%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818094410+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818094410+01'00') /Title (A Man of Contradictions: a Life of A.L. Rowse) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4632 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Man of Contradictions: a Life of A.L. Rowse)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I confess that he gets on my nerves. I have admired some of his work. But the )] TJ ET BT 410.288 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ipse)] TJ ET BT 429.620 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( behind the work - what a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot of that )] TJ ET BT 83.684 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ipse)] TJ ET BT 103.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there is!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The occasion for this remark was Herbert Butterfields extensive review of A.L. Rowses )] TJ ET BT 458.252 332.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uses of History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1946\), an offprint of which the author had sent to his emeritus colleague at Peterhouse, Sir Ernest Barker. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield and Barker alike would not have been unsympathetic to Rowses concern to cultivate a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readership, far beyond the confines of the university common room which he inhabited on a strictly love-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hate basis. Nor would they have despised for a moment the patriotism which he vigorously espoused, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the 1940s. However, the large injection of Rowses personality into the book clearly grated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The figure who attracted such a combination of respect and hostility has been well depicted by Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ollard in this first biography of Rowse - prolific historian, political commentator, man of letters, and poet - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who died in 1997. Rowses keen self-centredness ensured that he would amass an enormous personal archive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now held at the Library of the University of Exeter. He not only preserved all manner of material which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded his life - journals and letters, unpublished books, diaries and accounts; he also returned to annotate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of it at a later date. Rowse granted Ollard exclusive access to these sources. Quite rightly, the dust-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jacket emphasises the appeal of the book not only to Rowses readership itself, but also to students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary personalities. Ollard enjoyed a long acquaintance with Rowse, based on professional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family bonds, and Rowse has been fortunate in acquiring such a sympathetic biographer, alert to the merits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the defects of both his work and his character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ollard explores sensitively the powerful influences in Rowses childhood which stood at the root of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecurities that in turn underlay his egoism. Not least important in this respect was an anxiety that never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 29 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Ollard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Stapleton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7692 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased to trouble him concerning his paternity. It severely limited Rowses attachment to his home, as did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of concern he perceived in his parents attitude towards him as a child, and also the coldness, egotism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and selfishness of his mother - the key source, he believed, of his own failings in these respects. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the youngest of three siblings born to a china-clay worker turned shopkeeper in a village where illiteracy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rife, Rowse was deprived of any home stimuli. In the small, two-up, two-down house in which he grew up, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toys were sparse and books non-existent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the light of the unhappiness that characterised his childhood, Rowse tended to project his home loyalties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to the county of Cornwall more generally, although never to the exclusion of the wider nation and never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unambiguously. It was to be an extremely fruitful source of his imaginative output in the realm of poetry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, and history. In addition to Cornwall, the precocious and able young Rowse substituted school for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home in his earliest affections \(p. 22\). He was fortunate in attending a village school where his talents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry were noticed and encouraged. At the age of eleven he won a scholarship to a secondary school in St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austell, where a similarly dedicated set of teachers helped to nurture his interests and aspirations. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young adolescent at his local church, he attracted the attention of a kindly member of the choir who showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the breathtaking beauty of the Luxulyan valley only a few miles beyond his home. This experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awakened in him a life-long feeling for landscape and place. From secondary school, and with the assistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of no less a champion than Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch \(p. 26-7\), he achieved the extraordinary success of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winning one of only two \(60 p.a.\) scholarships to Oxford which the County offered following the Economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ramp of 1921. There, despite severe ill-health which was not diagnosed \(as a case of duodenal ulcers\) until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it almost killed him in his mid-30s \(p. 39\), his efforts were rewarded with a double First in History, followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortly afterwards by his election to All Souls in 1925. He thereby became the first Fellow of that bastion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political, diplomatic, legal, and scholarly elite to be recruited from working-class ranks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the achievements themselves, and the impediments to them, make Rowses life worthy of a biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the impediments became integral to the achievements. I owe what I am to the struggle, he wrote, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his autobiography, )] TJ ET BT 126.344 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cornish Childhood)] TJ ET BT 229.028 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It isolated me from others, it concentrated me within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unapproachable tower of my own resolve; I was determined to do what I wanted to do; I was left sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to myself, for nobody was interested, to carry on what I wanted in my own way and nourish the inner life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my own imagination. Rowse managed to show the tenderest feelings for his parents - particularly his father - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this account of his childhood, and he provided a home for his desperately trying mother until her death in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1953. Nevertheless, Ollard makes amply clear that the price paid for such perceptions of being slighted at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical stage in his development was a lifelong solipsism, resentment at being born into a poor uncultivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home, an unedifying defensiveness and incapacity to forgive, or admit to his own mistakes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many of his published writings the resulting abrasiveness was kept well below the surface, and Rowses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consummate professionalism is much in evidence. Like his friend John Betjeman he excelled especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing out the intimate connections between people, places, and events. In some of his more occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces, however, and in private correspondence, what Ollard aptly terms deutero Rowse was all too evident. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here he was prone to overstatement, brisk dismissal of his opponents, and lack of generosity to others. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became trapped in a vicious circle of overappraising himself, leading to rebuffs from others, which fed - in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn - his sense of superiority and worth. Disappointments there certainly were, although no more than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usual in the course of a professional lifetime. But Rowse used them to sharpen the tremendous chip on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoulder without which, indeed, he could not have accomplished all that he did. The long letter which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowse wrote to Sir Arthur Salter in 1957 - some five years after Rowse had been unsuccessful in his bid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become Warden of All Souls, and in response to Salters move towards burying the hatchet after the latters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of Rowses rival - illustrates well Rowses astonishing capacity for nurturing a grudge and moulding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an entire )] TJ ET BT 78.668 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(weltanschauung)] TJ ET BT 156.668 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( around it. Ollard rightly judged it worthy of reproduction in full in an appendix. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluded with an acceptance of Salters olive-branch, although delivered with such ill-grace that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely worth having:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I find that the best attitude with which to confront an ill world is one of a solitary and rather grim stoicism. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is best to be independent in all senses, independent of people, free of all ties - an atom in an atomic age. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you think that friendly acquaintance mitigates in any way the grimness of the world around us, I am prepared )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a purely individual basis for the acquaintance to be a friendly one. \(327\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Injury was undoubtedly added to insult by a request that Salter return the letter - for the archive, it now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transpires.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowses defeat by John Sparrow in the election to the Wardenship following the death of Benedict Sumner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to a temporary halt his ambitions to become a public figure, helping to set the highest political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral standards for his fellow countrymen. In the letter to the hapless Salter, he expressed his gratitude for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having )] TJ ET BT 69.680 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(no )] TJ ET BT 84.680 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for anything in contemporary society - though when I was younger I was public-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirited enough, and fool enough, for anything. The process of disillusion and disengagement had been set in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(train some ten years earlier, and was exacerbated by the austerity and high taxation of post-war Britain, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ollards Appendix on Rowses Finances makes clear. But in the wake of the massive snub he perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to have been dealt by All Souls it rapidly accelerated. \(In truth, many of the older generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fellows who voted against him - like Salter - did so out of a high regard for Rowses scholarship, which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew would suffer if he won.\) With a seemingly unrivalled ability for losing all sense of perspective, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have taken the result as a withdrawal of the license to leadership he had acquired on his election in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1925. Ollard recounts how, for the next decade, Rowse made his primary intellectual home in America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking advantage of the wealth of historical material in some of its most prestigious libraries. In that country, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike his own, he enjoyed generous hospitality, remuneration, and acclaim. His resentment at his treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by All Souls and Britain generally softened when, in 1966, he discontinued his half-yearly sojourns in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States \(again, after an episode in which the bonhomie necessary to sustain academic acqaintanceship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signally failed him - p. 208\). He returned to the All Souls fold, and once again appeared to acquire his old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of public purpose in Britain, the Rowse of the 1960s and 70s becoming, in particular, the scourge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political correctness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had it not been for All Souls, he recalled in )] TJ ET BT 246.320 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cornishman Abroad)] TJ ET BT 354.992 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he would never have become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician - a term he used to cover both his overtly political activities as the Labour candidate for Penryn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1929 to 1941, and his role as a political and cultural critic - and would have pursued instead the purer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary and artistic vocation that his nature dictated. But the powerful political atmosphere of All Souls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impelled him to combine both, using his ample literary talents to illuminate the major public issues of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day. He was denied the OM which for many a year he believed his literary services to the public warranted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although just before his death he was honoured with the award of a CH. Ollards biography brings home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly the historic role of All Souls in rallying the public soul of the nation before the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also the decline of the institution in the immediate post-war years. A keen sense of the latter drove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowse to his ill-fated candidature for the Wardenship, despite a horror of what success - principally in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of commitment - would entail. As Ollard writes, All Souls stood for everything he most valued, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of the supremacy of the life of the mind, the acceptance of public duty and of pride in ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, the cultivation of good manners and of domestic elegance. Was this not all under threat from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans Culottes )] TJ ET BT 102.692 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Isaiah Berlins term], to whom Warden Sumner had through high-minded ineffectiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given so much ground? \(p. 194\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ollard analyses sensitively and appreciatively the work which a Fellowship of All Souls made possible. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowse found his mtier as an historian of Elizabethan England, a society whose fullness of life was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a match for his wide interests and sensibilities, and against which the social and cultural drabness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war Britain compared so unfavourably. Entirely in character, he could assume too much authority, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his dogmatic claim of truth for mere conjecture, in the unfortunate episode of his identity of the dark lady in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare, reveals only too well. But most of his writings in this area reveal a command of the subject and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources which not even his bitterest enemies could deny, and for which he was justly praised by such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated scholars as J.E. Neale and Dom David Knowles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the contradictions in his character and outlook which Ollard identifies found full expression in many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his histories, and far from undermining them, added to their zest. A case in point is his )] TJ ET BT 451.976 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan England)] TJ ET BT 135.020 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the second volume of his Elizabethan trilogy published in 1955. With typical verve, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discounts the Victorian idea that the empire came into being through a fit of absence of mind. To the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8122 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, argued Rowse, it was the result rather of a conscious, deliberate and tenacious campaign - in face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of constant disappointments, and confronting undreamed-of hazards - on the part of the elect spirits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation. Yet Rowses notorious \(Swiftian\) elitism, underpinned by an inveterate despair of the idiot people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was accompanied by a sustained profession of Marxist faith. At its most elementary level, this took the form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an insistence on the shallowness of any history which does not see with understanding and sympathy how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the ages the burden has always rested on the people. Thus, he quoted from graphic contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the horrors of life aboard Elizabethan ships in such ill-starred ventures as Daviss attempt to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North-West passage, commenting Such was the price the Elizabethans paid. More ambitiously, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young Turk in Oxford and London in the 1930s, he had attempted to modernise political thought, stressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the primacy of conflicting \(economic\) interests rather than ideals in politics. Even the radicalism of Arnold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toynbee, William Temple, and R.H. Tawney was suspect in the light of this analysis. Yet Rowse stopped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well short of affirming the dialectic, the imposition of which on history he described as an obvious relic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old transcendent claims of idealist metaphysics. It had led Communists down the dangerous road of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism in the wake of Nazism - as witnessed by the Nazi-Soviet pact - although in this they were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse than the appeasers in Britain whom Rowse equally despised. Here was Rowse, the arch-sceptic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationalist coming down heavily on the side of conviction. Similarly, at another level, however much he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced the evils of doctrine and however much he praised the easy-going English sense of what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible and what is not, he was quite capable of extolling the virtues of persistence in quiet faith, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common culture it had generated in counties such as his beloved Cornwall. The passage from )] TJ ET BT 485.276 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expansion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted by Ollard in which Rowse almost romanticises the lost cause of recusancy is used to underline one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the many unresolved conflicts in Rowses nature \(p. 227-8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, though, Rowse always favoured the decent and humane, and action taken in good conscience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities which underlay his fervent admiration for Elizabeth and her senior advisors. They were qualities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, which Rowse associated with England more generally, not least her military commanders. This became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in his writings of the 1940s, which often bore scarcely a trace of the Marxism which had captured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his intellectual interest in the early 1930s. The very title of one volume, )] TJ ET BT 380.312 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Spirit )] TJ ET BT 470.660 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1945\), would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anathema to a Marxist, despite his somewhat unconvincing attempt at the same time to include the character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the people in his broad definition of the underlying \(economic\) conditions of British history. )] TJ ET BT 493.316 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spirit)] TJ ET BT 60.692 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was launched with an impressive print-run of 10,000 copies \(Ollard, p. 179\). In this collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays Rowse is the epitome of the national intellectual, depicting and celebrating a unifying national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition rooted in literature and life in which the thorny issue of class is completely passed over. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiration is much more George Santayana - whom Rowse quotes admiringly - than Marx. Santayanas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soliloquies in England )] TJ ET BT 146.360 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1922\) exercised a profound effect on a generation of non-Marxist intellectuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public figures who wrote in the interwar period: Barker, W.R. Inge, G.M. Trevelyan, and Stanley Baldwin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowses dedicated )] TJ ET BT 123.332 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Spirit )] TJ ET BT 213.680 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Trevelyan, admirable exemplar of the English spirit. He was at pains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emphasise in the introduction that the contents of the book bore no witness to a hasty patriotic conversion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engendered by the heroism of Britain in the Second World War: many of the essays derived from the closing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the previous decade. Nor, despite the peoples war, was he about to flatter the masses by projecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation in their image: This may be the century of the Common Man - it certainly is of the common )] TJ ET BT 528.308 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(clich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- but I prefer to look for the uncommon man, the man of genius or ability \(p. vi\). The elite corps of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen and women whom he assembled for the book - Churchill, Drake, Sarah Churchill, Horace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walpole, Macaulay, and so on - exemplified all that was best in the nation. This was a direct fly in the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the carping [Left] intellectuals for their niggardly rejection of the outstanding achievements which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed to be to the English nations eternal credit. Ollard rightly emphasises Rowses support of ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour leaders like Ernest Bevin but his loathing of the leading intellectuals of the left like Cripps, Shaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Laski, the latter-day descendants of Carlyle. Indeed, he later asserted that had it not been for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Partys ruinous foreign policy in the 30s, he would not have been a Labour man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Rowse was a man of contradictions he exemplified the wider tensions in British intellectual life in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle decades of the twentieth century: a residual English nationalism and liberalism bequeathed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declining but still seductive Whig ideal and a Marxism which posed a serious challenge to, but never entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in displacing the latter This was certainly true of Rowses formative years in the 1930s. Such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3445 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions were bound to become accentuated in a writer whose own personality was perpetually under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strain of oppositional forces. But there is surely further scope for exploring these and other intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currents which informed Rowses work. For example, another historian who felt the charms of both Marxism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Whiggism in the 1930s and 40s was Butterfield himself. Rowses anti-intellectualism married to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehement patriotism was also not exclusive to him, but was shared by other contemporary writers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Bryant and Francis Brett Young, as well as Betjeman.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps there is further scope for work on Rowse in another respect too. Ollards primary resource base was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowses extensive personal archive. Yet for all Rowses efforts in retrieving his own correspondence there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be a considerable amount of material which escaped his grasp, to be preserved in other manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections instead. There is, for example, an abundance of Rowse letters in the Bryant papers at Kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College London, which give conclusive evidence of the primacy of his patriotism over his Marxism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1930s and 40s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Ollards book there is much of that eager assertion of his own personality that he also identifies in Rowses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings \(although his reticence in analysing Rowses homosexuality on grounds of his incompetence to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so is refreshing\). This is nowhere more evident than in the numerous comparisons between Pepys, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography Ollard has also written, and Rowse. There is much self-indulgence in language and imagery, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the footnoting is slipshod, even allowing for an understandable contempt for the dry-as-dust nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern scholarship. At one point, for example, the reader is referred to the already sizeable literature on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject without any further details \(p. 68\). Nevertheless, this is an extremely rewarding book, and it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly set the framework for any future studies of Rowse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author declined to respond on this occasion.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 458.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 440.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 440.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/100)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 439.449 m 322.316 439.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 414.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/663)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 439.7635 322.3157 451.6435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/100) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005321 00000 n 0000005430 00000 n 0000005540 00000 n 0000005649 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000009338 00000 n 0000009422 00000 n 0000009487 00000 n 0000017232 00000 n 0000017297 00000 n 0000024823 00000 n 0000024888 00000 n 0000033063 00000 n 0000033147 00000 n 0000036645 00000 n 0000036773 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36868 %%EOF