%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 30 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818225858+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818225858+01'00') /Title (London Lives 1690?1800 ? Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5696 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London Lives 1690?1800 ? Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Metropolis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Happiness is researching someone with a unique name. At least, that?s the case in the research environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created by the brilliant new resource, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.964 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives 1690?1800 ? Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.964 321.999 m 542.948 321.999 l S BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metropolis)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 307.743 m 86.684 307.743 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.684 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 103.676 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 109.676 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives)] TJ ET BT 174.680 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gathers together an unparalleled array of manuscript and printed sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing evidence that can be used to reconstruct everyday life in the 18th-century metropolis. This project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates the records digitized for the )] TJ ET BT 231.968 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Online)] TJ ET BT 319.292 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( alongside a vast collection of other documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, like the )] TJ ET BT 96.008 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Online)] TJ ET BT 183.332 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it makes possible keyword searching across a vast corpus of material. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike its predecessor, this resource makes possible a new way of searching through the documents: it is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier to find repeated instances of the same name across a variety of manuscript sources. As some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sample biographies, or ?Lives?, on the site show, )] TJ ET BT 272.984 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives)] TJ ET BT 337.988 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( allows us to begin to trace individual life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectories of the labouring poor and of Londoners caught up in the criminal justice system. It is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible in a matter of days or weeks to assemble evidence related to single individuals that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously have taken years or decades to amass. In addition, this site provides an opportunity for scholars to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be innovative in their research techniques and reflective about their research practices and the theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinnings of those practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review complements Drew Gray?s recent )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.952 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.952 124.497 m 292.604 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.604 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 309.596 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the )] TJ ET BT 343.256 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Online )] TJ ET BT 433.580 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this website. Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises important questions about the completeness of the resource, the implications of digitization for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term preservation of archival sources, and the ways keyword searching can impoverish our research if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not done with care. Many of these concerns might be raised about this website as well, though such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions in no way undermine its enormous value. Not only does it offer new ways to access sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives)] TJ ET BT 99.020 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, like the )] TJ ET BT 154.688 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Online)] TJ ET BT 242.012 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, free for all to use. Funding appears to be available to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert B. Shoemaker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Hitchcock)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HRI Online Publications)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheffield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Heller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.9637 334.6243 214.9637 334.6243 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.londonlives.org/index.jsp) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.9637 322.1395 542.9477 334.0195 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.londonlives.org/index.jsp) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 307.8835 86.6837 319.7635 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.londonlives.org/index.jsp) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.9517 124.8115 292.6037 136.6915 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/897) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7601 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the site, so that we can hopefully avoid the gnashing of teeth that accompanied the transition of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Society?s free electronic bibliography to the subscription-based Bibliography of British and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History at the start of this year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A massive quantity of records has been digitized for this resource and added to datasets produced by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects. Collections have been carefully selected for digitization to create a resource with as much depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and variety as possible. For criminal justice, the records include the Old Bailey Proceedings, supplemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Ordinary's Accounts \(biographies of executed criminals written by the chaplain of Newgate Prison\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sessions Papers \(manuscript documents which provide additional evidence about the crimes tried at the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey and other courts, as well as documents concerning poor relief\), Criminal Registers \(lists of prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in Newgate Prison\), Coroners's Inquests \(documents relating to deaths thought to be suspicious, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which did not result in a formal prosecution\), and the records of Bridewell \(the house of correction for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City of London, where the poor accused of petty crimes were punished\). For poor relief, the records of three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes have been digitized: St Botolph Aldgate \(straddling the eastern boundary between the City of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and Middlesex\), St Clement Danes \(Westminster\), and St Dionis Backchurch \(City of London\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These parishes were chosen for the quality of their records, and the extent to which they exemplify different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of London. Datasets of settlement and workhouse records from two further parishes \(created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently from the )] TJ ET BT 149.000 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives )] TJ ET BT 217.004 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project\) were included as well: St Martin in the Fields \(Westminster\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and St Luke Chelsea \(just to the west of the built up area of London\). The records of one London guild, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carpenters? Company and partial transcriptions of the registers of the Marine Society, a charity which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided training at sea for poor boys, offer further evidence of poor relief. For evidence of medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision, the site includes the records of one of the royal hospitals, St Thomas's Hospital, including its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed admissions and discharge registers. There are also externally created data sets including tax and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting records, wills, fire insurance registers, and urban directories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a variety of sources providing many different types of evidence, users will find it essential to learn the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and functions of the component sets of records if they are to get the most out of their search results. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almost as impressive as the digitized corpus of manuscripts is the background information about London, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and the records they produced that the website offers. Each institution and document type is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced in a way that should be accessible to people with no knowledge, but the introductory materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the background necessary to make sense of the available documents. Experts will find the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background someone rudimentary, but the breadth of the introduction should offer something unfamiliar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the seasoned scholar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though users can browse the records, the website?s search features are the most likely starting point for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users and represent the most important innovation the site offers. In addition to searching by keyword or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference number, )] TJ ET BT 124.304 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives)] TJ ET BT 189.308 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has a name search feature that allows you to search for names and to collect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them \(once you have registered with the website\) into your free, personal workspace. The name search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows you to search for strings of characters, but it also includes a sort of ?fuzzy search?. Users can search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for ?metaphones? to try to overcome variations in spelling of the same name. In my own research, I came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across a woman named ?Lydra [sic] Potter?, who was involved in the theft of a tankard from a public house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on her way back from a bull baiting at Stamford Hill \(t17661022-47\). Potter was giving evidence against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused, who tried to cast aspersions on Potter?s character by mentioning that she had previously grassed up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband. Using a metaphone search for given name: ?Lydra?, surname:?Potter?, I found dozens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to Lidia/Lydia/Lydra/Leddey Potter \(and to her aliases Lydia Hall and Lydia Brown\) that I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have found by searching for ?Lydra [or Lydia] Potter? as a keyword. Once you have collected names in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(your workspace, you can link them into sets of names that you believe refer to the same person. These sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are visible to all users and can be searched using the ?set search? facility. The site will eventually contain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wiki where users can write up ?lives? for others to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In cases like Potter?s, pulling together all of the available references gives us an opportunity to track people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over long periods of time as they appear in several different institutions. In Potter?s case, we see her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing for more than 20 years as a witness to and perpetrator of crime. Records suggest she was born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1744. She was herself tried on a few occasions for buying stolen goods, presumably to sell in her mother?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shop in Black Boy Alley. We find out about the sorts of people who visited the shop and of the networks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people familiar to a resident of Black Boy Alley in the final third of the 18th century. Potter disappears from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view after 1786 when a woman was robbed in her house.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This resource makes reconstructing lives possible, but not easy. The greatest difficulty is finding people who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear in multiple places and who can be linked reliably. The website includes a search facility \(limited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected researchers\) that finds name matches in two specified sets of records, thereby helping researchers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find names that appear multiple times and might refer to the same person. But even with this tool researchers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may struggle to find names of people who are useful for their research topic and who appear repeatedly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Common surnames are almost impossible to link with confidence because the information in each document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is so limited. Finding individuals who appear often enough to tell us much about their life histories will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depend on serendipity and the assiduity and creativity of the searcher. Users will certainly incorrectly link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names and create erroneous life histories, so ?sets? and ?lives? have to be treated with the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumspection as any other web 2.0 product. However there is also the opportunity to employ the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections made by other users and to begin to assemble a large collection of plebeian and middling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lives?. Users will have to be creative in their methodologies. Hopefully the site?s forthcoming wiki for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing up life histories will include a space where people can share their methodologies for using the site. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The project has already begun developing a tool that will help researchers identify records of interest more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.012 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/scrutiny/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.012 540.723 m 252.008 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 255.008 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 269.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Ideally other digital humanists will contribute further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tools, which will be made freely available to others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The manuscript documents were transcribed twice by separate typists, a process which under ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions produces exceptionally high rates of accuracy. Users will find that some documents have not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately transcribed, though the overall quality appears to be very good. Users need to keep in mind that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spellings have not been standardized and abbreviations have not been expanded \(for instance, a keyword )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search for ?pish? ? the way an abbreviation of ?parish? was rendered by the transcription team ? throws up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 3000 results\). Users not familiar with late Stuart palaeography may find it useful to review the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Archives palaeography tutorials \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/palaeography/where_to_start.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 400.419 m 370.640 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.640 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 387.632 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in order to think about ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct more effective keyword searches. The inclusion of images of the original documents alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcriptions is a user-friendly innovation and researchers should refer to the original images constantly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check the accuracy of transcriptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars of 18th-century London will find )] TJ ET BT 239.996 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives )] TJ ET BT 308.000 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invaluable for research into social, cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional history. It is an outstanding teaching resource \(though it may be difficult to set students the task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of creating original lives in short timeframes\) and it should appeal to genealogists and other publics with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical interests. The design is attractive and intuitive, at least to someone who has spent a lot of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at the Old Bailey Online. Irritatingly, it is sometimes difficult to keep the image of the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document visible in a web browser at the same time as the transcription, which can make comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult. The file size of some of the images sometimes overloads my computer and could be prohibitively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow for those using low bandwidth connections.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.0117 541.0375 252.0077 552.9175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/scrutiny/) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 400.7335 370.6397 412.6135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/palaeography/where_to_start.htm) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6210 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives)] TJ ET BT 99.020 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes new material accessible, but the material it makes available \(and some of the questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the creators are asking of it\) also throws up questions that will probably never be answered. The project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description declares that ?By examining how individual Londoners engaged with and manipulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([institutions] for their own ends, this project is designed to assess the role of plebeians in the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social practices in the modern metropolis?. Early research outputs by project directors Tim Hitchcock and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Shoemaker suggest that users \(be they poor, criminal, or otherwise\) had a clear impact on the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 18th-century institutions operated, though the extent to which institutions were responsive to individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users remains open to question. 18th-century users were undoubtedly knowledgeable about the institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that surrounded them, but most of the knowledge users possessed remains hidden and unrecoverable. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dark matter of plebeian and middling knowledge and life lurks around these documents. A lot of learning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interaction clearly went on beyond what is documented here, and we can only speculate about )] TJ ET BT 508.244 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(how)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people learned to manipulate the institutions they encountered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, this site gives us traces of people whose lives are not otherwise recorded, but we need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think carefully about what those traces tell us. These are records of patterns of behaviour \(or perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour\). The intentions of the people recorded here are more difficult to analyze. Our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the people in evidence here knew their options to be requires further careful unpacking. As I expect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creators would readily admit, we are only in the early stages of analysis. These resources must be scoured to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to track down the tiny anecdotes and slippages that offer insight into the dark matter of plebeian lives that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives meaning to the patterns of behaviour that we can now gather in massive quantities. There is a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-purposes here. On the one hand this project creates a massive haystack, in which there are numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needles offering fantastic insights into daily life but which cannot be said to be representative in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical sense. On the other, the creators seem to want to allow for larger samples to be created?by making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing sets visible to all users, for example. The matter of statistical significance, of so much interest to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians from below who trained in the 1960s and 70s, has not been forgotten. Of course, these objectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not oppose each other, but they do suggest divergent research communities that may be created by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the conference organized to celebrate the launch of the site, there was a tendency to talk about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?agency? of the people captured in these documents. This tendency was questioned at the time, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequately discussed. What do the traces of the daily lives of the middling and the poor that are presented on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Lives )] TJ ET BT 102.020 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us? This site will push us to query our use of the concept of ?agency? for the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to develop a better sense of what we are actually talking about when we discuss the agency of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring poor in pre-modern London. As with any source, the political sympathies of users will shape the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of story they tell. This is an opportunity to think about how modern political and professional objectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape the types of resources for historical investigation historians create as well as histories historians write. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As people come to use this website, they will have think about how their purposes go along or against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain of both the 18th-century sources that have digitized and the 21st century interfaces that provide access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the digitized documents. The assumptions and biases built into both historical documents and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources need to be kept firmly in mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 187.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 169.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 169.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1001)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 168.585 m 328.316 168.585 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 168.8995 328.3157 180.7795 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1001) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 683 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.londonlives.org/index.jsp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/897)] TJ ET BT 34.016 726.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/scrutiny/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 712.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/palaeography/where_to_start.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 697.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000695 00000 n 0000006443 00000 n 0000006552 00000 n 0000006662 00000 n 0000006771 00000 n 0000010332 00000 n 0000010460 00000 n 0000010544 00000 n 0000010672 00000 n 0000010760 00000 n 0000010888 00000 n 0000010976 00000 n 0000011102 00000 n 0000011190 00000 n 0000011318 00000 n 0000011413 00000 n 0000011478 00000 n 0000019132 00000 n 0000019223 00000 n 0000025323 00000 n 0000025450 00000 n 0000025538 00000 n 0000025665 00000 n 0000025783 00000 n 0000025867 00000 n 0000032130 00000 n 0000032258 00000 n 0000032354 00000 n 0000032419 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33154 %%EOF