. So even the Churches played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ambiguous and more positive role than might be expected in the complex changes that affected women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in early modern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hufton also discusses women as writers and as rioters, always making us hold on the our sense of proportion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when other historians are losing theirs: pointing out for example that although it is very easy to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entranced by the pervasiveness of 'riot' when that is what you study, the vast majority of Europeans lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lives without encountering one. She concludes by tracing the involvement of women in the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution: initially supportive and hopeful, in the end resistant to the failures of the Republic for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to destroy the certainties of their lives whilst replacing them with nothing. For this 'women' were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blamed for undermining the Revolution, as male Republicans displaced from themselves blame for the mess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had made of the republic. Once again, remarks Hufton, Man blamed Eve for shutting him out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earthly paradise. There is a parallel in the habit of left politicians, historians and sociologists in twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century France and Britain of blaming female conservatism for electoral failures, which more often than not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the result of the blunders of politicians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having started out with criticism of sweeping narratives of progress or decline, Hufton is, in the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly cautious. It is too complicated a story to be encased in simple interpretative boxes, and too much is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not yet known. But the volume certainly does not fall apart into random anecdotalism but greatly enriches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of gender relations over time. The bibliography will need tidying up in the next edition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the chapter called 'Parenthood' in the reference section appears, more accurately, as 'Motherhood' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text .But these are minor problems. Above all, it is very enjoyable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 650 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 310.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/106)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 310.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000683 00000 n 0000003271 00000 n 0000003380 00000 n 0000003490 00000 n 0000003599 00000 n 0000007160 00000 n 0000007288 00000 n 0000007372 00000 n 0000007437 00000 n 0000014090 00000 n 0000014155 00000 n 0000021325 00000 n 0000021390 00000 n 0000027353 00000 n 0000027418 00000 n 0000034438 00000 n 0000034522 00000 n 0000035224 00000 n 0000035352 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35445 %%EOF