%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 52 0 R ] /Count 16 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818220718+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818220718+01'00') /Title (Ten Years of Debate on the Origins of the Great Divergence) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3904 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ten Years of Debate on the Origins of the Great Divergence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ten Years of Debate on the Origins of the Great Divergence between the Economies of Europe and China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Era of Mercantilism and Industrialization)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. Smith, Marx and Weber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along with histories of power, histories of material life and economic growth are the most popular of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metanarratives currently published in the growing field of global history. Indeed no surprise will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasioned by the appearance in our times, of accelerated ?globalization?, of histories seeking to encompass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?global economy?, dealing with chronologies going back millennia and written to expound upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate levels of material progress achieved by tribes, societies, communities and national economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located on all the world?s continents. Such concerns continue to be the litmus test of the mission of global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history to keep ?humanity in view?. After all, most people, in most places for most of history have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been preoccupied with obtaining food, shelter, clothing and other manufactured artefacts that they required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sustain either a basic, a comfortable and only latterly, an agreeable standard of living.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditions of historical enquiry into the wealth and poverty of nations began with Herodotus but modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigms for investigation need be traced no further back than to the towering intellects of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan, but perhaps equally ?Eurocentric? Germans: Karl Marx and Max Weber. Both scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Pomeranz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691090108)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(392pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick O'Brien)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7262 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained a serious interest \(admittedly as a counterpoise to Europe\) in the evolution of the Indian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese, American and Russian economies. However, Weber?s investigations into Oriental religions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophies, cities and states look far more serious than anything written by Marx and Engels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The vocabularies and concepts borrowed by generations of historians from the corpus of writings left by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx and Weber can no longer be presented as coherent theory. Nevertheless, it is still heuristic ? when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to understand material progress and relative decline across continents over long spans of time ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish Marxian from Weberian approaches. The former has classically been concerned to investigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potential for material progress embodied in distinctive ?modes of production? observed for different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the world. While the Weberian ?research programme? can be divided into two major strands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry: firstly, a comparison of hegemonic systems of belief, \(cultures\) operating to promote or constrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and group behaviour in economic life; and coupled secondly, with an empirical analysis of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, legal and institutional frameworks within which economic activity is embedded has operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically to foster or hinder economic development around the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In classical Marxian thought, the only mode of production capable of generating sustained material progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?capitalism?, is based upon wage labour and the accumulation of capital. Marx found that the first transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from pre-capitalist to capital modes of production occurred first in Western Europe. Thereafter global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians \(working within a Marxian tradition\) have addressed his question of when and why did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition occur there before considering the obverse question: what sorts of ?pre-capitalist? modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production prevailed throughout Africa, Asia and the Amerindian Americas that delayed or arrested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable transitions to capitalism upon other continents?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recently a ?deviant? \(or supplementary\) Marxian paradigm has been elaborated in an impressive volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research conducted by the World Systems School of Historical Sociology. This "School" maintains that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition to capitalism \(or commercial society\) that led eventually to the establishment of successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial market economies occurred initially in Western Europe because Europeans reaped timely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive gains from intercontinental trade and the colonization of the Americas for some three or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries before the onset of the French and Industrial Revolutions. Europe?s economic benefits from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries of participation in )] TJ ET BT 169.328 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter-continental)] TJ ET BT 249.992 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( commerce and imperialism are broadly conceived to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompass positive externalities as well as a range of favourable political, institutional and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feedbacks and spin-offs connected to ever increasing flows of commodities shipped into European ports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from all over the world, from across the Atlantic and Indian oceans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsurprisingly, the World System Schools? emphasis upon the extension of markets for European exports to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, Africa and the Americas and above all its insistence on the pervasive significance of imports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(embodying productive knowledge\) from other continents has been contested. Classical Marxist scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend canonical texts concerned with progressive and non-progressive modes of production and thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicitly join forces with neo-classical economic historians who continue to regard the particularities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe?s own history as the motor of its earlier transition to capitalism or commercial society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parenthetically, and for this particular debate, neither of these representations, nor that other unresolvable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion about continuous versus discontinuous transformations from one kind of traditional economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system to another, and ultimately more progressive, system seem to matter. What is now at issue is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specify and measure the significance of endogenous compared to exogenous forces promoting economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth in one part of the world economy \(Europe\) and restraining a similar momentum on the continents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, Africa and Southern America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, Marxian scholarship concerned with Asiatic modes of production and with the presence, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence, of peculiar forms of ?feudalism? found outside Europe now looks more theoretical than historical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, \(and perhaps because the tradition was ostracized and ossified during the Cold War\) classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism seems less influential than its Weberian counterpart in establishing the parameters, structure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary of a discourse concerned with ?restraints? which for several centuries operated to prevent Asiatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies from following the ?European trajectory? which was leading towards divergent standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living between the West and the Rest that became discernible by the 1700s and conspicuous over the course )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 19th and 20th centuries. Unfortunately, the ad hoc comments made by Marx on Asian societies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now regarded as little more than typical Eurocentric speculations of his time, which led generations of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers down a blind alley in search of supposedly ubiquitous and unchanging Asiatic modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Max Weber?s erudition is more impressive. His approach, questions and topics for investigation have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively set the parameters for the construction of global histories of material progress written in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades. He dealt with long spans of time, read widely about classical and oriental civilizations and used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative methods in order to comprehend why capitalism arose in the West and not in the East. Reading, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he did, over chronologies covering millennia, he recognized that the economies of India and China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed impressive scientific and technical precocity. Weber appreciated that Arabs and Asians had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established sophisticated systems and efficient institutions for the conduct of internal and overseas trade long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before European ships and merchants began to sail regularly into and around the Indian Ocean and China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seas during the 16th and 17th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber remained less impressed than Adam Smith or Karl Marx, with the economic significance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European development of the discovery and colonization of the Americas. He was not inclined to rank the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains from trans-Atlantic trade and colonization above endogenous forces, operating over centuries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history to promote economic growth within Europe. Thus in line with classical Marxism, Weber retained an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of how and why the accumulation of capital and the evolution of slave, through feudal to free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets for labour mattered as ?proximate? determinants of material progress within Western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a growing band of scholars, concerned to include an analysis of intercontinental connexions in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metanarratives about the long run history of material progress, Weber elaborated upon themes that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised a powerful impact on modern stories told about the economic success of the West and the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of the East over the past 400 years. Along with Montesquieu and other thinkers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment, Weber \(and Weberians\) believe that discernible contrasts in the institutional, ideological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal frameworks within which economic activities \(especially internal and overseas trade\) were embedded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe compared to Asian economies had prevailed for several centuries and that marked differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs, family life, cultural conditioning, institutional frameworks and political systems promoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent paths of economic growth that eventually produced a clear divide within the world economy into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affluent and poor nations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(2. The New Global History of ?Surprising Resemblances?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent decades, a modern generation of economic historians have carried forward the Weberian tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attempts to explain for what became for at least three centuries increasingly visible economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of Western societies in a global perspective. Weber left them with an approach, a vocabulary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and several suggestive hypotheses that have been accepted, modified and also rejected by two generations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post war and post colonial historical research. There are now libraries of books and articles dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Eastern? agricultures, industries, towns, commercial networks, communications, trade, science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies, cultures, business organization, taxation, state systems, government policies and cosmologies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the comprehension of nature covering the centuries since the Tang dynasty \(618?907\) ? some based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research by historians from universities, not long emancipated from imperial rule. This impressive, but still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than comprehensive, volume of historical investigations has, moreover, been communicated to the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by specialists in area studies from North American, European, Australian and Japanese universities. Not long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Second World War and during an era of decolonization, historians were offered an opportunity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by the accumulation of a large and sophisticated body of knowledge \(long available about Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and North America\), but emerging on Asia, the Middle East and Africa and Latin America ? to reposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hitherto disconnected histories of wealth and poverty one against another in order to construct global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of material progress that might have satisfied the aspirations of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Smith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ?enlightened? followers and pleased Max Weber.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly, and as a prelude to any scholarly analysis, and explanation, it will be necessary to date the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergence in living standards between the western and eastern ends of the Eurasian landmass because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that unmistakable gaps in real incomes per capita and labour productivities \(measured for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade preceding the Great War\) must have evolved and prevailed for centuries prior to that time, cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported with hard economic data. Indeed recent historical research on Asia has produced some partial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regionally specific and still inconclusive and defective evidence to suggest that standards of living in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe and )] TJ ET BT 134.984 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maritime)] TJ ET BT 178.316 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provinces of China and South India may not have differed perceptibly much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the late 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That contestable suggestion has led global historians, labelled as ?Eurocentric? by their opponents, to fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back upon unquantified ?Weberian? \(and ?Marxist?\) assertions that the economies of ?North Western? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, were surely on potentially more promising trajectories for early transitions to efficient industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market economies for ?several? centuries before even the more developed regions of Asia? Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures, political systems, property rights, legal frameworks, regimes for the discovery and diffusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliable knowledge, commercial and financial organizations, trading networks, markets for commodities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour and capital are conventionally represented as being altogether more likely, than anything discernible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Asian systems of production to have generated: preconditions for factories, mechanized industry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steampowered transportation by land and sea; for the generation of inanimate forms of energy; for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanization manufactories and reorganization of agriculture and commerce into concentrated locations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and functional firms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than three decades ago, Marshal Hodgson \(one of the godfathers of modern global history\) opined that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?all attempts to invoke pre-modern seminal traits in the occident to account for the divergence in living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards can be shown to fail under close historical analysis'. Two generations of post war research on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, China and South East Asia \(synthesized in the recent writings by Fernand Braudel, Kirti Chaudhuri, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunder Frank, Jack Goldstone, Jack Goody, John Hobson, Ken Pomeranz, John Reid, Kaoru Sugihara, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Washbrook, Bin Wong, Harriet Zurndorfer, et al\) concur. From his own impressive and detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons of levels and types of economic development achieved by European and Asian economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early modern period, Braudel inferred that ?the populated regions of the world faced with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of numbers seem to us to be quite close to each other?. But there is, he observed, ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical inequality between Europe and the rest of the world. Europe invented historians and made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good use of them Her own history is well lit and can be called as evidence or used as claim. The history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Europe is still being written. And until the balance of knowledge and interpretation has been restored, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian will be reluctant to cut the Gordian knot of world history?. One distinguished historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe, David Landes, displays no such reluctance and his celebrated book, ?The Wealth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poverty of Nations? \(1998\) elaborates over some 600 odd pages on an ?historical record?, of ?Weberian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preconditions which he claims demonstrates why ?for the last thousand years Europe \(the West\) has been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prime mover of development and modernity?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern historical research, has, however virtually ?degraded? \(or at least severely qualified\) repetitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist and Weberian assertions that the political, institutional and cultural frameworks within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activities in Asia were embedded for centuries before the Industrial Revolution, differed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in ways that clearly and )] TJ ET BT 188.648 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(significantly impeded)] TJ ET BT 291.644 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: the evolution and integration of commodity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor markets; the development of financial intermediation; the spread of private property rights; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations of mercantile networks; proto-industrialization; and above all the commercialization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture. What recent but different syntheses of whole libraries of historical research on the economies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia \(as well as Europe\) observe and document are not only a range of advanced and less developed regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Western Europe, but \(to use a now famous phrase by Ken Pomeranz\) a ?world of surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resemblances? across Eurasia. Surveys of monographic literature have effectively rendered a whole corpus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Marxian and Weberian interpretations redundant. It can no longer be taken for granted that for centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Industrial Revolution, European economies experienced virtually exceptional transitions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism; evolved discernibly more efficient legal, behavourial, institutional and political frameworks for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation, integration and operation of markets, and thereby allowed for progress \(albeit at a slow rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with limited help from new technologies\) down a path prescribed for in models of Smithian growth. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7286 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore historians of pre-industrial Asia have also located and analyzed ?cultures? that encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrious and ambitious households to transform their extra earnings into displays of possessions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxuries. Their work reveals that, contrary to the expectations of Werner Sombart \(and his modern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers\), common attributes of material life appeared in too many cities, town and villages across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurasian landmass, for anyone to single out the ?rise of material culture? as something peculiar to the so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called and uniquely ?acquisitive? and ?industrious? households of Western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore and before the era of liberal imperialism, \(from the Opium to the Great War\) states everywhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed impediments in the path of Smithian growth that emanates essentially from the spread and integration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of markets; and that endlessly repeated \(endemic but always implausible\) notion that dynastic and territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalries among European states consistently provided more favourable \(less unfavourable\) conditions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the operation of market forces during the early modern era of mercantilism and warfare has also been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined. More simplistic versions of the hypothesis conflate virtuous circles and cycles for development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowing from ?competition? with the destructive violence and rivalries of early modern European power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. Notions \(that have been floating around since Montesquieu\) that the emperors and bureaucracies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despotic eastern empires ruled over the economies \(and ergo their fiscal bases\) in irrational ways that can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented as more predatory, arbitrary and consistently and peculiarly malign towards Smithian growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now look increasingly obsolete historical scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the recently reconstructed economic histories of a ?world of surprising resemblances? canonical accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Smithian growth ? of European economies growing up gradually but inexorably on distinctive market led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectories within their restricted and relatively underdeveloped promontory of Eurasia ? look untenable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply because too many ?seminal? traits of the occident turn out to be not only ubiquitous, but prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of the Orient. Perhaps such Weberian \(and/or Marxian\) perceptions will be revived and underpinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by further research and debate. Research \(or even a renewed search among extant histories\) might )] TJ ET BT 507.200 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(delineate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps measure unmistakeable/incontestible differences in the scale, scope and intensity of Smithian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth across time and space. Meanwhile and as recent reconfigurations of Asian economic history become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known and acceptable \(to all but an anachronistic generation of historians and a-historical economists\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate moves on from the realm of acrimony towards conversation, we may well witness a revival of more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced and carefully specified long run historical explanations for divergencies in productivity and living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards between east and west, that historians have long agreed became unmistakable over the 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stark during the 20th century, but which are disappearing today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(3. Revisionist Explanations for Delayed and Late Divergences Between Eastern and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Economies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile to suggest \(as anti-Weberian revisionists do\) that an unexpected and unpredictable conjuncture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between East and West appeared quite suddenly in the late 18th century also remains too fragile to stand as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core hypothesis about long-run global economic development. That is so because revisionism offers three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested explanations for both this ostensibly ?late? and the ?great divergence?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first contention is that in different ways, for different reasons and along different chronologies, imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental structures in the Orient became increasingly inefficient and incapable of providing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject populations and territories with the good order, protection against external aggression and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public goods required to maintain satisfactory levels of private economic activity, market integration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation. In short, strategic and administrative defects afflicting the Safavid, Ottoman, Mughal and Ming-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing empires, intensified through time and thereby made space for the rise of the West. Investigations into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature, extent and significance of the political crises \(clearly affecting three Oriental empires in the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and China by the time of the White Lotus Rebellion\) continue and may well lead to the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights now coming on stream from comparative histories of early modern European states, concerned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast the evolution of political arrangements and policies conducive or obstructive towards economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and innovation within Western Europe. This debate about the constitutions of government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of states will only be taken forward by social scientists who know something about the histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social scientists of political and other subordinate institutions, their diverse forms and the precise ways )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they interconnected with the economic activities of households, farms and firms not only in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, but in Asia as well. Repetition of recycled enlightenment equations between republicanism, liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and parliamentary forms of governance on the one hand and transitions to industrial market economies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other, seem less and less satisfactory. The theories, concepts and taxonomies now emerging in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating forms from neo institutional economics, need to feed into and be reformulated in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical investigations into specific political, legal and institutional frameworks that promoted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrained national, regional and sectoral rates and patterns of economic growth across the whole of Eurasia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, and at the heart of the key revisionist explanation for divergence between East Asia and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, is a quintessentially classical growth story which is based upon an impressive array of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship investigating connexions and mechanisms derived ultimately from the writings of Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthus and Ricardo. For example, Pomeranz represents cultivable land as a relatively fixed factor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production and suggests that additions to the stocks of useful and reliable knowledge allowed only for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incremental and limited technological progress. Upswings in population growth led \(only )] TJ ET BT 465.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in extremis)] TJ ET BT 518.972 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some Asian regions\) to Malthusian crises, but more commonly both in Western Europe and in the Ming-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing Empire to constricting shortages of land intensive crops and agrarian raw materials, including: basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foodstuffs, timber utilized for manufacturing and construction, wood converted into fuel and energy for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial and domestic purposes and fibres derived from plants and animals for purposes of transformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into textiles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over some two or more centuries, before 1750, when population growth rates in Europe and China advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at comparable rates, the Chinese economy coped with the ?pressure of numbers? basically by intensifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour in order to relieve shortages of food and agrarian raw materials. For Pomeranz, and other scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(who reject Eurocentric explanations for the great divergence cast in terms of Smithian growth\), the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to explain how and why European economies did not proceed down the same path as China, but instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided diminishing returns to labour engaged in agricultures and proto-industries and gradually diffused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanized techniques of production across manufacturing and transportation. Pomeranz reposed the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question very cogently: ?why? he enquired, ?did England?s economy not continue to develop like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of the Yangzi Delta?? In other words modern revisionism insists, as Marc Bloch advised long ago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on carefully specified and )] TJ ET BT 161.312 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reciprocal)] TJ ET BT 211.304 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comparisons of economics with comparable geographical endowments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answers offered by Pomeranz are carefully supported with a reflexive reading of modern scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and Europe, and refer to contrasts between endogeneous and exogeneous potential for the avoidance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of diminishing returns to land and other natural resources available to China and to Europe. They suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that after millennia of successful land management, Chinese agriculture stood closer to its production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility boundary than European agriculture. Possibilities for coping with population pressures by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensions to margins of cultivation and cropping, through tenurial reform, investments in the infra-structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for intra-regional trade and specialization, by reallocating pasture to arable, improving the control of water, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies implementing efficient food stabilization policies, etc., had already been carried further in China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe not only enjoyed some discernible \(alas, unmeasurable\) opportunities for taking up ?slack? within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the agrarian system, but the potential gains from trade and specialization in foodstuffs and raw materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within northern and southern, eastern and western parts of our continent remained greater than the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited patterns of intra-regional trade within the Chinese Empire. Indeed \(and as demographic pressures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified over the 18th century\), the potential for trade diminished because, unfortunately, rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population increase became faster among China?s poorer, less urbanized, provinces of primary production. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The empire?s northern and inland regions then adjusted by reallocating surplus agricultural labour into proto-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry; consuming higher proportions of both the food and agrarian raw materials produced within their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries and by importing less manufactured goods. Thus China?s precocious Smithian growth, already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high levels of trade and path dependency based upon a mix of labour intensive crops \(particularly rice\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered the imperial economy more ?ecologically vulnerable? than Europe to population pressures when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they intensified over the century before the Industrial Revolution.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7108 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, revisionists insist \(and have traduced a not entirely sufficient or convincing body of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support their view\), that Britain and other the organic economies of Western Europe were also on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar trajectory of diminishing returns and rising costs for the production of food, fuel and fibres, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?core? )] TJ ET BT 68.324 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(postponed)] TJ ET BT 117.656 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the onset of more severe ecological problems and shortages during the early phases of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization in the 18th century and )] TJ ET BT 228.668 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(circumvented)] TJ ET BT 293.312 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( them over the 19th century by exploiting two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?windfalls? of massive significance, namely: endowments of cheap and accessible energy in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coal, and the fecund soils and abundant natural resources of the Americas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In bringing to the foreground the contribution of the Americas, revisionists have in effect returned our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to exogeneous \(overseas\) sources of Western Europe?s economic advance, underlined by Adam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith and Karl Marx and reified in recent decades into a ?)] TJ ET BT 314.948 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primus mobile)] TJ ET BT 383.948 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? by Wallerstein, Chase-Dunn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blaut, Frank, Gills and others we may group in the World Systems School of Historical Sociology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Wrigley and an earlier generation of British economic historians had already explored the profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and widespread ramifications of endowments of cheap fossil fuels in allowing Britain to escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(before the rest of Europe\) from potential ?Malthusian traps?. Although precise calculations are difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make and several figures \(including revised estimates from Pomeranz\) jostle for recognition the tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy accountancy as a way of explaining increasing and decreasing returns go back to the 19th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, it is not difficult to accept that school's major conclusions, namely that the substitution of coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and steam power to provide for the heat supplied to Britain \(and other European economies\) by oxen, horses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wood and manpower for various benchmark decades after the Napoleonic Wars, would \(counterfactually\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have absorbed ever increasing and implausibly large shares of Europe?s virtually fixed supplies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural land. Furthermore, all forms of heat intensive industry and transportation \(metallurgy, glass, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pottery, beer, sugar and salt, refining soap, starch, railways and ships\) benefited from the substitution of coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for other more costly and less efficient organic forms of energy. Feedbacks and spin-offs from the mining, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation and utilization of coal, including the construction of canals, precision engineering and, above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, the impetus provided by coal for the development, improvement and diffusion of engines for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision of energy from steam, remain impossible to calculate. They became central for Europe's aptly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named ?age of steam?. Yet that age \(1846?1914\) remained imminent rather than dominant during the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of the industrial revolution, which occurred decades before that particular golden age of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore \(and to revert to Bloch?s reciprocal mode of comparative history\), the question of why China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to exploit its known and very considerable deposits of coal, and thus become more like England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgium and Westphalia is, perhaps, not pursued in the depth that such a salient contrast demands. Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coal may or may not have been more combustible and less well located than European deposits, but it stayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below ground as an abundant and presumably as a potentially more efficient source of energy, compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manpower, wind and water that the Chinese, Japanese and other Asian economies continued to utilize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the 19th century. References to geology, geography and transportation problems do not seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sufficient to explain why China remained virtually an outsider throughout the age of steam?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(4. The Significance of Intercontinental Trade for European Transitions to Industrial Market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Economies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, \(to return to Adam Smith and overseas expansion\) europeans \(not Chinese, Arabs or Indians\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered conquered, infected, plundered, colonized and eventually established mutually beneficial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial relationships with the Americas. That protracted enterprise should not be designated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?peripheral? \(as I suggested, before climbing onto a learning curve some 18 years ago\) nor reified \(as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to be in the writings of Immanuel Wallerstein, James Blaut and the world systems school of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical sociology\), as the ?motor? driving Europe's benign transformation towards successful industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market economies over the course of the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Material benefits from the rediscovery of the Americas did not come on stream for a long time after 1492, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7572 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and accrued disproportionately to two latecomers and free riders ? the Netherlands and England. No doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative exercises in national accountancy designed to measure the macro-economic significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic commerce for either the development of Europe as a whole, or even for particular countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Netherlands or Britain, \(most persistently and profitably involved with expansion overseas\) are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraught with conceptual and statistical difficulties. No economic historian could deny that the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of \(colonies regulated along mercantilist lines\) together with slave plantations in the New World, turned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms and conditions for trans-Atlantic trade in favour of Europe; compared, that is, to commerce with Asia; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even more clearly to a counterfactual scenario, whereby the settlement and the build-up of viable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent economies in the Americas depended upon unregulated, but unprotected private investment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immigration of free labour from Europe rather than the enslavement of millions of Africans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, recent research into world trade in bullion has clarified the importance of the complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multifaceted role played by Chinese, Indian and South East Asian demand for New World silver in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining the profitability and momentum of European investment in the Americas for some two centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Industrial Revolution. That investment also promoted an entirely gradual movement towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration and growth of an embryonic global economy, within which the separated maritime towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions of Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas interacted ? usually with more positive effects for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European than for Asian development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, a national accounts framework continues to be the only viable perspective available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who wish to specify and quantify the overall significance of variables, such as intercontinental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exports and imports for national \(and European wide\) rates of capital formation and structural change and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation from 1492 to 1815. If \(as Paul Bairoch?s imperfect and badly referenced data suggest\), European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exports to other continents and imports from the Americas, Asia and Africa are but ?small? percentages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the total value of European output, then inferences that either the Americas \(or the none-European World as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole\) continued, as late as the end of the 18th century, to play a comparably minor role for the advance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West could only be meaningfully challenged in two ways. First, \(and this logic could be compelling\), in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern Europe, economic growth took place as specific margins and )] TJ ET BT 395.936 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(if)] TJ ET BT 402.608 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a large share of the annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(increment)] TJ ET BT 82.004 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to total European \(or to particular national products\) can be connected directly or indirectly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercontinental commerce, then that over-publicized and glamorous sub-sector of several maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies might indeed be plausibly represented as ?highly significant? for the economic advance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West. Quantitative tests could then relate the gains from intercontinental trade to ?net? capital formation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to aggregated volumes of potentially ?tradeable outputs? in order to manufacture ratios that are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant for locating, dating and comprehending the sources of economic growth from, say, 1500 to 1800. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionists, who take their perceptions from Adam Smith, will prefer to shift the focus for concentration to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, which over time became more involved than any other European economy \(including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands\) with intercontinental commerce and colonization. Nevertheless that shift looks far too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenient, simply because the ?ratios of significance? for a precocious and quintessentially ?British? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Revolution \(diffused as traditional and now degraded stories would have us believe with lags onto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mainland\) will become that much larger and rhetorically more persuasive as numbers, designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the importance of the Americas \(and via their connexions with Asia\) for transition of the West to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern industrial economies. Britain cannot represent the West and its transition to an industrial market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and was never a paradigm for its rivals on the mainland to follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another route that can be followed in order to make the case in a less parsimonious way, but which comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to the details of micro dynamism favoured by economic historians, \(like Fernand Braudel, Immanuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallerstein and Ken Pomeranz\) is to construct narratives built around the array of imports that Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transhipped from the New World and Asia back into their famous maritime ports \(Lisbon, Seville, Cadiz, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antwerp, Amsterdam, Bordeaux and London\). Imports represent tangible manifestations of the ?bounty? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Europe eventually obtained from investments in commerce and colonization in the Americas and \(by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of extension and linkages\) to gains from trade with Asia as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American and Asian imports included: bullion, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, industrial inputs and raw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials. Imports, obtained in very large part through the exercise of coercion designed to secure favourable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of trade, increased in volume with the incorporation of maritime Atlantic economies into global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce, slowly at first, but more rapidly as the infra-structure and organizations required for long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance trade were built up over the 16th and 17th centuries. Histories of spin-offs and externalities have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been woven around most of the major imports from other continents carried into European ports. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connexions to the maintenance and extension of benefits from long established patterns of intra-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, to the foundation of new food processing industries, to geopolitical rivalry and state formation, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth in the wealth and powers of merchant oligarchies, to the rise of maritime cities, to changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, technology and the arts; indeed to almost all aspects of European economic, political and urban life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been elaborated in numerous histories of sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa, maize, rice, tobacco, tropical fruit., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tomatoes, beans, chillies, potatoes, timber hardwoods, dyestuffs, wax, fish, oils, cotton fibres; quinine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curve sarsparilla, pecal, laxatives; porcelain, silk and cottons, textiles and above all to silver and gold. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography is long. Volumes imported fluctuated but increased on trend. Points of entry and distribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Asian and American imports changed through time from city to city and from country to country. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is how to connect imports from other continents to narratives \(or models\) of early modern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in which national economies are carried forward to plateaux of possibilities from where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitions to industrial market economies became probable?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernand Braudel, Giovanni Arrighi and Charles Kindleberger find the key mechanisms they wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline in a geopolitical matrix of dynamic circuits between maritime cities, big merchants and nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states. Pomeranz devotes his research and analysis to two possible macro-economic connexions. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operates through a thesis recently elaborated by Jan de Vries about Europe?s pre-modern ?industrious? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, which emanated from decisions by myriads of households to work harder and to allocate more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labour time and other resources under their control to production for markets. Behind such decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by households are shifts in tastes or propensities to consume, stimulated by the availability of ?exotic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?addictive? foodstuffs ? such as sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, tropical fruit, tomatoes and spices; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pharmaceuticals, opiates and luxurious but affordable Asian manufactures such as silks, jewels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(porcelain, and above all, cottons from the East. In brief, the rise of material culture in Europe has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked, in carefully specified ways, to intercontinental trade and colonization to changes in consumption and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment and to the patterns of work by European households.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nothing comparable occurred in Asia because the consumption of tropical groceries, porcelain, silks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cotton textiles and other indigenous products had already diffused down the social scale. In the Orient, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial states had virtually no fiscal or other interest in the promotion of commerce and colonization that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might in the fullness of time pay for itself in the form of imported and taxable luxuries. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese and Indian demands for foodstuffs and manufactures produced in Europe remained limited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume and scope. Although the new world silver that European merchants exchanged for Asian foodstuffs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufactures and raw materials presumably promoted monetary transactions and internal trade in China and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India in the same way that American bullion did within Europe?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionists make the most of a not unconvincing case for symbiotic linkages between the luxurious, exotic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addictive and desirable characteristics embodied in imports from Asia and the Americas to: the industrious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution; the maintenance of European commitments to intercontinental trade; the enslavement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans; and flows of investment into colonization and plantations in the New World. They cite literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which locates the impetus to development from urban processing industries \(sugar refining, coffee roasting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tea and tobacco blending, etc.\) in maritime cities, heavily engaged in trans-oceanic commerce. They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar with histories that explain how the manufacture of cotton textiles in Britain developed over the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century within a matrix of trade with India, the import of cotton fibres from slave plantations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas, state involvement with its East India company and the promotion of a functional process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(import substitution by English Parliaments from 1660?1721.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, it will be heuristic to confront this new and stimulating narrative which foregrounds the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Asian and Americas imports in bringing about divergent economic developments between Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and East Asia. First the share of the calorific intake supplied by sugar, tea and other tropical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groceries could only have been small. Growing proportions of British merchant ships were indeed built in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6976 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North American colonies \(and in Asia\) even before the French blockades cut off supplies of Baltic timer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other naval stores \(pitch, tar and hemp\) during the Napoleonic Wars. Nevertheless, established patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East-West and intra-European trade in timber reverted to normal after that war, and iron rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American forests alleviated European shortages of wood for construction and for shipbuilding in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although a statistically more compelling case for the substitution of cotton fibres grown on slave plantations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Americas, for supplies of flax, hemp, silk and wool grown in Europe can be made. Once again, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(scale)] TJ ET BT 58.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of imports in relation to total consumption of indigenous fibres becomes important later rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier in the 19th century. The suggestion that supplies of cotton wool from the Americas had long been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?virtually indispensable? for the development of mechanized cotton textile production in Europe is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing because an equally plausible counterfactual scenario can be formulated to suggest that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulating and steadily improving capacity to produce mechanized cotton yarn and cloth first in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then elsewhere on the continent, would have stimulated other primary producers in Asia \(even China\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Middle East to respond to European demand for cotton fibres.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New economic history consigned axioms of indispensability to the realms of improbability four decades ago. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there is certainly a more nuanced but less dramatic argument to be made for the importance of supplies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of slave produced cotton fibres, namely that cheap raw materials promoted the growth of one major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing industry in Europe and that the engineering problems involved in the mechanization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spinning and weaving cloth were more easily solved with fibres with the tensile properties of cotton, than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrown silk \(not so clear!\), wool, flax, and hemp. Nevertheless, in rather short compass the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanizing all major processes in the production of cloth made from the entire range of natural fibres were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solved. By then supplies of cheap flax from Russia and wool from Australia, Argentina and other primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers come on stream to supply Europe?s textile industries with all the fibres that they could process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(5. Divergence and Convergence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem of ?the Great Divergence? between Western Europe and East Asia is important for social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists to address simply because it is still with us as a North-South divide. We can agree that the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift from organic to inorganic forms of energy provided Europe \(particularly Britain\) with an early start. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, and for several reasons, the other leg of the revisionist explanation \(which follows the line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by Adam Smith, Karl Marx and the World Systems School\) that the discovery, conquest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation of the Americas also generated comparably large windfall gains and allowed Western Europe to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumvent the problems of diminishing returns afflicting oriental empires carries less conviction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First of all, classical diminishing returns to land seem less applicable to India and South East Asia than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China. Furthermore, the convergence of Japan \(despite a poor endowment of natural resources\), undermines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories based on classical growth models. Secondly, and on any recasting and reconfiguration of the data, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now available to measure the significance of intercontinental commerce, standard exercises in national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income accountancy are unlikely to provide persuasively large ratios. Meanwhile the now fashionable post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern retort that large outcomes could flow from small changes to exogeneous variables, simple destroys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any claims that economic history might have to precision. We might rhetorically enquire if small outcomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could flow from large changes to endogenous variables?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, it is not at all clear that the arable land, pastures, forests and seas of Western Europe, together \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through trade\) with its periphery to the East and South could not have sustained the rates of population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, industrialization and urbanization experienced say, down to the mid-19th century without massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imports of primary produce from the Americas. To hark back to the central point of Mark Elvin?s classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, was it not the case that China had exhausted more of the potential gains from intra-regional trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensification of labour inputs and agrarian improvements well before the growth of its population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerated in the 18th century? Elvin?s thesis can moreover, be reformulated in the language of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics. Compared to Western Europe, just how far were China \(and other regions of Asia\) away from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their \(technologically constrained\) production possibility boundaries before 1750? Classical economists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Smith and Malthus\) both perceived that China had proceeded further and had continued to move faster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the path of diminishing returns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaving coal aside, the intercontinental trade data suggests that Europe possessed the foodstuffs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural raw materials required to persist with Smithian growth and the urbanization and industrialization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the workforce without recourse to massive imports of primary produce from the Americas until well into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century. Meanwhile, the accumulation, testing and application of a body of reliable knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to carry the mechanization and transformation of industry and transport, the deployment of steam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, urbanization and reorganization of finance and commerce had proceeded a long way and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond a point of no return ? or what historians of China refer to as involution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With these observations, which is concerned with the unavoidable and important demarcation of relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologies in place, I wish to underline a distinction that has perhaps not been made clearly enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the modern debate about inter-connexions between ?The Industrial Revolution? and ?The Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Divergence?. ?The Industrial Revolution owed something ? but probably not as much as Adam Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested to the incorporation of the Americas into global commerce. That remains clear, if we look again at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume and array of imports entering European ports before 1846. On the whole \(and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuous exceptions of maize, potatoes and cotton fibres\) imports merely ?supplemented? supplies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continents? own basic foodstuffs and raw materials. The cargoes carried by ships into European ports were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated for centuries by tropical groceries and manufactured luxuries. At most they embodied attributes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scholars \(who ?represent? the ?rise of material culture?, ?industrious revolutions? and the multifaceted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of grand merchants engaged in oceanic commerce as ?preconditions? for Western Europe?s early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization\) find appealing to place at the centre of their narratives about the origins of the North-South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agreed the Great Divergence and the Industrial Revolution form part of an interconnected narrative and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of divergence in labour productivities and real incomes between Europe in China, that had so clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared by 1914, looks inconceivable without the massive supplies of basic foodstuffs and raw materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported from the Americas and other primary producers. But since those supplies came on stream over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the century, questions of what started and what sustained the Industrial Revolution should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be conflated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In most of its essentials, the Industrial Revolution which demarcates the beginnings \(sources?\) \(origins?\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergence had appeared several decades earlier. During its early stages tenuous and not highly significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connexions can be constructed between intercontinental commerce on the one hand and the substitution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coal-based forms of heat and power for traditional forms of energy derived from wood, wind, water, animals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and human muscles on the other. Some elements of early and gradual mechanization of industrial processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly for textiles can be linked to trans-oceanic trade, but again the connexions still seem more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangential than central. There are missing elements in current explanations for divergence which would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with ?regimes? for the production and diffusions of useful and reliable knowledge in Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China. Technology really mattered for the Industrial Revolution and )] TJ ET BT 364.640 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(if)] TJ ET BT 371.312 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the English and follower economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the mainland might well \(but for coal and close involvement with the Americas\) gone the way of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yangzi Delta, then why has even that commercialised and advanced region of the Manchu Empire taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a long time to regain the economic rank and status it held in the world economy in the mid-18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is regaining today?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography of Secondary Sources Consulted)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in the International Economy 1500?2000)] TJ ET BT 270.332 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Derek H. Aldcroft and Antony Sutcliffe \(eds.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cheltenham, 1999\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 6157 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Allen )] TJ ET BT 99.344 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 123.344 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well Being in Asia and Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alice H. Amsden, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Rest. Challenges to the West from Late Industrializing Economies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans W. Arndt, )] TJ ET BT 113.000 703.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Development. The History of an Idea )] TJ ET BT 344.960 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, 1987\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giovanni Arrighi, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Long Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 260.684 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Resurgence of East Asia)] TJ ET BT 172.004 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Giovanni Arrighi )] TJ ET BT 281.324 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 302.324 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 308.324 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Livy Bacci, )] TJ ET BT 109.676 624.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Concise History of World Population)] TJ ET BT 299.348 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1992\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bairoch, )] TJ ET BT 102.344 598.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victoires et dboires.)] TJ ET BT 207.668 598.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire cononomique et sociale du monde du xvie sicle a nos jours)] TJ ET BT 542.624 598.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vols, Paris, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. A. Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 97.352 557.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World, 1780?1914)] TJ ET BT 307.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reinhard Bendix, )] TJ ET BT 121.676 531.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Max Weber.)] TJ ET BT 183.320 531.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Intellectual Portrait)] TJ ET BT 295.988 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1962\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life Under Pressure. Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia 1700-1900)] TJ ET BT 440.684 505.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Tommy Bengston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 55.016 491.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Cambridge, MS, 2004\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bentley, )] TJ ET BT 88.016 464.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old World)] TJ ET BT 139.016 464.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Encounters. Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times)] TJ ET BT 503.336 464.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Blackburn, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 424.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of New World Slavery)] TJ ET BT 288.668 424.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Blaut, )] TJ ET BT 98.348 398.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Colonizers Model of the World)] TJ ET BT 268.016 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1993\) and )] TJ ET BT 382.652 398.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eight Eurocentric Historians)] TJ ET BT 522.656 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Li Bozhong, )] TJ ET BT 97.016 357.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural Development in Jiangnan 1620?1850)] TJ ET BT 339.668 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1993\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 331.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernand Braudel, )] TJ ET BT 120.332 331.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization and Capitalism, 15th and 18th Century)] TJ ET BT 367.364 331.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3 vols. London, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francesca Bray, )] TJ ET BT 114.320 305.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Technology and Society in Ming China )] TJ ET BT 304.976 305.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Washington, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China and Modern Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 181.028 278.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Tim Brook and Geoffrey Blue \(Cambridge, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism. Critical Concepts in Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 284.696 252.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Cain and Mark Harrison \(3 vols., London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J Bryant, ?The West and the rest reunited: debating capitalist origins, European colonialism and the advent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modernity?, )] TJ ET BT 107.672 197.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian Journal of Sociology)] TJ ET BT 258.008 197.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31, 4 \(2006\), 403?44.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Chase-Dunn and Thomas Hall, )] TJ ET BT 245.324 171.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise and Demise Comparing World Systems)] TJ ET BT 457.640 171.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirti N. Chaudhuri, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 145.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asia before Europe)] TJ ET BT 224.336 145.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 119.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Costello, )] TJ ET BT 92.696 119.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Historians and their Goals)] TJ ET BT 254.708 119.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(De Kalb, 1993\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. W. Crosby, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 92.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecological Imperialism. The Biological Expansion of Europe 900?1900)] TJ ET BT 452.000 92.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1986\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Crouzet, )] TJ ET BT 90.680 66.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the European Economy 1000?2000)] TJ ET BT 321.992 66.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Charlottesville, 2001\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Curtin, )] TJ ET BT 83.360 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cross Cultural Trade in World History)] TJ ET BT 271.052 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Darwin, )] TJ ET BT 101.672 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After Tamerlane. The Global History of Empire )] TJ ET BT 333.668 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gang Deng, )] TJ ET BT 95.000 731.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development c2100 B.C.?1900 A.D.)] TJ ET BT 503.612 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gang Deng, )] TJ ET BT 95.000 691.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Development Versus Stagnation Technological Continuity and Agricultural Progress in Pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modern China)] TJ ET BT 103.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1993\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ricardo Duchesne, ?On the rise of the West. Researching Kenneth Pomeranz?s Great Divergence?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review of Radical Political Economics)] TJ ET BT 221.336 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(2004\), 52?81.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leandro Prados de la Escosura, ?International Comparisons of Real Product, 1820?1990: An Alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Data Set?, )] TJ ET BT 86.336 596.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Explorations in Economic History)] TJ ET BT 250.664 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 37 \(2000\), 1?41.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan de Vries, 'The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 382.820 569.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 522.476 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 54, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), 249?70.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Elvin, )] TJ ET BT 95.012 529.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pattern of the Chinese Past)] TJ ET BT 248.012 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, 1973\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Elvin, )] TJ ET BT 95.012 503.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Another History: Essays on China from a European Perspective )] TJ ET BT 406.652 503.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Sydney, 1996\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larry Epstein, )] TJ ET BT 105.668 476.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom and Growth. The Rise of States and Markets in Europe 1350 - 1750)] TJ ET BT 476.312 476.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Flinn, )] TJ ET BT 107.684 450.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Coal Industry 1700?1830)] TJ ET BT 356.696 450.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metals and Monies in an Emerging Global Economy)] TJ ET BT 287.660 424.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Denis Flynn and Arturo Giraldez)] TJ ET BT 472.628 424.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andre Gunder Frank, )] TJ ET BT 139.988 398.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Re Orient: Global Economy in the Asian Age)] TJ ET BT 356.960 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack A. Goldstone, ?Effloresces and economic growth in world history: rethinking the ?Rise of the West? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Industrial Revolution?, )] TJ ET BT 185.672 357.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of World History)] TJ ET BT 307.340 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13 \(Fall 2002\) pp. 323?89.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 331.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Goldstone, )] TJ ET BT 113.672 331.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why Europe? The Rise of the West in World History )] TJ ET BT 367.652 331.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 2008\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Goody, )] TJ ET BT 97.004 305.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The East in the West)] TJ ET BT 195.668 305.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Goody, )] TJ ET BT 97.004 278.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Theft of History)] TJ ET BT 194.012 278.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John R. Harris, )] TJ ET BT 109.676 252.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays on Industry and Technology in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 406.988 252.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 1992\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Held )] TJ ET BT 92.672 226.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 113.672 226.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(., )] TJ ET BT 122.672 226.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Transformations)] TJ ET BT 239.024 226.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Hobson, )] TJ ET BT 88.016 200.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization )] TJ ET BT 302.696 200.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2004\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshal Hodgson, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 173.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking World History)] TJ ET BT 249.668 173.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bert Hoselitz, )] TJ ET BT 103.676 147.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theories of Economic Growth)] TJ ET BT 248.672 147.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1960\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Huang and others in a special edition of )] TJ ET BT 259.664 121.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 377.336 121.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 61 \(2002\) reviewing Kenneth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pomeranz, )] TJ ET BT 88.004 107.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Divergence)] TJ ET BT 195.308 107.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cited below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Jones, )] TJ ET BT 89.672 80.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growth Recurring. Economic Change in World History)] TJ ET BT 356.660 80.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1988\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Jones, )] TJ ET BT 89.672 54.418 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures Merging )] TJ ET BT 178.340 54.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, 2006\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 6068 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles P. Kindleberger, )] TJ ET BT 155.660 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Economic Primacy 1500?1900)] TJ ET BT 337.304 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Landes, )] TJ ET BT 107.000 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wealth and Poverty of Nations)] TJ ET BT 275.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Lee and Wang Feng, )] TJ ET BT 169.316 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(One Quarter of Humanity. Malthusian Mythologies and Chinese Realities)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MS, 2002\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Macfarlane, )] TJ ET BT 120.980 703.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Riddle of the Modern World. Of Liberty, Wealth and Equality)] TJ ET BT 437.636 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beyond Binary Histories: Re-imagining Eurasia to c.1830)] TJ ET BT 313.664 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Victor Lieberman)] TJ ET BT 425.636 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ann Arbor, MI, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Maddison, )] TJ ET BT 102.680 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective)] TJ ET BT 327.644 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris 2001\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 624.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asia and Europe in the World Economy)] TJ ET BT 225.332 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick Manning, )] TJ ET BT 334.988 624.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review Forum)] TJ ET BT 506.636 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107, 2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(April 2002\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Mazlish, )] TJ ET BT 110.336 584.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Global History)] TJ ET BT 228.008 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Munkler, )] TJ ET BT 96.008 557.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empires)] TJ ET BT 136.004 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Mokyr, )] TJ ET BT 95.012 531.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Technological Creativity and Economic Progress)] TJ ET BT 332.996 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John U. Nef, )] TJ ET BT 98.336 505.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the British Coal Industry)] TJ ET BT 275.012 505.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1932\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Nisbet, )] TJ ET BT 107.012 479.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Idea of Progress)] TJ ET BT 256.004 479.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1980\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen O'Brien, )] TJ ET BT 109.820 452.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narratives of Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 246.488 452.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick K. O'Brien, 'The Britishness of the first Industrial Revolution and the British contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization of "follower countries" on the mainland?, )] TJ ET BT 317.108 412.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diplomacy and Statecraft)] TJ ET BT 440.432 412.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7 \(1997\), 48?67.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick K. O'Brien, ?Metanarratives in global histories of material progress?, )] TJ ET BT 405.776 386.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International History Review)] TJ ET BT 545.768 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23, 2 \(June 2001\), 345-67.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 345.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Costs and Benefits of European Imperialism from the Conquest of Ceuta \(1415\) to the Treaty of Lusaka )] TJ ET BT 34.016 331.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1974\))] TJ ET BT 66.008 331.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick K. O'Brien and Leandro Prados De La Escosura, special issue of )] TJ ET BT 438.752 331.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revista de Historia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economica)] TJ ET BT 88.004 317.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1 \(1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick K. O'Brien, ?Historiographical traditions and modern imperatives for the restoration of global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 276.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?, )] TJ ET BT 78.680 276.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Global History)] TJ ET BT 203.684 276.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2006\), 3?41.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin O'Rourke and Jeffrey Williamson, )] TJ ET BT 234.140 250.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Globalization and History)] TJ ET BT 360.152 250.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jurgen Osterhammel, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 224.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Verwandlung der Weet Eine Geschick te des 19 Jahrhunderts )] TJ ET BT 458.276 224.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Munchen, 2009\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold Pacey, )] TJ ET BT 105.668 197.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Technology in World Civilization)] TJ ET BT 266.012 197.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Pomeranz, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 171.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Divergence. China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topic, )] TJ ET BT 218.648 131.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World that Trade Created)] TJ ET BT 364.652 131.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Raudzens, )] TJ ET BT 124.988 104.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empires. Europe and Globalization, 1492?1788)] TJ ET BT 356.324 104.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walt W. Rostow, )] TJ ET BT 120.344 78.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theorists of Economic Growth from David Hume to the Present)] TJ ET BT 427.328 78.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 6180 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen K. Sanderson, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Transformation. A General Theory of Historical Development)] TJ ET BT 477.656 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision and Method in Historical Sociology)] TJ ET BT 239.684 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Theda Skocpol \(Cambridge, MS, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. 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Anthony Wrigley, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 252.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity, Chance and Change. The Character of the Industrial Revolution in England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1988\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irving M. 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