%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141125032522+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141125032522+00'00') /Title (The Ancien Regime: A History of France, 1610-1774) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3999 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Ancien Regime: A History of France, 1610-1774)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is an English translation by Mark Greengrass of a work first published in French in 1991 and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the companion volume to the author's earlier The Royal French State 1460-1610 \(original French edn. 1987\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Together the two books comprise the second and third volumes of Blackwell's five volume History of France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which covers the period 987 to 1992.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Royal French State was an innovative and provocative account of French history from the accession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis XI to the assassination of Henri IV. Above all, it was notable for introducing historians of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe to the concept of t he 'long seventeenth century'. For thirty years, thanks to the influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braudel's Mediterranean and Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II \(original French edn. 1949\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians had been accustomed to see the sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth centuries as a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steady demographic and economic growth followed in turn by a century of stagnation before growth was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resumed again in the mid-eighteenth century. Indeed, this was a view that Le Roy Ladurie had helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidat e himself in his pioneering account of The Peasants of Languedoc \(original French edn. 1966\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Royal French State offered a significant refinement of the traditional model. Far from there being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthy period of growth beginning in the late fifteenth century and petering out between 1590 and 1660 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631211969)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(608pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0631211969.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurence Brockliss)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different parts of Europe, the so-called 'long sixteenth century', the demographic and economic upsurge, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France at least, was limited to the century 1450 to 1550, and the era of stagnatio n was extended from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to two. If the early part of the seventeenth century witnessed renewed growth in France, then this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the negative economic consequences of the Wars of Religion. It was a case of recuperation, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine growth at a ll.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume under review contains no such surprises for the reader. Eschewing controversy, Le Roy Ladurie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is content to present a detailed, balanced and engaging account of the political and administrative history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancien-Regime France, based on recen t French and Anglo-American research. Essentially, the book is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old-fashioned narrative history, built around the lives and activities of the Bourbon kings and their leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers. Although economic, social and cultural history is continually introd uced into the narrative, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are never allowed to disturb a 'top-down' approach which gives as much weight to foreign policy as state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building. The long seventeenth century hardly makes any appearance at all. Indeed, the image retained is of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow, albeit unbalanced economic growth, throughout the supposedly stagnant era prior to the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Even the notoriously bad years in the latter part of the reign of Louis XIV are evaluated in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive light: if agriculture in the 1690s and 1700s was depressed, the Nimes textile industry and the Levant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade were booming. This, then, is a very unAnnaliste work by a founding-father of the School, who many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago began to distance himself from its economically deterministic approach in Montail lou and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now even abandoned its structuralist imperative, refashioning himself as a historian whose loyalties would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to lie with the Academie as much as the Colleqe de France. The work is an obvious riposte to the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important A nnaliste account of Bourbon France, Pierre Goubert's and Daniel Roche's hitherto untranslated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-volume Les Francais et l'Ancien Regime \(1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Le Roy Ladurie's transmutation into a historian a la Lavisse is evident above all by The Ancien Regime's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generosity of tone. This is not just a 'top-down' account of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century France but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that repeatedly go es out of its way to present the kings and their ministers in the best possible light. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu, Mazarin and Colbert may all have had their fingers very deeply in the till, but they were still the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoters of internal peace and prosperity: raison d'e tat, centralization and absolutism were means to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good end. Similarly, Louis XIV may have loved war too much, but he was no Napoleon, out to dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. His foreign-policy ambitions, like those of Richelieu and Mazarin, were always limited; the aim was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to strengthen the eastern frontier to prevent a second Year of Corbie, not annex large swathes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire. Even the Regent Orleans and Louis XV are rescued from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detractors. Both may have led scandalous priva te lives but they wanted to keep France at peace with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European powers and could see the need to balance the books and reconnect state and people after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension of the latter part of Louis XlV's reign. If Louis XV ended up execrated by the time he died, he was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim of his own good intentions and nascent public opinion. Suitably repentant of his sexual misdeeds he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to attend confession and take communion; in consequence, he could not touch for the king's evil and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to 'desacralize' the French monarchy. Wisely refusing to capitalize on his possession of the Austrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands at the end of the War of Austrian Succession, he was accused of being unpatriotic by a jingoistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public eager for French expansion. Had the king only had affairs with aristocratic women, the fickle French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have taken him to their hearts! Only the short-lived ministry of the duc de Bourbon, sandwiched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the eras of Cardinals Dubois and Fleury, is not in so me way rescued from the criticisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries or historians \(Saint-Simon is particularly taken to task for his poisonous pen-portraits\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is definitely a 'warts-and-all' history. Le Roy Ladurie keeps nothing back that might be used by the prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cution: Richelieu was venal, overbearing and ruthless. All the kings and their ministers, however, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(batting for France, gradually forging the hexagon, an almost mystical entity whose formation seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preordained. In The Ancien Regime even unsuccessful and costly wars have a silver lining. The War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Succession put a Bourbon on the Spanish throne and secured the western frontier; the Seven Years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War resulted in the retention of the sugar islands, an essential motor of eighteenth-ce ntury economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth; while the War of American Independence brought naval victories \(Admiral Rodney's activities go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmentioned!\) and liberated the Americans, albeit at the cost of bankruptcy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ancien Regime , then, bends over backwards to be fair to those who shaped the nation's destiny. Its )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7758 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author is a historian of the juste milieu . However, Le Roy Ladurie has not sold his soul entirely to the devils )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Richelieu's Aca demie . Seventeenth and eighteenth-century France may not have been the depressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place portrayed by Goubert in Beauvais et le Beauvaisis \(1960\), where most peasants had less than 10 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hectares of land and continually struggled to survive, but nor was it the best of all possible worlds, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every villager had his daily chicken in the pot. Beneath the urbane tone of a historian of the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can still be heard the radical voice of a man of the left and a man of the south too, a member in his early days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French Communist party. According to Le Roy Ladurie in a novel and interesting attempt to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political longue duree of the Ancien Regime, French political history over the three centuries 1460-1774 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides into al ternating periods of 'openness' and 'closure'. In periods of openness - the reigns of Charles VII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Louis XII, the first part of the reign of Francis I, the reigns of Henri III and Henri IV, the Orleans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regency, the eras of Fleury and Choiseul - the cro wn and its ministers ruled with the co-operation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consent, direct or indirect, of the French elite, tended to eschew war, and after the Reformation tolerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious dissent and allied in the main with the Protestant powers. In periods of closure - t he reign of Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XI, the eras of Richelieu, Mazarin and Louis XIV, and the middle and final years of the reign of Louis XV, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by D'Argenson, Maupeou and Terray - the crown was authoritarian, intolerant, tightened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal screw, and from 1661 p referred Catholic to Protestant allies. The descriptive vocabulary itself reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which of the two Le Roy Ladurie prefers. Although he goes out of his way throughout The Ancien Regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be fair to the absolutists and warmongers, there can be no do ubt from the text that his allegiance lies with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quasi-liberals and pluralists \(if one can use such terms\) who offered an alternative, more Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of France's future. In this respect he echoes the sentiments of another establishment insider , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academician Fumaroli, who has recently argued that the mid-seventeenth century guardian of this alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition was Fouquet, removed from office by Louis XIV for ideological and cultural rather than simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal reasons. Yet Le Roy Ladurie neve r lets the heart dominate the head. In the eighteenth century, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers, peace with the leading Protestant power, constitutional and liberal Britain, was not really feasible: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the struggle had begun for world dominion and France and Britain were what t he British ambassador to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris, Lord Stair, in 1717 described as 'necessary enemies'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Le Roy Ladurie's account ostensibly ends in 1774, the point of departure for the next volume in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell series by Francois Furet. Usefully for the reader, however, The Ancien Regime ends with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthy conclusion that discusses the reign o f Louis XVI and the coming of the Revolution. Here deploying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more analytic framework, the author is able to stand back from the morass of high political fact and offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his considered judgement on the collapse of the absolute state in 1789. The catalyst for the fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute monarchy was the war with Britain of 1778-83. Although support for the liberal Americans against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasingly authoritarian Britain is deemed to have been the 'open' thing to have done, involvement cost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French crown 1.5 million livres , mostly borrowed, and completely undid the success of Terray's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial reforms of 1771-4. The long-term causes of the French Revolution, in contrast, are judged to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been straightforwardly Tocquevillian, although Le Roy Laduri e is less than candid in acknowledging this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact. The causes are seen to lie in the erosion of corporatism, the steady growth of the French bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and absolute state from 1515 \(Ladurie believes it had about 100,000 venal and non-venal employees on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve of the Revolution\), and the dissemination of the writings of the philosophes. Together, by 178 9, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had created a society 'individualistic and heavily atomized' \(p. 475\), angered and frustrated by the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal and career privileges of the nobility, no longer attached to a distant monarch, and indoctrinated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('chimeras and more abstr act notions' of the Enlightenment, 'all the more readily since, in comparison with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, [the people] were excluded from the solid realities of power' \(p. 485\). There is no hint here of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-standing Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution. If growing numbers of bourgeois became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontented in the eighteenth century, they only did so as part of a larger politically-conscious and anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutist coalition, alerted to the possibility and opportunities of self-government through the corrosive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of Habermas's burgeoning public sphere. This is an administrative-cultural, 'top-down' account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of the absolute monarchy that remains deeply indebted to a work first published in 1856.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, Le Roy Ladurie is well aware that the Bourbon state never had the administrative grip that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tocqueville \(for his own ideological reasons\) supposed, even if he never openly admits that the Ancien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regime was the friend of corporatism, as much a s its opponent, albeit for fiscal reasons, as Bossenga's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7479 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent study of Lille, The Politics of Privilege \(1991\), so convincingly shows. Nevertheless, the inconvenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that Ancien-Regime France was scarcely the modern state avant la lettre is never allowed to stand in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of the general thrust of this interpretation. Describing the process whereby the absolute monarchy lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the affection of the people as one of 'auto-erosion', Le Roy Ladurie admits that the crown post-1750 both fos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tered equality by its reforms and continued to nurture corporatist divisions. The reader is asked to accept, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that this only weakened French attachment to corporatism the more. Crown attacks on corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges compromised the authority and st atus of all corporate bodies, while the beneficiaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporatism resented state supervision and interference \(p. 476 n\). The work is even Tocquevillian in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refusal to accept the gloomy account of the French economy post-1770, which has been a stand ard part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the Pre-Revolution since the publication of Labrousse's, La Crise de l'economie francaise a la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fin de l'Ancien Regime \(1943\). While accepting that there was a crisis in viticulture around 1780, Le Roy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ladurie insists that there was no general malaise before 1786 or 1788 \(p. 491n\). This is the ultimate trahison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(des clercs, for it was the Marxist Labrousse rather than Braudel who was the true founder of th e Annales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School after the Second World War and who supervised the research of the generation of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French historians to which Ladurie initially belonged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ancien Regime, then, is a particularly fascinating work to the extent it is a measure of the distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which France's most internationally renowned and productive early modernist has travelled in the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his distinguished career. This a ssessment should not detract from its value as a work of general history. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancien Regime is definitely the richest and most satisfying account of the political history of Bourbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France available in English. The translation by Mark Greengrass \(h imself a French early modernist\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable and careful and uninformed readers will find the chronological appendix and glossary a useful aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understanding. As an essentially politico-administrative history of seventeenth and eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France , it is more engaging than the recently published work of James B. Collins, The State in Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern France \(1995\), if Collins, an Ancien-Regime fiscal historian, is more intelligible on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown finance. As a history of Ancien-Regime France, however, Ladurie's volume will only supplement, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replace, the two volumes of Goubert and Roche. The Annaliste Les Francais et l'Ancien Regime still remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most sensitive account of the economy, society, state and culture of Bourbo n France. It is scarcely an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegant work and it largely neglects high politics but its analytical approach permits proper weight to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to the complexity, vitality and uniqueness of the Bourbon realm in all those areas of French life that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ladurie onl y refers to in passing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers, too, should be wary about accepting the thrust of Ladurie's final chapter without considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualification. Like many historians today on both sides of the English Channel, Ladurie has fallen for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergency theory first developed by Cro uzet in his comparative study of the English and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies in the eighteenth century. France, in The Ancien Regime, appears as another England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurial, dynamic and enlightened, but held back by an inefficient and ineffective absolut e )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy. It is the Revolution which halts the onward march of the French economy not the constraints of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ancien Regime. In this respect, Ladurie's account is certainly not Tocquevillian! However. as David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker's brilliant Class and State in Anc ien Regime France: The Road to Modernity? \(1996\) reminds us this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a viewpoint based upon highly questionable statistics which defies common-sense \(especially ch. 7\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reviewer's opinion, France was not England in the eighteenth century. It wa s a highly regulated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporative society where entrepreneurial initiative had to fight for space. Many educated Frenchmen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce and the professions found this regulated world comfortable and safe - in many ways it was a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caring and cohesive soc iety than England's where the philosophy of 'let the buyer beware' and laissez-faire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was deeply entrenched - but others, imbued with the spirit of the liberal Enlightenment, did not. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic, more greedy, they wanted an open, deregulated society whic h people like themselves would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate. To the extent that the absolute monarchy in the eighteenth century sustained, indeed continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted the corporative regulation of society on the grounds of the public good even \(and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially\) in the reign of Louis XVI, the absolute monarchy as much as corporatism was targeted for reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'rise of the bourgeoisie' cannot be excluded from the history of the French Revolution, for the large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of the discontented were bourgeois, if their number contained many nobles. It was these people - )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious lawyers, like Robespierre, hit herto condemned to a professional life of boredom in sleepy Arras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who used the opportunity of the calling of the Estates General to gain election to the Third Estate and push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quarrel between crown and parlements in a much more radical direction. By ig noring the powerful grip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of corporatism on French life in 1789, both Tocqueville and Le Roy Ladurie play down the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Revolution was a social event. It was not just an attack on an unpopular monarchical despotism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining, redunda nt privileges of the nobility and clergy, but an uncompromising onslaught on a cloying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporative order that both protected and policed most of the urban well-to-do as well. Those who wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break free from this corporative web became revolutionaries and changed the face of France. They wanted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unitary French state dominated by principles of laissez-faire and in 1790-1 they established a deregulated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualistic society that Margaret Thatcher two hundred years later could only dream of. In import ant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects there is much still to be said for the old Marxist view of the French Revolution, suitably refined and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended. In the rush to embrace Tocqueville in the wake of his 'rediscovery' in France by Francois Furet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ladurie's work suggests that French historians are guilty of neglecting the insights of the tradition of Jaures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mathiez and Lefebvre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 565.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 548.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 548.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/10)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 546.729 m 316.316 546.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/169)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 547.0435 316.3157 558.9235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/10) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004692 00000 n 0000004801 00000 n 0000004911 00000 n 0000005020 00000 n 0000008581 00000 n 0000008709 00000 n 0000008793 00000 n 0000008858 00000 n 0000016358 00000 n 0000016423 00000 n 0000024234 00000 n 0000024299 00000 n 0000031831 00000 n 0000031915 00000 n 0000034730 00000 n 0000034858 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34952 %%EOF