%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818072015+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818072015+01'00') /Title (The World Before Domesday: The English Aristocracy 900?1066) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4493 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The World Before Domesday: The English Aristocracy 900?1066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an accessible and engaging book about the ranks, obligations, and image of the Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy, written by one of the leading historians of the period. Ann Williams is the author of )] TJ ET BT 496.952 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Norman Conquest)] TJ ET BT 160.352 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 166.352 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingship and Government in Pre-Conquest England c. 500?1066)] TJ ET BT 481.004 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 504.332 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thelred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.668 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.668 214.905 m 233.660 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.660 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not to mention numerous articles. This work and her deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the period, its mechanics, its sources, and its characters makes Williams the ideal person to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have authored this expository survey. Her expertise on Domesday and the prosopography of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon elite is clear throughout, and the book also distils much of her earlier work, along with important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies by scholars such as Stephen Baxter, Robin Fleming, Naomi Sykes, and Robert Liddiard, to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide-ranging, rich, and detailed overview of these lords, their environment, and trappings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams explains that she wants here to present Old English aristocrats ?in their prime?, that is in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 871 and 1066 ? although there is more on the 11th century than the 10th, due to the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving evidence. The book falls into two unequal halves. ?The first three chapters introduce the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of aristocratic society? \(earls, stallers, and the thegns who formed the county communities\), with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter including two or three exemplars to give a sense of each rank?s role, obligations, and limitations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Williams)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847252395)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/the-world-before-domesday-9781441121127/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hagger)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.6677 215.2195 233.6597 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7935 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There then follow ?the more interpretative chapters?, five in number, which look at the relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between land and men, the thegnly residence, display, and pastimes. Although the book does form a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent whole, each chapter also stands alone as a discrete study of its subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before looking at the aristocracy and their culture, Williams provides some definitions. Status was affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by wealth, lordship, and closeness to the king. Wergeld tariffs \(sums paid as compensation for an unlawful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing\) are used to demonstrate the social stratification of Anglo-Saxon society, and Archbishop Wulfstan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Promotion Law? to show how affluent freemen and successful thegns might scale the social ladder. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking is not so much the various grades of thegn that these tracts reveal, as the Promotion Law?s attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create a taxonomy with reference to empirical evidence. Presumably it was the need to know the relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wergild payment and heriot \(a payment in arms and money made to inherit a dead man?s property\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove this need for clear social divisions. The introduction also alerts readers to the geographical bias of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. As most Benedictine monasteries were located in the south and west, and as these were the bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most likely to have preserved the evidence, we know relatively little about the aristocracy of the north and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relationship with the political centre in the south. This imbalance in the evidence is something that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes clear as the book unfolds, and helps to explain its shape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the earls are concerned, Williams notes that ?the best recorded are the great earls of Edward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confessor?s day, Godwine of Wessex and Leofric of Mercia, and previous research has naturally enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been concentrated on these two families? \(p. x\). Here, however, the two exemplars ?more typical because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less wealthy? are Earl Odda and Earl Ralph, both of them mid 11th-century characters whose interests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused in the Welsh march. The careers of both are sketched out before Williams turns to an assessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an earl?s wealth generally, which she believes \(on good grounds\) must have been one of the ?distinguishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics? of the class. One important point made in this respect is that at least some of the lands the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earls held went with their office \(and Nicholas Karn has recently made a similar point with reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Conquest sheriffs of Dorset\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.324 443.187 m 211.316 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.316 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Exon Domesday describes some land in Devon as ?belonging to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship?, and there are similar statements in Little Domesday Book. The right to the third penny \(one third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the profits of justice from a shire\) also attached to particular manors held by the earl. Comital manors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights were thus transferred with the earldom, so that when Edward the Confessor transferred earldoms he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also inflicted a financial blow on those who found themselves out of favour. From this follows another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important point: earls did not enjoy a hereditary position. They were simply the greatest servants of the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who held their office at his pleasure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two concerns in particular the stallers, ?whose landed wealth placed them among the richest thegns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below the rank of earl? and who ?as a group ... seem to have been particularly close to the king? \(p. 26\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word ?staller? first appears in contemporary sources only in Edward the Confessor?s reign. Williams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, however, that the office was a Scandinavian import which might have existed for some time but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without that label ? she notes that the title ?ealdorman? gave way to ?jarl? without a change to the duties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of those who bore it \(p. 31\). ?Such evidence as there is implies that the duties of the stallers was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed but various, and were performed as and when the king had need of them? \(p. 32\). Kings always needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such men, regardless of what they might be called, and, indeed, Williams believes that the stallers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar in status and function to the 10th-century )] TJ ET BT 270.668 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pedisequi)] TJ ET BT 316.664 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This allows her to examine the career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulfstan of Dalham, who was a benefactor of Ely abbey, active in the reign of King Edgar \(943/4?975\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have acted as a proto-sheriff for Cambridge. The other two exemplars discussed in this chapter are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the eleventh century. The first of them is Osgod Clapa, perhaps the commander of the stipendiary fleet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based at London, who was outlawed in 1046 and died in 1054; the second is Tovi the Proud who was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first founder of Waltham abbey and Osgod?s son-in-law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three looks at local communities, taking as its exemplar the shire community of Kent in the late 10th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 11th centuries. In a quest for an early example of a county community, Williams identifies, tracks, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleshes-out the witnesses to an agreement transferring land at Offham in the late 1040s, a marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement concluded between 1016 and 1022, the settlement of a dispute over the manor of Snodland of 995 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1005, and a royal diploma for thelred, portreeve of Canterbury, of 1002. The findings are set out in three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tables, with the second \(covering the period )] TJ ET BT 246.644 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 251.972 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1000?)] TJ ET BT 287.300 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 292.628 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1030 and illustrating the attestations of nine acts\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.3237 443.5015 211.3157 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8529 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the most convincing regarding the existence of a county community. This is a very useful exercise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Williams concludes that ?it seems permissible to conclude that the shire of Kent was dominated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-tenth to the mid-eleventh centuries by the same group of interlinked Kentish families? but warns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?any firm conclusions on how typical Kent was are precluded by the lack of comparable source material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere? \(p. 57\) ? although a quick look is taken at Herefordshire and Oxfordshire too. The chapter ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a look at the wider functions of the shire court and of the suitors? relationship with the king and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four begins the ?more interpretative? part of the book, and is concerned with lordship and service. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a brief discussion of wills and what they reveal about aristocratic households, Williams discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendation: ?the tie which bound men to their lords? \(p. 69\). Commendation was legally enforceable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and once a man had commended himself to a lord he could not go elsewhere without due cause. The bond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was such that according to Cnut?s law code betrayal of one?s lord could not be compensated by a fine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, a man might have two lords. Once this bond had been created, the commended man might ride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his lord?s entourage, act as his messenger or bodyguard, and fight \(and die\) by his side. In return he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received his lord?s protection and presents ? including land.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The transfer and possession of land, as well as the service due for it, is the focus of chapter five. It is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps more than in any other chapter that Williams?s ability to explain clearly and concisely what various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical terms mean is most in evidence. The reader has already been introduced painlessly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendation; now terms such as bookland, loanland, and thegnland are defined. In return for the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given or leased to them, men performed a variety of services from paying for pasturing their pigs through to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations to act as a bodyguard or messenger, lend horses, contribute to bridge works, make deer hedges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring their men to the hunt, and ? where land was held from Worcester cathedral ? to do whatever was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary for the bishop of Worcester to perform his own service to the king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six moves away from land and service to look at how status was displayed. Williams looks at how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Viking invasions of the 11th century turned the social world upside down, and how Archbishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulfstan?s ?Sermon of the Wolf? and his ?Promotion Law? are both part of the same programme designed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to turn everything the right way up again. This, of course, explains the latter?s desire to spell out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between ranks quite so clearly, and it is the ?Promotion Law? that states that to become a thegn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ceorl had to have not only five hides of land but also ?a )] TJ ET BT 311.300 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bellhus)] TJ ET BT 345.968 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a )] TJ ET BT 377.624 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burhgeat)] TJ ET BT 420.956 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 88\). It is the )] TJ ET BT 506.276 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burh)] TJ ET BT 528.944 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old English manor house \(p. 89\) ? and its attendant church that are the focus of the rest of the chapter. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name )] TJ ET BT 63.008 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burh)] TJ ET BT 85.676 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggests that these residences were supposed to be defensible, and the )] TJ ET BT 427.940 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burhgeat)] TJ ET BT 471.272 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?can scarcely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything but the entrance-gate in the defensive circuit? \(p. 91\). A )] TJ ET BT 350.276 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bellhus)] TJ ET BT 384.944 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, too, was originally a tower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed for use in siege warfare \(and here we are faced with a development from Williams?s earlier article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject that may contribute to the debate about the difference between )] TJ ET BT 406.268 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burhs)] TJ ET BT 433.604 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and castles\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.920 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.920 288.627 m 509.912 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.912 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the main public building within the enclosure and it defined the identity of the attached \(which might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached\) estate. Williams looks at the literary, documentary and archaeological evidence ? which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially well-integrated here ? to give a rounded overview of halls and chambers and their uses. We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown around kitchens, stables, the privy, the threshing floor, the metal-working shop, and the weaving-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shed. From the manor house we move to the church. From the 9th century, minster churches fell prey to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thegns who built their houses within their enclosures and became their patrons. New churches were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded, and a hierarchy developed from great minsters down to ?field churches? which had no graveyard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which were intended as a place where the lord of the manor and his family might worship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven takes us from the buildings by which aristocrats of all stations displayed their wealth to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothes, jewellery and possessions, beginning with the gold-hilted swords that symbolized rank from King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred in the 9th century to John of Worcester in the 12th \(although gold hilts are almost unknown from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10th and 11th centuries\). The English may not have fought on horseback, but a well-bred horse was a status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbol and so lords kept studs. R. H. C. Davis looked at the war horses of the Normans some years ago and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluded that they would have been small by modern standards.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.300 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.300 77.043 m 361.292 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 361.292 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This seems to be confirmed for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period before 1066 by Bishop lfwold of Crediton?s will. In 1012 he left thelstan theling the wild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horses \()] TJ ET BT 71.672 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wildra worfa)] TJ ET BT 134.024 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) at Ashburton in Devon ? Dartmoor ponies, in other words \(p. 111\). The heriots of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.9197 288.9415 509.9117 300.8215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.2997 77.3575 361.2917 89.2375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8113 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eorldormen and king?s thegns also included a monetary component, paid in coin or bullion or even in arm-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rings. Such rings were thus ?a decorative form of portable wealth? \(p. 116\) and a blatant \(if perhaps old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned\) way of displaying one?s riches. The final section of this chapter is concerned with textiles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including mention of the golden embroidery with which a well-off Englishmen?s clothes were decorated, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for which outlived the Conquest and allowed some English ladies to gain or retain land as a result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their skill \(p. 120\). One general comment mentioned almost in passing is important: the period sees an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in consumption, and a development of urban markets as aristocrats turned to professional craftsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the towns rather than to their own in-house metalworkers for these valuable items.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter is about aristocratic pursuits: hunting, falconry and feasting. Williams is quick to remind us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the forests and deer parks existed before the Conquest, and that Cnut was keen to protect his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunting on pain of fines \(pp. 123?4\). Hunting lodges are discussed, as well as the place-names that suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements particularly associated with hunting. Here, the ?lutegar? element is telling ? it means ?trapping-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spear? interpreted as ?a trap which shot itself off when an animal disturbed it? \(pp. 129?30\) ? as at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludgershall \(Wilts\). Williams notes, too, that ?sparrowhawk? and ?goshawk? are Old English words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testifying to the importance of hawking before 1066. The names for falcons, in contrast, were largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imports \(indeed the Old English for ?falcon? is )] TJ ET BT 262.652 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wealhhafoc)] TJ ET BT 317.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: foreign hawk\). Hunting was not an efficient way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of getting food, but eating what had been caught reinforced the prestige of the lord. Furthermore, it turns out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the highlight of the great ceremonial feasts of Anglo-Saxon England was not the food at all but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the drinking that followed \(p. 133\). Nonetheless: ?As with weapons, armour, clothes, furnishings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative arts, so it was with food: conspicuous consumption was ever uppermost in the minds of Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English lords \(and ladies\). What?s the point of being rich if no-one notices?? \(p. 137\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In bringing all this evidence together and in setting it out so clearly, Ann Williams has provided a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service to students and scholars working on the aristocracy and material culture over a much longer span )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than that covered by the book. As will now be apparent, however, )] TJ ET BT 352.952 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Before Domesday)] TJ ET BT 492.596 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not an all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing study of aristocratic family life. There is no discussion of women and childhood, family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure or naming patterns, or of marriages or religious patronage as a means of creating or recognizing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community or the equivalent of an ?honorial baronage? \(for example\), and these terms do not appear in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index. The book is thus comparable, in both what it does and does not cover, to David Crouch?s )] TJ ET BT 498.296 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Aristocracy in Britain 1000?1300)] TJ ET BT 208.688 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.688 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.688 371.907 m 225.680 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.680 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is not a bad thing, but it is worth saying in the absence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement to this effect in the preface or introduction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A book like this cannot be expected to cover all the issues that might arise to all its readers, and there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably places where the book raises questions that it does not answer, or where it might have addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or acknowledged some wider issues. In chapter one, for example, we are told that earls were unable to form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own administrations: ?Old English earldoms were not territorial principalities, like the Frankish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties ... Since there was no level of local administration higher than the shire, there was no ?comital? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. Earls received a share of the profits of justice ... but they could not themselves hold courts or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mint coinage? \(pp. 23?4\). But if the king could administer the kingdom through shire courts, why did it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter to the earls that there was no higher level of local administration? Surely they had their own courts \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sense of assemblies\), like the witans, that they might use to organise their earldoms. Equally, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was based in part on faction \(and some of the chapter considered this\), to what extent did an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earl?s dominance of one or more shire courts create a comital administration? As a second example, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter five we are told that bookland was ?granted by a royal diploma \()] TJ ET BT 382.268 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(boc)] TJ ET BT 399.596 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), in perpetuity, with full rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disposition for the beneficiary? \(p. 76\). The diploma apparently need not relate to royal land; Earl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold?s endowment of Waltham Holy Cross required a royal diploma to be effective \(p. 24\). But what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes an Anglo-Saxon diploma different from an Anglo-Saxon charter? Where might one find out more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about them? The preface notes the availability of documentary sources, but the relevant note says only that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not all diplomas survive as originals but that even forgeries can be illuminating \(p. x, n. 12\), and the index )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omits both ?diploma? and ?charter? altogether. Moreover, for those coming to this book without much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of Anglo-Saxon law, the king?s monopoly on issuing diplomas and the fact that they might grant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-royal land might suggest that the king had ultimate rights of ownership of all land in his kingdom, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6877 372.2215 225.6797 384.1015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5989 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so of reversion should the holder die without heirs. As this is relevant to arguments about the position of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king at the top of the so-called feudal pyramid after 1066, a reference to further reading on this matter, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a sentence expressly squashing such unorthodox ponderings, would have been helpful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A reader might thus regret a lack of information and guidance in a few notes, and might wish for some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entries in the index. It would have been nice, too, to have had some illustrations of the archaeology or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects mentioned in the text. It may be supposed that their absence is the result of economy on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher, but it is a shame nonetheless. And, while griping, mention might also be made of the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher has chosen to have endnotes rather than footnotes, which this reviewer, at least, finds inconvenient. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The typesetter might have felt much the same, as the pagination disappears for no reason between pages 141 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 149 inclusive \(from appendix two to the first couple of pages of endnotes\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author can take no blame for much of this, and in any event these few grumblings and criticisms should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be allowed to detract from the overall value of the book. This is a stimulating, careful, and enjoyable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of its subject; illuminated by well-chosen anecdotes and the archaeological record; and well-rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sources and historiography. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or, indeed, that which replaced it after 1066.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Williams, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English and the Norman Conquest)] TJ ET BT 324.692 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 432.008 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingship and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government in Pre-Conquest England c. 500?1066)] TJ ET BT 311.324 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\); )] TJ ET BT 395.984 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thelred the Unready: The Ill-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counselled King)] TJ ET BT 144.356 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.680 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.680 477.459 m 279.668 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Karn, ?Secular power and its rewards in Dorset in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 160.340 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 82 \(2009\), 5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.332 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.332 448.947 m 282.320 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Williams, ?A bell-house and a )] TJ ET BT 227.324 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burh-geat)] TJ ET BT 274.652 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: lordly residences in England before the Conquest?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Knighthood IV)] TJ ET BT 182.672 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Harper-Bill and R. Harvey \(Woodbridge, 1992\), pp. 221?40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.280 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.280 420.435 m 551.276 420.435 l S BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 406.179 m 78.008 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. H. C. Davis, ?The warhorses of the Normans?, )] TJ ET BT 305.300 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman Studies)] TJ ET BT 414.968 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 \(1988\), 67?82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.288 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.288 391.923 m 560.276 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Crouch, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Image of Aristocracy in Britain 1000?1300)] TJ ET BT 366.332 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.656 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.656 377.667 m 501.644 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 307.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 289.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 289.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1005)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 288.393 m 328.316 288.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5163)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.6797 477.7735 279.6677 489.6535 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.3317 449.2615 282.3197 461.1415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.2797 420.7495 551.2757 432.6295 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 406.4935 78.0077 418.3735 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.2877 392.2375 560.2757 404.1175 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.6557 377.9815 501.6437 389.8615 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 288.7075 328.3157 300.5875 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1005) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005203 00000 n 0000005312 00000 n 0000005422 00000 n 0000005531 00000 n 0000009092 00000 n 0000009220 00000 n 0000009304 00000 n 0000009333 00000 n 0000009461 00000 n 0000009497 00000 n 0000009581 00000 n 0000017569 00000 n 0000017599 00000 n 0000017727 00000 n 0000017763 00000 n 0000017854 00000 n 0000026436 00000 n 0000026466 00000 n 0000026594 00000 n 0000026630 00000 n 0000026660 00000 n 0000026786 00000 n 0000026822 00000 n 0000026906 00000 n 0000035072 00000 n 0000035102 00000 n 0000035230 00000 n 0000035266 00000 n 0000035392 00000 n 0000041434 00000 n 0000041562 00000 n 0000041617 00000 n 0000041745 00000 n 0000041800 00000 n 0000041928 00000 n 0000041983 00000 n 0000042109 00000 n 0000042164 00000 n 0000042292 00000 n 0000042347 00000 n 0000042475 00000 n 0000042530 00000 n 0000042658 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42754 %%EOF