%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818065836+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818065836+01'00') /Title (Fighting for Britain: African Soldiers in the Second World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4209 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fighting for Britain: African Soldiers in the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last thirty years, in reaction to a predominantly white, Western and metropole-biased discourse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War based solely on the 'official' record, there have emerged a growing number of historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have sought to redress this imbalance by documenting the experiences of colonial men and women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that conflict, utilising oral history in an attempt to give voices to these 'voiceless' individuals whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution has been disproportionately sidelined. At the forefront of this movement have been studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African soldiers serving the British Empire, and an important distinction that has been argued is that for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans the war did not in fact begin in 1939 but in 1935, when Italy invaded Abyssinia \(p. 7\). It is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincidence that the timely emergence of this historiographical revisionism has dovetailed with the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-decolonisation. The Second World War was a watershed which marked a hegemonic reordering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, seeing the decline of the old European colonial powers left financially-crippled by the conflict and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling to find relevancy in the emerging bi-polar international system of the Cold War. Consequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the major points of debate has been the extent to which colonial ex-servicemen were active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in anti-colonial movements and nationalist politics, and the degree that these are depictions born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospectively out of nationalist mythologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for Britain )] TJ ET BT 132.368 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the natural evolution of this now firmly-established historiographical trend, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most comprehensive work attempted on the subject thus far. The majority of studies produced to date have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Killingray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847010155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Currey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Owen Spence)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6702 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely been regiment and regional focused; )] TJ ET BT 247.964 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for Britain)] TJ ET BT 343.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seeks to consolidate these disparate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts into a comparative examination of 'Anglophone' Africa as a whole. Though the author sets out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('tell in their own words the story of African soldiers who fought for Britain and South Africa' \(p. 1\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily through oral evidence and soldiers' letters, these are analysed in relation to the major theories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography to demonstrate their wider significance. In each area, the author provides an excellent survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his peers' existing work, in doing so offering the less well-versed reader with a vital contextual framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for interpretation, but it is through this transnational approach that the author is able to take the debate into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new territory, both geographically and methodologically. Though African soldiers served overseas, as far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afield as Palestine, Ceylon, India and Burma, in the process becoming exposed to new cultures and new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, the author is keen to emphasise that such contact zones also existed between Africans themselves. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only did war throw East Africans together with West Africans, but regiments themselves became a melting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pot of different tribal allegiances within these colonially-defined hierarchical structures. It is only through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining these cross-cultural interactions, and not in isolation, that one can truly assess the means and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure by which African soldiers became shaped by their wartime experiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author interrogates the notion that wartime service acted as a unifying force which forged national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, arguing that because of this 'close association with other soldiers men became more conscious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their cultural and social differences' \(p. 214\). In critiquing the involvement of ex-servicemen in Ghana's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('nationalist struggle', he concludes that 'soldiers' interests remained solidly sectional' \(p. 217\), and as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active political involvement was concerned, asserts that 'soldiers enlisted from and returning to the rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas were more likely to be involved in local rather than territorial politics' \(p. 222\). Significantly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author attests that the relative neglect of 'micropolitical activity' has been symptomatic of the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('academic attention was given to writing a 'nationalist' history that inevitably focused on the role and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of territorial parties' \(p. 215\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author's comparative approach allows colonial inconsistencies to be highlighted and assumptions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war had the same affect on all Africans to be expunged:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1946 the Gold Coast had a new constitution and a legislative council with an elected African )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority. In sharp contrast, in Kenya, on the other side of the continent, only a single African )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been appointed by the governor in 1944 to the otherwise all-white legislature \(pp. 257-8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, the author warns that 'we should not think African soldiers' experiences to be markedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from those of soldiers from other parts of the world' \(p. 246\). For example, grievances regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of pay, rations, and conditions of service are not uncommon in the history of most armed forces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though roots of such inequities in this context lay in colonial perceptions of Africans, and in the way 'racially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discriminatory proscriptions pervaded the military' \(p. 210\). Again here, the author is keen to highlight such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes varied between different African regiments, and 'overt discrimination which although part of daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial life in settler East, Central and South Africa, was at least largely absent from the West African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies', which translated into the fact that 'West African soldiers received higher pay than did East African, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and white soldiers were paid more than Africans' \(p. 210\). In some instances, wartime experiences broke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down these racial distinctions:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the shells and bullets there had been no pride, no air of superiority from our European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comrades-in-arms. We drank the same tea, used the same water and lavatories, and shared the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same jokes. There were no racial insults, no references to 'niggers', 'baboons' and so on. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white heat of battle ... only left our common humanity \(p. 158\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion that 'white prestige' was eroded by such cross-cultural contact, including Africans mixing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white women, is one which is contested by the author, however. He argues that such a construct rested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly within the minds of Europeans themselves, and that 'the history of 20th-century colonial Africa does )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6623 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not reveal many instances where Africans thought or acted as if white men were 'supermen' \(p. 204\), and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that 'strikes, riots and challenges to white authority steadily grew in the late 1930s throughout Africa' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31\) are seen as evidence of this. Consequently, it should not be considered as a major factor undermining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial authority and turning African thoughts towards self-determination. Neither did it shake British self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief argues the author, and by the late 1940s 'the colonial emperor was then still well clothed and officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and officials were overwhelmingly confident that ... it would be many decades, generations possibly, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial territories were able to rule themselves' \(p. 204\). Though maybe not believed to be racially superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by African soldiers, British superiority was accepted in other ways. For example, although the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed superior numbers, it was considered that 'in training and equipment we were definitely ahead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them' \(p. 159\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author notes that not only were African soldiers conscious of others' racial perceptions of them, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also appropriated and manipulated them for their own means, such as regarding Japanese beliefs that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were cannibals:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While they started to pretend to eat the 'meat' the other Japanese captives who survived would )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flee for their lives. This was intentional so that after they fled in terror they would spread the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news that they were fighting against the cannibals who particularly enjoyed eating Japanese )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flesh \(p. 158\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, in the process, there was an admittance that war did have a dehumanising effect, and 'you became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different person. You leave behind every civilian attitude, every gentle attitude' \(p. 164\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War also cultivated a sense of racial superiority within African soldiers themselves. Having witnessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty and squalor in the subcontinent, one Ghanaian ex-serviceman returned with the view that Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were 'lazy people ... always begging' \(p. 208\), and in East Africa and Natal which possessed large middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class Indian merchant classes, many Africans returned to view those Indians with 'contempt as poor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable and despised' \(p. 208\). Such prejudices were not only racial, but social in nature, such as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gold Coast, where ex-servicemen were accused of possessing a 'Burma complex' and 'superiority complex' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for not accepting the menial kind of work on offer \(p. 195\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, most notably the country's extreme racial prejudice, its differing political status as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominion, and the fact that black South Africans were prevented from serving as combatants, South Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sits somewhat separate from the other British African colonies in its wartime experience, something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged in the author's introduction and sub-chapter structuring. As a consequence, its inclusion can at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times appear to disrupt the fluidity of the narrative and distort the unifying concepts preceding it. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by highlighting such contrasts the author is able to challenge generalised assumptions regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of African soldiers. Furthermore, it helps to emphasise the transnational influence in shaping black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South African perceptions of themselves and their own condition, notably how they viewed other African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial soldiers that they came into contact with and the comparatively better pay, privileges, and attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they received.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The choice of title is a provocative one. Certainly it is demonstrated that there were those who consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose to 'fight for Britain' out of a sense of imperial patriotism and duty to the 'motherland'. It is inferred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, however, that one should not assume that patriotic attestations to 'my country' are necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicative of loyalty to Britain and her sovereign; as the author points out, a large number of 'volunteers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were forced to enlist by their tribal chiefs, and British recruiters consciously exploited this collaborative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. When men such as Kofi Anane left to fight for 'king and country', this in reality meant fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for chief and tribe, and was their primary allegiance. He enlisted in 1942 because his chief 'Nana Ofori Atta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said that anyone who wanted to help the Akyem State should join up, so I volunteered' \(p. 47\). In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances, however, these social structures which pressured Africans into fighting, unwittingly contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own destabilisation, as war 'detribalized African minds' and 'ex-servicemen would be less inclined on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5289 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their return to submit to chiefly authority' \(p. 182\). Yet, what such personal accounts demonstrate is the wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum of motivations which led people to war, with military service offering, among other things, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('adventure, a chance to see the world ? however poorly perceived ? beyond the village, to earn money, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove manhood' \(p. 45\). Again, there is a certain universality to these ideals held by young soldiers which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcends Africa, though they were inevitably influenced by local conditions and power structures. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Motivations were often a complex mix of push and pull factors, which could be simultaneously cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, political, economic, and environmental in nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his closing remarks, the author coins Kipling's famous phrase 'lest we forget' as one apt for the 'forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men of the African colonial forces' \(p. 260\). As true as this may be, it does not tell the whole story, and there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were thousands of colonial servicemen who fought for the British Empire in the Second World War who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still without a voice. This monograph, by its own admission, focuses solely on the experiences of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African soldiers who fought in the army. Yet, there were also black Africans who served in air and naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces who have been largely neglected by the wider historiography, along with many men from Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other colonial dependencies in the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific. As the author warns, the numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these veterans are rapidly dwindling as time takes its inevitable toll, and unless efforts are made to record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their stories, voiceless is how they will forever remain. )] TJ ET BT 300.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for Britain)] TJ ET BT 395.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ensures that at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollections of some of these men will be remembered, but it goes far beyond that; by placing the relevance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these personal testimonies within a transnational comparative framework, it successfully demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic value that such 'people's stories' or 'history from below' can carry in helping to broaden our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding and interpretation of the 'big ideas'. Consequently, this book addresses issues which will not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only appeal to African specialists, and military and imperial historians, but should interest many social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, cultural, transnational and economic historians too in assessing the far-reaching impact of arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pivotal event of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 414.675 m 270.668 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa Report)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.theafricareport.com/archives2/society-a-culture/3295796-book-reviews-fighting-for-britain-birth-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 386.163 m 559.904 386.163 l S BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-a-nation-struggle-for-land-in-africa-.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 371.907 m 246.284 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.284 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 368.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 350.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 350.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1009)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 349.401 m 328.316 349.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 324.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5175)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=412609&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.339 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.theafricareport.com/archives2/society-a-culture/3295796-book-reviews-fighting-for-britain-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth-of-a-nation-struggle-for-land-in-africa-.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 414.9895 270.6677 426.8695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=412609§ioncode=26) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 386.4775 559.9037 398.3575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.theafricareport.com/archives2/society-a-culture/3295796-book-reviews-fighting-for-britain-birth-of-a-nation-struggle-for-land-in-africa-.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 372.2215 246.2837 384.1015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.theafricareport.com/archives2/society-a-culture/3295796-book-reviews-fighting-for-britain-birth-of-a-nation-struggle-for-land-in-africa-.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 349.7155 328.3157 361.5955 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1009) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004908 00000 n 0000005017 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n 0000005236 00000 n 0000008797 00000 n 0000008925 00000 n 0000009009 00000 n 0000009074 00000 n 0000015829 00000 n 0000015894 00000 n 0000022570 00000 n 0000022675 00000 n 0000028017 00000 n 0000028144 00000 n 0000028275 00000 n 0000028402 00000 n 0000028606 00000 n 0000028733 00000 n 0000028937 00000 n 0000029065 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29161 %%EOF