%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421032851+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421032851+01'00') /Title (Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4508 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2001, Frederick Cooper wrote that ?globalization talk is influential ? and deeply misleading ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming coherence and direction instead of probing causes and processes?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.260 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.260 257.673 m 413.252 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.252 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Burbank and Cooper heed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this warning and focus very clearly and ably on the causes and processes of global empire building in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new book. They join a flurry of recent books linking empire, imperialism, and global or world history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Building on the ground-breaking works in this genre )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.328 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.328 214.905 m 303.320 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.320 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this book differentiates itself by beginning in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient Rome, rather than the 15th or 16th century, and expressly stating that it does not want to explain ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of Europe? \(p. 5\). While this may be strictly true, the traditional ?expansion of Europe? has here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been replaced with ?the expansion of Eurasia? and the book does not really touch in great detail on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African empires \(with which Cooper is undoubtedly familiar\), or the pre-Columbian American empires. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the book is successful in expanding the traditional story to encompass a wider Eurasian scope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing, undoubtedly, on Burbank?s expertise in Russian history. The authors? unique contribution is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they ?focus instead on how different empires emerged, competed, and forged governing strategies, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, and human affiliations over a long sweep of time? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into 14 chapters, and one of its great strengths is in its structure. It focuses on specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires or comparative examples from the same time frame, rather than dividing chapters into the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Burbank)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Cooper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691127088)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(528pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronwen Everill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.2597 257.9875 413.2517 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.3277 215.2195 303.3197 227.0995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7113 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of rule and looking for examples from throughout history. This gives the reader a real sense of depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ability to take away their own understanding, rather than being spoon-fed examples. Throughout, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book balances detail about the various empires it covers, providing enough to keep the reader interested and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal the particularities and contingencies of each empire?s development, but not focusing on so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail that the wider themes and processes are obscured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one outlines the themes and sets out the argument that ?for most of human history empires and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions shaped the context in which people gauged their political possibilities, pursued their ambitions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and envisioned their societies? \(p. 3?4\). The authors list their themes as difference within empires, imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediaries, imperial intersections, imperial imaginaries, and repertoires of power. Repertoires of power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while a somewhat vague term, emerges clearly as a concept throughout the book, playing a large role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation of imperial experiences. In essence, it is the different means by which imperial authority is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimated and practiced. For example, in areas under Mongol control, military ranks were only given to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongols, while other elites incorporated into the empire could rise through civilian offices \(p. 107\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, in Habsburg Spain, composite monarchy ? made up of ?a web of dynastic and material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linkages? \(p. 122\) ? was the system by which Charles V and Phillip II claimed imperial authority. The idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of repertoires of power has a number of different aspects beyond pure systems of rule, and these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptable across empires. First is the importance of ?governmentality? in administering empire ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enumerating, classifying and regrouping conquered peoples, collecting taxes, mapping new territories, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating imperial bureaucracies to carry out these functions. Second is the adaptability and ultimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reification of imperial projects. Within this fall a few sub-themes. The authors are clearly interested in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects and elite collaborators get out of empire and how empires respond to these demands. They also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the inadaptability of linking universal religion to claims for universal rule. The third aspect of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repertoires of power is the response to tensions between centralizing and decentralizing impulses. Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while an unstated aspect, the role of ongoing military conflict in fuelling imperial expansion continuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurs as a theme through the choice of comparisons put forward by the authors. The focus on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repertoires of power and governance reveals the reasoning behind the choice of empires described in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: the authors are arguing for a particular Eurasian set of imperial repertoires beginning with Rome and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and from which subsequent empires drew inspiration, adapting as they saw fit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the authors declare that they do not set out to relate a narrative, the story does move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically, from ?Imperial rule in Rome and China? \(chapter two\) through to ?War and revolution in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of empires: 1914?1945? \(chapter 12\) and the ?End of empire?? \(chapter 13\). Chapter two outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of imperial patterns in Europe and Asia, highlighting the formative role of Rome and China in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing lasting repertoires of power. It investigates the comparative question ?why was the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire repeatedly put back together in roughly the same area, while Rome ? as a state ? never revived?? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(54\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three moves to the period after Rome?s fall, focusing on the dramatic change brought about by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?linkage of imperial power to monotheism? in Byzantine, Carolingian, and Islamic empires \(p. 61\). Burbank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cooper highlight this issue throughout the chapter, identifying monotheistic religion as both a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural homogenizing force and a granter of universal power, as well as a potential agent for internal dispute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imperial fracture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, on the Mongol Empires, looks at the particularities of the rise of Chinggis Khan and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors in Yuan China, the Golden Horde, the Il-Khans of Persia, and the Chagatai Khanate in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uzbekistan. As with earlier empires, the adaptability of Mongol repertoires of power ? their tribe alliances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the supreme authority of the warrior khan ? both helped to build the empire and ultimately led to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disintegration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?Beyond the Mediterranean: Ottoman and Spanish empires,? takes up the comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of the study again. In choosing these rival powers, Burbank and Cooper contrast ?class hierarchy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?patrimonial? models of empire. In the class hierarchy model, the emperor gains his authority through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the horizontal allegiances of each class and in particular, the strong aristocracy, who are able to support the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7123 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor by collecting taxes and providing military support. In the patrimonial model, the emperor derives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power from his personal relationships. In the case of the Ottoman Empire, through concubinage and the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christian Janissaries, the emperor was able to create rule through personal dependency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six examines the rise of ?Oceanic economies and colonial societies? in the 15th, 16th, and 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. It covers the differentiated rise of Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, French and British Empires in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, particularly the different styles of expansion and rule used by each empire. The metropolitan political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities ? such as Dutch independence and Portuguese fragility ? are discussed in reference to the success or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of rule. The authors note that the reason for Britain?s dominance at the end of this period was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the British had developed a range of different ways of interacting with, governing, and exploiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous populations, settlers, and slaves? \(p. 178\). This leads to a fairly long description of the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?slavery-empire nexus? on Africa \(p. 179\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven looks at empire-building in the land-based empires of Russia and China. Here, the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Mongol khanates picks up again and the history of the Russian and Chinese empires weaves together the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacies of Mongol rule and new strategies for maintaining authority. The Russians, for instance, formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage alliances as they conquered new territories, which ?grafted whole families onto the dynasty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave them a vital interest in it? \(p. 193\), and established a new system of clans and clan leaders \(boyars\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They also tied Orthodox Christianity to their universal rule, imitating the Roman successor states. China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile, experienced a period of contraction after Mongol rule, but managed to retain its status as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire through ?a powerful imperial tradition and self-conscious, sophisticated statecraft? \(p. 200\). Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus is on the ?Eurasian origins? of both empires ? universal emperors, bureaucracy, patrimonial land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granting, diversity of ruled peoples ? whether they were acknowledged by the emperors \(as in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China\) or not \(as in the case of Russia\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight investigates the changing power dynamics of empires in the revolutionary age of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. The picture that emerges is one of dynamic competition and conflict fuelling ?questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about which forms of political and economic behaviour were normal and legitimate? \(p. 222?3\). It explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disruption of the British Empire in the American Revolution, the challenge to the notion of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship posed by the Hatitian Revolution, and the rise of Napoleonic European Empire. This is also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the self-critique of empires, as certain Enlightenment figures ? both in the metropole and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies themselves ? challenged the legitimacy of colonization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine looks at the rise of continental empires ? the United States and Russia ? in the 19th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contrast is between a new form of incorporation through statehood and the traditional, pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurasian model of rewarding elites and accommodating religious diversity, inherited from ?their mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongol, Byzantine, and European past? \(p. 251\). The inclusion of these continental empires reveals the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors? emphasis on empire as a practice of rule, rather than a territorially defined idea. In both cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repertoires of rule are constrained within territories that now exist as nation-states, but are clearly ?imperial? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their incorporation of elites and the differentiation of populations under rule. New aspects of this imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repertoire that emerged in the US in contrast to the older style of rule in Russia included the appeal to law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particularly law regarding private property, and the rise of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter ten, ?Imperial repertoires and myths of modern colonialism,? explores the idea that ?modern? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism was somehow different from older imperial models. The authors argue that rather than a ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type? of imperialism, by looking at the period of the 19th century through the lens of ?repertoires of power?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar patterns of imperialism are easily discernible. Although they acknowledge that the growth in wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and technology gave European powers an advantage, they point out that these same empires still had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respond to the demands of governance and administration ? themes that were altered by the rise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of human and citizenship rights, but which continued to fall into a category of responsive rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 11 examines the competitions between and within empires in the 19th century, focusing on Russia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire, Germany, and the Habsburgs, as they adapted to wars within Europe and dynamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change. The rise of a transnational European elite who demanded ?modernity?? bureaucratic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparency, legal reform, equal rights and representative institutions ? resulted in attempts to reform in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these empires, with differing success in adapting their power structures to the new demands or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscientiously rejecting ?Europeanization? \(p. 364\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 12 surveys the period 1914 to 1945, arguing that ?World War I revealed and did nothing to resolve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the instability of the European system of empires? while ?the outcome of World War II put an end, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed, to an unstable array of empires that had struggled repeatedly for dominance in Europe from the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Charles V through Napoleon to Hitler? \(pp. 369 and 370\). This chapter offers a history of these wars from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a different perspective than the classic Eurocentric narrative, focusing on the colonial independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements erupting in the wake of the First World War ? particularly in Southeast Asia ? and on the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new types of empire in the USSR, America, Germany and Japan. The period of world wars exhausted many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the resources and appetites for European empire, as well as propelling the United States and USSR into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new roles as imperial nation-states. America?s repertoire of imperial power included military, economic, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural tools, but relied less on colonialism, while the USSR used more traditional territorial expansion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 13, ?End of empire?? argues that ?the mid-twentieth century was not a self-propelled movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from empire to nation-state? \(p. 413\). The authors argue that it was the imperial metropoles? very openness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ideas of reform and adaptation that left it vulnerable to nationalist challenges and critiques. French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism receives a bulk of the focus of this chapter, as the authors explore the contradictions inherent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more expansive definition of citizenship and a more nationalist vision of Europe. Again, the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USSR?s dramatic expansion after the Second World War focuses on repertoires of power, focusing both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the particularities of Soviet-style economic monopoly and on the more general politics of personal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimonial rule that emerged first under Stalin and then was replaced by a more stable rule by party elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their families. The choice to end this chapter looking at China?s re-emergence ? and redeployment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional repertoires of power, leaving ?most productive activities in private hands while retaining its right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to regulate all aspects of social life? \(p. 441\) ? brings the Eurasian imperial story full circle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the concluding chapter, ?Empires, states, and political imagination,? provides a summary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding chapters and presents new ways of thinking about future states, arguing that thinking about empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows us to see that the current model of nations is not as straightforward or as durable as it may seem, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that the current state of affairs is simply the latest in a series of post-imperial periods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformulation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book adds to our understanding of empires by framing new comparisons and asking new questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the management, expansion, and feasibility of empires throughout world history. One criticism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be noted is the hasty definition of empire in the first chapter \(a definition Cooper uses elsewhere )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.608 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.608 290.883 m 548.600 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 548.600 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which does not suit the complexity of the empirical examples and nuanced themes that emerge throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. Burbank and Cooper offer the definition that ?Empires are large political units, expansionist or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a memory of power extended over space, polities that maintain distinction and hierarchy as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporate new people? \(p. 8\), only distinguishing between empires and nation-states with the equivocating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration that ?the empire-state declares the non-equivalence of multiple populations? while ?the nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state proclaims the commonality of its people? even if they are not equivalent in practice \(p. 8\). These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions beg a number of questions: what is a ?memory of power? and how does it help to isolate empires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as political units? Does the real existence of intrastate hierarchy and non-equivalence of multiple populations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that the nation-state is really purely a politically correct name for an empire-state? The problem with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these definitions is that they limit the experience of empire without providing clarity. Given the range, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope, and scale of the empires discussed, it seems that a more appropriate definition of empire would focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the themes that arise from comparing empires, and which form the original argument of the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, for instance, is recognised as an empire within the book \(chapter nine\), even though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declares itself a nation-state using exactly the definition granted by the authors. Since the citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power arguments were, as they argue, ?worked out in the space of ? empire? \(p. 223\), these do not seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate to differentiate nation-states from empire-states. Chapter 11 also presents a nuanced argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the rise of the nation as ?less a solution than a claim? \(p. 367\). Therefore, it seems that trying to define )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.6077 291.1975 548.5997 303.0775 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 5726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an abstract theoretical ?empire? and ?nation-state? weakens what is otherwise a convincing empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition, arrived at through a careful survey of centuries of accumulated evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This minor theoretical critique illuminates the greatest strength of this book: its nuanced presentation of case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies and comparisons. One of the most compelling aspects is its treatment of imperial decline. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not deal in any detail with non-Eurasian empires, which is somewhat disappointing in a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming to be ?world history?, their comparative framework allows for a transportable model of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, governance, and the inherent flaws in all empires, which can be applied beyond those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in detail in the book. Burbank and Cooper provide some direction for these extra-Eurasian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons. For example, in the sixth chapter, on the development of early European overseas empires, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they note that the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Incan empires was not as simple as technological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immune system superiority, but that ?thinking about the endemic vulnerabilities of empires helps us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the situation? \(p. 163\). By looking at the rise and fall of numerous empires in their particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical contexts, patterns of expansion, rule, adaptation, and ultimately, decline, become evident and act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as convincing models for other empires not discussed at length here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book offers a compelling series of comparisons that help to flesh out more fully the extent of the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires in world history. While it cannot claim to be a comprehensive global history of all empires, it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve what it sets out to do, offering ample evidence that ?empire was a variable political form? \(p. 16\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a deep and adaptable repertoire of means of incorporating, excluding, and ruling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Cooper, ?What is the concept of globalization good for? An African historian?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective,? )] TJ ET BT 129.992 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African Affairs)] TJ ET BT 201.668 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 100 \(2001\), 189.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.660 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.660 448.947 m 341.648 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Darwin, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire)] TJ ET BT 361.664 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\); Christopher Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World 1780?1914: Global Connections and Comparisons)] TJ ET BT 462.020 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Pomeranz, )] TJ ET BT 161.660 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy)] TJ ET BT 108.668 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.656 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.656 391.923 m 252.644 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Cooper, )] TJ ET BT 154.328 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History )] TJ ET BT 417.668 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 2005\), p. 27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 363.411 m 118.004 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 308.643 m 285.332 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.332 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 305.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 287.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 287.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1013)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 286.137 m 328.316 286.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5192)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8203770&previous=true&jid=PPS&volumeId=9&issueId=01)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.6597 449.2615 341.6477 461.1415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.6557 392.2375 252.6437 404.1175 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 363.7255 118.0037 375.6055 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 308.9575 285.3317 320.8375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8203770&previous=true&jid=PPS&volumeId=9&issueId=01) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 286.4515 328.3157 298.3315 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1013) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005228 00000 n 0000005337 00000 n 0000005447 00000 n 0000005556 00000 n 0000009117 00000 n 0000009245 00000 n 0000009329 00000 n 0000009358 00000 n 0000009486 00000 n 0000009522 00000 n 0000009551 00000 n 0000009679 00000 n 0000009715 00000 n 0000009780 00000 n 0000016946 00000 n 0000017011 00000 n 0000024187 00000 n 0000024271 00000 n 0000031924 00000 n 0000031954 00000 n 0000032082 00000 n 0000032118 00000 n 0000032230 00000 n 0000038009 00000 n 0000038137 00000 n 0000038192 00000 n 0000038320 00000 n 0000038375 00000 n 0000038502 00000 n 0000038557 00000 n 0000038684 00000 n 0000038860 00000 n 0000038988 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39084 %%EOF