%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818070017+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818070017+01'00') /Title (The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4261 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second decade of the 21st century would seem to be an auspicious moment for historians of capitalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sudden and for many unexpected rise of China as a major economic power would appear to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians with opportunities to rethink the history of capitalism, especially with regard to the place of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and the market in its development. Joyce Appleby?s )] TJ ET BT 312.644 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution)] TJ ET BT 437.300 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed as one of the first in what will surely be a series of long-range reflections on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism which take us from its origins to the current coincidence of a global economic downturn and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of China. Her book is especially strong on the place of contemporary China in this story, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier role played by Japan, though her chief focus is on the modern west, beginning with the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist development which she finds in 16th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appleby is quite insistent that the history of capitalism is one which ought to be located in one place and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood not as the product of the intermeshing of a series of deep-lying trends but as the coming together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a set of contingencies at a specific moment. The conjoining of an agricultural revolution, with the advent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of banking and trading networks which had a global outlook on the Dutch model, as well as the political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and cultural particularities of England ? such as the new Protestant accommodation of usury ? led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of not only a new form of economy but arguably new forms of culture and being, which could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now rightly be called capitalist. Capitalism was and is a ?cultural system? and in establishing it as such, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joyce Appleby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393068948)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(494pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Gallois)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appleby draws on the work of fellow analysts of the rise of the modern west such as David Landes, Alfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crosby and Kenneth Pomeranz.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this is a world history of capitalism from the 16th century to our present, it seems fair to say that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one essentially constructed from an Anglo-American viewpoint, recounting an essentially upbeat story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though acknowledging capitalism?s capacity to oppress\) which describes the remarkable resilience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism as it has spread over five centuries. It closes by suggesting that while this history of capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been ?a relentless revolution?, it has not been ?a mindless one? \(p. 436\), raising the question as to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be meant by a mindful revolution, or in what senses capitalism can have been described as having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been directed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the best thing about this book is its contention that capitalism lies at the heart of modern history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While some might argue with the idea that so much can be folded into the history of capitalism, the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed of a compelling logic in its chronological tracking of the spread of a form of life across the globe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It will have a broad appeal, ranging beyond academic audiences, for it is engagingly written, stuffed full of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyable examples and anecdotes, and appealingly accessible in its clear exposition of what could be dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even abstruse topics in less capable hands. The very positive reviews the book has already enjoyed \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 130.352 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 154.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literary Review)] TJ ET BT 231.008 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and elsewhere\) have noted its freewheeling style ? everything is ?at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clip? ? and tendency to sometimes flit between three topics on a single page, but I think they have correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjudged that in doing so the work stays true to its own intention to offer a broad and rich form of history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a period of more than 500 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book avoids the mistake of some literature on capitalism in its examination of the role of the state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist development ? in, for instance, the rise of Germany, the United States and the ?Four Little Tigers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Asia ? not succumbing to the idea that capitalism must simply be equated with free markets. Its appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidently also lies both in its coverage of the current global financial crisis and its ability to contextualise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that across the )] TJ ET BT 105.668 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue)] TJ ET BT 141.332 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dure)] TJ ET BT 168.656 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whilst it is also strong on what it calls ?the two faces of eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism?: the concurrence of plantation slavery and the scientific revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where this book is distinctly weaker is in its engagement, or lack thereof, with those bodies of literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which currently constitute the history of capitalism. Before examining the ways in which this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminished in this regard, it seems worth posing a series of questions of expansive works by scholars which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seek a broad public audience as well as sparking interest amongst students and academics. If as a scholar you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the choice to address a wider public, which parts of the conventional apparatus of academic writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be jettisoned \(here there are footnotes but no bibliography\)? Is there a case for prioritising narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over theory and description over more reflective engagements with existing literatures in the field? If such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions ensue, should they be viewed as being exclusions of intent, strategy and space, or might other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars legitimately critique the work on the basis of its situation of itself outside a field of study?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do not think that there are easy answers to such questions and I cannot presume to know whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions I mention were strategic or not, but the scale of this book?s disengagement from key works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism marks it out as a problematic enterprise. While the history of capitalism is arguably an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underdeveloped field, it is not nearly so underdeveloped as a reader of this book might intuit, nor nearly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unproblematic or united a subject as one might suspect in reading )] TJ ET BT 351.644 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution)] TJ ET BT 476.300 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In setting out certain bodies of literature with which the book might usefully have engaged, I do not mean to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belittle Appleby?s achievement in the work, for expansive histories are necessarily catalogues of omissions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the central problem with this book is that much of the work which it ignores materially affects its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument or at the very least deserves some form of refutation in the development of its own distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her first chapter, Appleby suggests that three ?master theorists? \(p. 18\) ? Marx, Weber and Adam Smith ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced both her thinking and scholars in the field more generally. While she admits to a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for Weber over Smith \(given his take on human nature\) and Marx \(his programmatic, teleological )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history\), there can rarely have been an investigation into capitalism which shows so little curiosity as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s explorations into the subject or acknowledgement of the manner in which he coined and constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it as a field of study in the later 19th century. I am of course not at all suggesting that the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism need necessarily be Marxist, but it should surely display a far greater awareness of the Marxian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universe given the manner in which Marx?s ideas are embedded in the very idea of studying capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Appleby herself has a tendency to locate judgements on capitalism which are very similar to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by Marx, in spite of her suspicions regarding the thrust of his work. Discussing the current financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis, for instance, she writes that ? Every economic downturn gives critics a chance to draft obituaries for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, but they underestimate the fecundity of capitalism in promoting ingenuity and turning novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prototypes into great cash cows? \(p. 422\), which sounds rather like Marx?s assertion that capitalism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently cyclical and depended on crises and depressions for its long-term success. Similarly, we are told )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?The fact that rarely does anyone register surprise when a crisis arrives, even though few have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything to prevent it, points to a quality that capitalism cultivates, an optimism that denies reality? \(p. 401\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which describes a form of false consciousness or capitalist living writ large across Marx?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the rare occasions when Marx is discussed in the work, some unusual claims are made, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that Marx wished to ?build on the capitalistic base of wealth to provide for the entire society? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in doing so ?He failed to foresee the danger of joining a society?s economic and political power through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state ownership of property? \(p. 425\). This denunciation of 20th-century communism bears almost no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the work of Marx, for he was of course deeply suspicious of precisely the things with which he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated in Appleby?s mind and arguably more enamoured of the idea of pre-modern, pre-capitalist living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might follow the revolution which he imagined might bring capitalism?s collapse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Appleby?s lack of interest in Marx, it is perhaps unsurprising that the work of Marxists, continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and critical theorists play almost no role in her book. Gramsci, Bourdieu, Marcuse, Althusser, Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habermas, Marshall Berman, Lyotard, David Harvey, Fredric Jameson, Hardt and Negri all lie outwith the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. This may seem understandable given Appleby?s determination not to follow the leftist path towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of capitalism which dominated 20th-century studies of the topic, but the absence of Marxist historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Perry Anderson and Eric Hobsbawm seems much less explicable. So far as I can see Anderson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits one mention in the text, in Appleby?s preface ? where, as a colleague at UCLA he is thanked for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions the two shared on the book?s theme ? yet there is no textual acknowledgement of Anderson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key work on late medieval Europe and the forging of the structural conditions which afforded the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a capitalist society. This might not matter overly if Appleby?s book were not so dependent on her thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to capitalism?s distinct origins and her determination to reject deep genealogies of capitalism which seek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to locate its rise in the collapse of feudal societies \(a subject on which she remains reticent\). Hobsbawm also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits just one brief footnote, which, whether one likes his politics or not, seems a strange underestimation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of one of our chief guides to capitalism in the 19th and 20th centuries \(the subject of six of Appleby?s 13 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strangely such selectivity can even be found with regard to Weber, who appears to merit approval chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because his methods align with Appleby?s own historiographical preferences: ?I have been most influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Weber because of his emphasis on contingency and unintended consequences in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism? \(p. 18\). Yet in spite of spending two pages discussing the linkage between Protestantism, usury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capitalism, Appleby offers no sense of the connections of such debates to Weber, or indeed Tawney for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that matter, and the manner in which academic literatures on the subject have cohered around the insights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those two writers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars in the field will also note the absence of other canonical work in the history of capitalism by figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Jean Baechler, John Hall and Michael Mann \()] TJ ET BT 291.956 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the Rise of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 457.628 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Michel Baud \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Capitalism 1500?1980)] TJ ET BT 205.364 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), R. J. Holton \()] TJ ET BT 280.364 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cities, Capitalism and Civilization)] TJ ET BT 447.068 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedia of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 167.348 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.348 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.348 79.299 m 184.340 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.340 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Equally Appleby?s rather good chapter on the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism and empire would surely have been sharpened by a consideration of Mike Davis?s work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, capital and genocide \()] TJ ET BT 178.976 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Late Victorian Holocausts)] TJ ET BT 305.648 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the burgeoning field of environmental )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3477 79.6135 184.3397 91.4935 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8196 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial history \(such as Diana K Davis?s )] TJ ET BT 239.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Granary of Rome)] TJ ET BT 344.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.632 795.075 m 365.624 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While it may be objected that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions are inevitable in a work of synthesis, my point here is that there seems insufficient evidence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such bodies of literature have been synthesised, whilst their absence materially affects the character and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of Appleby?s argument. Her claims regarding imperialism and violence \(p. 241\), for instance, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have acquired a much more complex character had she revealed to her readers the existence of work \(such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Mike Davis\) which explicitly links capitalism, empire and planned violence, as opposed to her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncoupling of capitalism and states in this regard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Appleby?s stress on capitalism as culture, as well as her strong adherence to the idea of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingency, it also seems surprising that cultural texts are so rarely deployed as a means of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the particularities of distinct forms of capitalism at specific moments in time. To take one example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appleby?s discussion of the advent of department stores and the rise of consumer culture \(222?3\) would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely have been enriched and sharpened through the consideration of the work of, say, Baudelaire or Zola, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Benjamin?s development of a cultural history of capitalism drawing on such literature, or even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent secondary work by Rosalind H. Williams and Michael B. Miller. The American story plays a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in Appleby?s narrative, yet there is no consideration of a work such as John Dos Passos?s )] TJ ET BT 489.272 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USA)] TJ ET BT 511.268 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might argue is one of the key histories of American capitalism, as well as a work which exemplifies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner in which the novel reveals the fabric of capitalist culture in its situation of capitalism as a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations between people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, perhaps the most serious defect in this regard is Appleby?s writing of a world history of capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without reference to some of the chief debates which have taken place in the field of world history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning capitalism \(and, as one might imagine, such discussions have been absolutely central to that area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of study\). At the very least one would expect some consideration of the work of Immanuel Wallerstein \(there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one mention in the context of his work on dependency theory\) and discussions of his ?world system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory? which is predicated on precisely the kind of systematisation and conceptual architecture which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appleby rejects in her own approach. That said, Wallerstein also suggests that the history of capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began in the 16th century, before incorporating the world in a rather different fashion to that described in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, so points of agreement as well as tension might have been identified in )] TJ ET BT 406.976 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution)] TJ ET BT 531.632 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key debates in world historical circles which finds little mention in Appleby?s work is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question as to whether capitalism really did originate in the late medieval or early modern west, or whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its true starting point could be found in the medieval Islamic world. In contradistinction to Appleby?s claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?the dramatic success of eighteenth and nineteenth century innovations compels us to wonder why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human societies remained fixed for millennia in a primitive agrarian order? \(p. 4\), historians of the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East have established that a vibrant merchant capitalism thrived from as early as the 9th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating features such as double-entry book-keeping, a refined division of labour, the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnerships, advanced banking systems, long distance trade \(and the technological innovations which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afforded and flowed from such enterprise\), and an evasion of guilt associated with usury, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally thought to have emerged and cohered in the modern west. That some of these characteristics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab-Islamic society may have begun to decline from the 12th century is immaterial, for not only had they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged far earlier than occidental historians had assumed, but they also of course migrated to Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the eastern Mediterranean, Italian ports and, most especially, Iberia. That project of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer is now the subject of a considerable body of scholarship, while the specific question of capitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation in the east ought to have been approached ? even if it were to be rejected ? in the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxime Rodinson \()] TJ ET BT 130.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Islam and Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 233.360 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Subhi Y. Labib \(?Capitalism in Medieval Islam?\), Gene W. Heck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 38.012 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charlemage, Muhammad and the Arab Roots of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 324.680 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and Jairus Banaji \(?Islam, the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the rise of capitalism?\), while countervailing work in the field ? such as Janet Abu Lughod?s suggestion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was in fact the Mongols who established a Eurasian world system ? would have merited comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Appleby?s own thesis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.676 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.676 103.299 m 180.668 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the field of the history of capitalism more generally, it therefore seems intriguing that just as our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary interest in the subject is directed eastwards as we ask what the Chinese experiment means for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism?s future, this eastern gaze is paired with an increased concentration on the non-European roots )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.6317 795.3895 365.6237 807.2695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6757 103.6135 180.6677 115.4935 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7469 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and origins of capitalism. Readers of )] TJ ET BT 213.656 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution)] TJ ET BT 338.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will get little sense of this foment in the field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one is forced to conclude that the book suffers from a limited consideration of secondary literatures on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of capitalism \(almost no primary material is considered, which is quite understandable in a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this type\). While it is true that readers of a general work do not need necessarily need to know the ins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outs of scholarly debates or indeed the minutiae of theorisations of a particular concept, there do exist ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which writers of such expansive studies can at least offer their audiences a sense of the range and breadth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholarship on a subject such as capitalism. That Appleby is broadly anti-theoretical in her method is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely immaterial in the case of a project such as this one, for the blunt reality is that most work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of capitalism has been of a theoretical bent. In some ways the certainty of this book?s narrative is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what makes it both a good book for general readers and a weaker one for scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, it might be argued that a broad and ambitious work such as )] TJ ET BT 370.976 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Relentless Revolution)] TJ ET BT 495.632 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does add to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field precisely because of its particularity and its distinctive take on its subject, for knowledge advances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly through debate and this book will spark plenty of discussion with its clear account of capitalism as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural form, as a phenomenon which emerged quite distinctly in England, and which need not necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be understood through the Marxist spectacles which so dominated our understanding in the 19th and 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the Rise of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 229.688 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jean Baechler, John Hall and Michael Mann \(Oxford, 1990\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Baud , )] TJ ET BT 140.672 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Capitalism 1500?1980)] TJ ET BT 312.020 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1981\); R. J. Holton )] TJ ET BT 414.356 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cities, Capitalism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization)] TJ ET BT 120.032 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\); )] TJ ET BT 204.692 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedia of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 338.024 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Syed B. Hussain \(New York, NY, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 460.947 m 118.004 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Davis, )] TJ ET BT 126.344 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nio Famines and the Making of the Third World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2001\); Diana K Davis, )] TJ ET BT 222.992 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Resurrecting the Granary of Rome: Environmental History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Colonial Expansion in North Africa)] TJ ET BT 273.692 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens, OH, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.008 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.008 418.179 m 428.996 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxime Rodinson, )] TJ ET BT 159.020 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Islam and Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 262.364 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1973\); Subhi Y. Labib \(1969\), ?Capitalism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Islam?, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 310.988 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29, 1 \(1969\), 79?96; Gene W. Heck, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne, Muhammad and the Arab Roots of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 356.684 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 2006\); Jairus Banaji, ?Islam, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism?, )] TJ ET BT 268.964 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Materialism)] TJ ET BT 379.304 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15, 1 \(2007\), 47?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.624 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.624 361.155 m 536.612 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/24/books/review/Mihm-t.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 306.387 m 344.372 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.372 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.literaryreview.co.uk/ryan_03_10.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 277.875 m 273.992 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.992 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Books in History \(audio interview\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newbooksinhistory.com/2011/02/04/joyce-appleby-the-relentless-revolution-a-history-of-capitalism-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 249.363 m 546.296 249.363 l S BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norton-2010/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 235.107 m 96.680 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.680 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1004)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 328.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/24/books/review/Mihm-t.html?_r=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.literaryreview.co.uk/ryan_03_10.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://newbooksinhistory.com/2011/02/04/joyce-appleby-the-relentless-revolution-a-history-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism-norton-2010/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 461.2615 118.0037 473.1415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.0077 418.4935 428.9957 430.3735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> 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