%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128063200+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128063200+00'00') /Title (Sir Robert Peel: the Life and Legacy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4090 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sir Robert Peel: the Life and Legacy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two years after the death of Sir Robert Peel in 1850, Walter Bagehot asked his readers ?Was there ever such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a dull man? Can any one, without horror, foresee the reading of his memoirs??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.608 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.608 271.929 m 425.600 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.600 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was by no means a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical question, for Peel had prepared three volumes of reminiscences to be published after his death. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That concern with the judgement of posterity ? and Peel?s anxiety to shape its deliberations ? forms the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keynote of Richard Gaunt?s new study: )] TJ ET BT 226.652 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Robert Peel: the Life and Legacy)] TJ ET BT 402.632 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Gaunt makes clear at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset, his book is not ?a new cradle-to-grave biography?. Instead, it ?offers a reinterpretation of Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to what he was doing in key areas of activity which have subsequently formed the nucleus of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political legacy?, exploring Peel?s ?own attempts to lay the foundations for his posthumous standing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posterity? \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aspect of Peel?s character was widely noted at the time. Horace Twiss complained in 1831 that Peel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?always thinking of his reputation? \(p. 144\), and )] TJ ET BT 291.644 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 341.312 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thought it ?curious that Sir Robert Peel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should so often be under the necessity of stripping to show how clean his linen is? \(p. 113\). Peel, Gaunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes, was)] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extremely ambitious man both for himself and for his subsequent place in history. To that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Gaunt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848850354)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Saunders)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6077 272.2435 425.5997 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7015 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent, Peel?s statecraft was shaped and undertaken with at least one eye to his long-term )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation at the hands of contemporaries and future historians. This process of ?self-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioning? had a different focus from that undertaken by his great political rival, Benjamin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disraeli, who was concerned with accommodating his self-acknowledged ?genius? to his own )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age, rather than to that of posterity \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if ?Peel was, in many respects, the first historian of his administration? \(p. 107\), his efforts were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always well directed. As Gaunt shrewdly observes, Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 315.956 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs)] TJ ET BT 358.616 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were essentially defensive, centring on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sponsorship of Catholic Emancipation and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. By focusing on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two reversals, ?he refrained from placing those episodes within the broader canvas of his life?, allowing his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics to choose the ground on which his reputation would be contested \(p. 152\). The effect on his legacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been enduring. Though Peel was hardly the only statesman to make significant changes of policy, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malleability has been the starting point for almost all subsequent analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having established this concern for posterity, Gaunt essays the more daunting task of probing Peel?s psyche. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel, he suggests, was at least as complex a character as those who succeeded him, though his mental life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been less rigorously explored. Given recent interest in ?the Mind of Mr Gladstone?, the ?Self-fashioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Disraeli? and ?Lord Salisbury?s World?, Gaunt asks, should we not also ?delve in to ?the ego of Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Peel??? \(p. 16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a challenging project and two reservations might be registered at the outset. Peel was morbidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive to any slight upon his integrity and devoted considerable energy to the defence of his consistency. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He took for granted, too, that any reasonable man, with all the facts at his disposal, would agree with him; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these tendencies together made him prone both to long exculpations of his conduct and to a smug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence in the verdict of ?history?. Whether this means that Peel?s statecraft ?was shaped and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken? with an eye to posterity is less certain. On Gaunt?s reading, historical justification was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a reflex that )] TJ ET BT 130.004 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(accompanied)] TJ ET BT 193.988 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Peel?s actions, but a motor that influenced and impelled them. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to prove, and raises some important questions. Did Peel act according to his judgement at the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assume that posterity would agree with him, or did a concern for posterity make him act in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways, distinct from contemporary pressures?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for ?the ego of Sir Robert Peel?, Gaunt is probably right that Peel?s inner life is not intrinsically less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting than that of Gladstone or Disraeli. It is, however, much harder to access. Peel was a notoriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private man and our resources for his inner life are sparse. He left no diary, like Gladstone, and wrote no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels, like Disraeli; nor did he show much penchant for philosophical reflection of the kind in which Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury later indulged. As Gaunt acknowledges, ?For a man who played so dominant a role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of his age, there is a remarkable and lingering sense of anonymity surrounding Peel? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This places peculiar weight on the psychological observations of his critics. Though often piquant, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely knew him well and had agendas and prejudices of which they may not themselves have been aware. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a commonplace that Peel was excessively ambitious; but as George Canning, John Prescott and almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every female minister since 1945 could testify, such claims are the common currency of politics when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals attain positions thought to be above their station. For Peel, the son of a cotton manufacturer, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge was almost inevitable, though it sits uneasily with his return to the backbenches in 1818; his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to dislodge the Whigs after 1835; and his conduct in Parliament after 1846.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To say that a project is difficult, however, is no argument against making the attempt. Gaunt?s approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens up promising new perspectives on Peel, and this is no mean achievement in a crowded field. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is little that will be wholly new to scholars, Gaunt synthesises an impressive array of secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material and offers some imaginative research of his own. The text is interspersed with cartoons and images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Peel, and Gaunt makes especially good use of poetry. Though often execrable in quality ? ??Sad, sad was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day when misfortune that way/ From health, strength, and vigour had tossed him/ Upon the hard ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to receive his death wound/ Oh mourn!! mourn! Britannia, we?ve lost him?? \(p. 196\) ? the Victorians? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexplicable taste for duff verse makes this an important and hitherto neglected resource. The hatred inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Catholic emancipation, or the veneration of Peel after his death, may be better illustrated in popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ballads than in pamphlets or scholarly literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins and ends with broad survey chapters, exploring ?Sir Robert Peel in historical perspective?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The rise \(and fall\) of Sir Robert Peel? and ?Peel, death and posterity?. The five intervening chapters cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific areas of policy: Ireland; currency and banking; the Home Office; the Conservative party; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform of the tariff. Each is a sustained and closely argued essay in its own right, and there is only space here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to summarise them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewing his Irish policy, Gaunt finds in Peel ?the personification of the Conservative statesman, yielding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the face of necessity in order to retain and secure the fundamentals? \(p. 38\). He credits Peel with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imperialist mentality? \(p. 21\) first acquired at the Colonial Office, though he suggests that the repeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign of the 1840s ?crystallised \(as County Clare had done fifteen years before\) a materially different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response? intended to ?kill O?Connellism with kindness?. For Gaunt, the Devon Commission and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated reforms mark a significant new departure in Peel?s statecraft: ?The years 1844?6 represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true ?ripening? of Robert Peel, insofar as his Irish policy is concerned? \(p. 34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of the following chapter, currency and banking, interested Peel rather more than most of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers; yet Gaunt argues persuasively for its importance. As Gladstone later noted, Peel?s Bank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charter Act ?was a kind of Baptismal Creed with him? \(p. 51\), and Gaunt finds in Peel?s dogmatism on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue a window into ?the heart of Peel?s political character? \(p. 42\). This chapter is inevitably rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical, but Gaunt demonstrates the centrality of currency and banking reform both to Peel?s own political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and to his wider reputation. By 1830, he argues, the currency had become ?a lightning rod of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent for the government?s opponents and one on which Peel was fatally implicated? \(p. 48\). Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obduracy on the currency matched Wellington?s on reform, contributing in equal measure to the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ministry. Gaunt is right to restate the importance of this question, though not all readers will find Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immobility ?a cause for praise rather than censure? \(p. 56\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter, on Peel?s tenure at the Home Office, explores the case for Peel as a ?liberal Tory?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt ably unpicks the rather contradictory assumptions bound up in this idea, noting that Peel won radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plaudits for consolidating the criminal law, but that the creation of the Metropolitan police force fostered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more authoritarian image. On the much-debated question of Peel?s humanitarian credentials, he notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Peel?s criminal law reforms were not designed to result in less punishment but in its more precise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficient application. It follows from this that there would be no immediate down-turn in capital executions?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel, he concludes, ?may not have been a ?great hangman??, but nor was he ?a great humanitarian?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Considered a ?liberal? in his willingness to undertake reform of the criminal law, he ?was not liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough? to consider codifying it? \(pp. 73?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five assesses Peel?s claim to be the founder of modern Conservatism. Like most recent writing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt downplays Peel?s role in the creation of the Conservative Party and his responsibility for the electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of 1841. Indeed, he identifies Peel?s discomfort with party as a central element in his career, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him an uneasy figure in the politics of the reformed era. Peel, he notes,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had never represented a genuinely large or populous constituency himself and had been bred in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a political environment where a government enjoying the confidence of the crown and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage of the Treasury was almost guaranteed a working majority in the House of Commons. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? It was unreasonable and unlikely to expect that, with a widely known reputation for high-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handedness and self-belief, Peel would willingly compromise his entire political existence to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date and reinvent himself in the guise of a committed party politician \(p. 88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, Gaunt argues, was to have ?disastrous consequences? after 1845. Peel had come to power ?through the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7465 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism of party; a fact which necessitated that he conform, subsequently, to the political platform upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which that party had been returned?. After 1832, a minister could no longer ?\(as in the pre-Reform days\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely upon ?the influence of the crown? and a judicious application of patronage?. ?Flushed with electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains?, however, Peel misread his victory ?as a triumph in the face of the Reform Act, rather than a telling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of its operation? \(pp. 101?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a well-established line of argument; but Peel?s tendency to view politics ?as in the pre-Reform days? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not be overstated. Peel was as uncomfortable with some of the older arts of political management as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was with ?party? in its modern sense, and his distaste for the politics of patronage would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic even without the Reform Act. Indeed, with his revolutionary preoccupations and horror of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular violence, Peel may even have exaggerated the transformative effects of the Reform Bill. Obsessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the volatility of the new electorate and the impetus to popular protest, he embarked after 1832 on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy of political tranquilisation, intended to secure the loyalty of the new electors while keeping ?out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view all topics calculated to disturb the public mind, or give to agitators the means of agitation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.640 612.003 m 510.632 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.632 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy directed chiefly towards middle class opinion outside Parliament, and towards ?that class of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people with whom we are brought into no direct relationship by the exercise of the elective franchise?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.244 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.244 583.491 m 540.236 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 540.236 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much greater extent than his Whig opponents, Peel was searching after 1832 for a new way of conducting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, predicated on the conviction that a revolutionary change had taken place in the political order. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly stored up trouble with the Conservative backbenches, but it was neither backward looking nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacent. Given that his successors, who gave a much higher priority to party management, secured fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than five years in office between 1846 and 1874, slightly less than Peel achieved in a single sitting, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaism of Peel?s approach does not go without saying.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay covers tariff reform and repeal of the corn laws. Gaunt sees repeal ?in essence as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophylactic against the potato famine? \(p. 35\), while stressing that it drew on earlier changes in Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his mind, it was not the adequacy or inadequacy of the 1842 Corn Law, but his understanding )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the economic impact of the Corn Laws, and the impossibility of pursuing political principles )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against their logic, which transformed the situation in much the same way as O?Connell?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election for County Clare had transformed his understanding of Catholic Emancipation. His )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ripening?, in respect of Ireland, the success of his tariff reform policy and the ready availability )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Income Tax as a means of generating a secure stream of government revenue, were the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary precursors to this change of heart. Consequently, the change in Peel?s thinking can be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dated, in the medium term, to 1843 \(p. 122\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this perspective, ?Repeal was very much Peel?s personal policy?, and was ?as much a matter of Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish, as his economic, policy? \(p. 123\). Yet Peel?s indifference to the views of his backbenchers ?not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed the Conservative Party but undermined his own carefully crafted policy of legislation on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equitable, national basis. ? Far from healing social divisions, the politics of Corn Law Repeal actually served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to open up a social cleavage between the interests of agriculture and the interests of manufacturing? \(p. 126\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It did not help that Peel re-narrated the repeal crisis, in the four years after 1846, to give ?colour to the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Repeal was the inevitable \(and to that extent pre-meditated\) outcome of his economic policy as Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister? \(p. 105\). This was neither true nor politic, for it nourished a sense of betrayal among those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had supported his earlier changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Gaunt, repeal was primarily a matter of Irish statecraft, for it was ?impossible to prove the good faith of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British government to the Irish Catholic majority, whilst quietly allowing them to starve?. ?As Peel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed Charles Arbuthnot, ?the worst ground on which we can fight the battle of true Conservatism is on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of )] TJ ET BT 90.680 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(food)] TJ ET BT 112.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ? especially one relating to Ireland? \(p. 123\). The choice of quotation is curious, for Peel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter to Arbuthnot was concerned not with Ireland but with the political situation in Britain, at a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the working classes feel convinced that their wages do not rise with the price of food?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.592 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.592 55.299 m 468.584 55.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 468.584 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With this in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.6397 612.3175 510.6317 624.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2437 583.8055 540.2357 595.6855 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.5917 55.6135 468.5837 67.4935 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, it is surprising that Gaunt does not address in more detail the justification Peel himself offered most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently for repeal, and the one that gained most purchase after his death: that repeal was a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy intended to disable agitation, which had saved )] TJ ET BT 299.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 333.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? not Ireland ? from revolution in 1848. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the hour of danger?, Peel boasted, his measures had promoted ?loyalty to the Throne and confidence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice of Parliament?. The ?permanent adjustment of the Corn Laws? had ?rescued the country, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole frame of society, from the hazard of very serious convulsion?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.604 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.604 723.795 m 378.596 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That claim is certainly open to question, but it became central to Peel?s reputation after 1846. Gaunt notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that )] TJ ET BT 55.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 85.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( credited Peel with ?saving the nation?, and references a similar claim by Cardwell in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes \(pp. 133, 193\); but the sentiment was much more widespread than this in the years following 1848. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repeal, it was asserted, had saved the aristocracy and prevented a social convulsion, by stripping away the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one grievance that could have mobilised protest. As )] TJ ET BT 285.644 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 335.312 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( noted, repeal had not abolished poor harvests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it had broken the connecting link between food shortages and class government. By ?the repeal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corn Laws?, it concluded, ?Government has for ever emancipated itself from the unpopularity which used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow a bad harvest, and effectually removed one of the most prominent and frequently-recurring causes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent and sedition?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.008 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.008 583.491 m 167.000 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, however, is a matter of judgement; and Gaunt puts his case with some force. There are, inevitably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some minor errors. Peel?s scientific adviser during the famine was Lyon Playfair, not Leon \(p. 117\); the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aberdeen Coalition was formed in December 1852, not in July \(p. 135\); and ?help yourself and the sky will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help you? is a rather odd translation of ?)] TJ ET BT 227.312 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aide-toi et le ciel t?aidera)] TJ ET BT 353.300 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 37\). If there had been an ?icy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(frondeur)] TJ ET BT 76.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? between Peel and Wellington, the Iron Duke would almost certainly have run him through \(p. 93\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet few books are free of the odd mistake, and the general standard of accuracy is high. Taken as a whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt is to be credited with an interesting and thoughtful volume, which will serve as a useful introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one of Britain?s most enigmatic political figures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Collected Works of Walter Bagehot)] TJ ET BT 255.668 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. St. John-Stevas \(15 vols, London, 1965?86\), iv, p. 51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 377.667 m 118.004 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel to Arbuthnot, 29 September 1841, in )] TJ ET BT 267.008 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Correspondence of Charles Arbuthnot)] TJ ET BT 472.340 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Aspinall )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1941\), pp. 232?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.668 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.668 349.155 m 249.656 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard)] TJ ET BT 106.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 86, 15 May 1846, 706.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.012 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.012 334.899 m 272.000 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel to Arbuthnot, 7 January 1846, in )] TJ ET BT 247.004 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence of Charles Arbuthnot)] TJ ET BT 431.336 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 239-40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.332 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.332 320.643 m 546.320 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs by the Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel)] TJ ET BT 305.660 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Lord Mahon and E. Cardwell \(2 vols, London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1856\), ii, p. 313; Peel to Graham, 2 September 1846, in )] TJ ET BT 333.332 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Robert Peel From His Private Papers)] TJ ET BT 531.980 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. S. Parker \(3 vols, New York, 1970\), iii, p. 462.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.332 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.332 277.875 m 357.320 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 92.684 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31 December 1853, p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.992 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.992 263.619 m 270.980 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful to Dr Saunders for his review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Association)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_3293_73.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 182.595 m 365.972 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 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