%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818101148+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818101148+01'00') /Title (The Hazards of Urban Life in Late Stalinist Russia: Health, Hygiene, and Living Standards, 1943-1953) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4841 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Hazards of Urban Life in Late Stalinist Russia: Health, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hygiene, and Living Standards, 1943-1953)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer has added another major book to his long and impressive contribution to the study of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. It is a formidably detailed analysis of urban living conditions during the late Stalinist period, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the closing stages of the Second World War to the death of Stalin in 1953. While it bears Professor Filtzer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmistakable mark, it is also something of a new departure. Filtzer made his name as a historian of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour in a sequence of books that runs from the Stalin to Gorbachev periods. Making meticulous use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever were the best sources available at the time ? he had completed the research for three of these books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the archival goldrush of the 1990s ? he constructed in each monograph careful analyses of such issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the structure of the labour market, wages, the operations of the industrial enterprise, working and living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions, and the lot of women workers. This empirical robustness is matched by ideological conviction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the eighth line of )] TJ ET BT 136.340 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization)] TJ ET BT 355.688 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Filtzer declares: ?The analysis here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.676 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.676 122.241 m 93.668 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.668 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That theoretical scaffolding holds up his entire )] TJ ET BT 323.636 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 356.288 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, though at varying levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrusiveness. The student who has reached the end of )] TJ ET BT 295.964 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and the Collapse of Perestroika)] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters an injunction to ?Seize the Time? \(the time being that which followed the Soviet collapse, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?massive promise and potential, such as humanity has not seen for over three-quarters of a century?\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.572 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.572 79.473 m 533.564 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That promise has evaporated. Little rhetoric can be found in )] TJ ET BT 324.956 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards of Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 454.964 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521113731)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(410pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark B. Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6757 122.5555 93.6677 134.4355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.5717 79.7875 533.5637 91.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8105 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical picture and the mood of the historian seem unrelievedly dark. The Marxist political economy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less emphasized, though the basic argument about Stalinism, rooted in Marx, remains the same. )] TJ ET BT 495.968 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 99.356 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is Filtzer?s second book about the late Stalinist period. His first was a history of workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 2002, and he enjoins us in the introduction to the newer book to see the two as companions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 536.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 536.312 752.307 m 550.304 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This second book is about the standard of living, somewhat scientifically conceived, of ordinary people in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hinterland cities of that part of the Soviet Union that might be characterized as European Russia. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hinterland?, Filtzer means here the cities that were not directly damaged by fighting or bombing during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. And in defining ?standard of living?, Filtzer acknowledges at the outset that this is a history without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human characters. There are, indeed, no people in )] TJ ET BT 276.272 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards of Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 406.280 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, just city populations. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer is being disarming. He might have eschewed that genre of archival sources that allows historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USSR to spice their analyses with individual life stories and illustrative anecdotes, and his story is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some ways more compelling for it, especially in his superb first three chapters. These cover sanitation, water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies and hygiene, while the last two chapters, which are denser, explore nutrition and infant mortality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer interprets his evidence to show that the standard of living was even lower than was previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, sometimes almost unimaginably low. As is often the case, a sad story makes good reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Late Stalinism is one of the periods of Russian history that has been attracting scholars, especially doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates, in their droves. Professor Filtzer?s two books on the period make a good claim to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outstanding contribution by a Western specialist to our understanding of late Stalinism. Until the 1990s, late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism seemed to lack defining controversies or historical colour. There was nothing in these eight years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could possibly generate the disputes that revisionist historians ignited about the causes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of 1917, or the angry exchanges about the continuities between Leninism and Stalinism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cold War made so urgent. When the archive opened, however, historians crafted lines of debate. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly did the Second World War change the Soviet Union? Did the war create a reformed version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism? Might 1945 \(or 1941?5\) be as important a turning point as 1953 \(or 1953?6\)? Did some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms associated with the years of de-Stalinization actually begin during late Stalinism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer perhaps engages with these questions less explicitly than other historians; to some extent, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent Marxism and startlingly well-focused descriptions allow him to rise above the fray. But he still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a set of answers, and they make a congruent whole with the interpretation of Stalinism that he published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1986 in his first book about Soviet workers. For Filtzer, the explanation is about class. The October )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution was an inspirational event and the triumph of the Russian proletariat. Yet this same working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class was obliterated by the Stalin Revolution \(or counter-revolution\) that began with the first five-year plan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1928. Stalin?s elite ? reinforced by many workers promoted into industrial management ? viciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited the working class and the peasantry. In order to ?extract the surplus? in a sustainable way and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain its dominance and privileges at the continued expense of the rest of society, Stalin?s new ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class had to destroy the capacity of workers to identify themselves as a homogenous social unit that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of formulating a political position and protesting collectively. The political economy of Stalinism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the police who made it possible, broke the bonds that tied the working class together. They atomized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class. What resulted was not socialism, but another chapter in the story of class repression. Stalinist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning had as little in common with socialism as it had with capitalism; its mistreatment of the population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with its bureaucratic inadequacy, made the Stalinist command economy repressive and actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?planless?. While this process was partly reversed during the Second World War, it was vigorously pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once more between 1945 and 1953. The pressure might have lightened somewhat at the end of the 1940s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but late Stalinism was a still more aggressive assault on the working class than 1930s Stalinism. Stalinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not reformed by the experience of the Second World War, and its anti-working class character continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to inform policy long after Stalin?s death. I have no doubt reduced Filtzer?s argument, which he makes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful consistency and an emphatic empirical grip. Even so, the archive is so enormous, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences it presents are so fuzzily various, that no historical scheme can envelope it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards of Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 177.020 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the picture of workers? lives is still bleaker than in )] TJ ET BT 428.984 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and Late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism)] TJ ET BT 78.692 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, though the basic argument remains the same. The work of 2002 has a broader conspectus. In it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer discussed the famine of 1946?7, rationing, housing, health, young workers, labour discipline, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 536.3117 752.6215 550.3037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5917 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions inside the industrial enterprise. He drew on wide sources, headlined by more than two dozen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival collections \(funds, or )] TJ ET BT 180.320 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fondy)] TJ ET BT 206.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and numerous factory newspapers, in order to make a good claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have written an account of Soviet workers between 1945 and 1953 that is both broad and sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed. If here he cast a wide net, in the latest book he has sunk a deep and narrow bore. )] TJ ET BT 466.904 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 87.020 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the fruit of Filtzer?s intense and intensive encounter with seven archival funds held at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow?s two branches of the State Archive of the Russian Federation \(GARF in the Russian acronym\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at the Russian State Archive of the Economy, which is located in the same building as GARF?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal depository. These are the collections of: the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR; that ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State Sanitary Inspectorate; the Ministry of Labour Reserves of the USSR; the Statistical Administration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USSR?S Russian republic \(RSFSR\); the Ministry of Public Health of the RSFSR; the Central Statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Administration of the USSR; and the Ministry of Transport. Filtzer has also read widely in associated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often highly complex published sources, such as the writings of Stalin-era epidemiologists. The result is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more descriptive than in his earlier books. His systematic and fluent presentation of his findings is in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance a report of conditions in Soviet hinterland cities between 1943 and 1953; Filtzer?s deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy is to incorporate most of the explicit argument and interpretation at the end, in the conclusion. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is still a Marxist one, it is one from which the scaffolding has been removed, and theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifications are presented with a lighter touch. Nevertheless, the direction of the analytical description is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmistakable and relentless, especially for those who have read his earlier books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book might lack personal stories, but it draws a vivid picture of misery in the late Stalinist city. Filtzer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faceless masses walk up and down flights of stairs and cross filthy streets to get water from standpipes, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffer an absolute shortage of soap and a broken sanitation system, they endure hunger and disease, they lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the promised bathhouses: the book makes clever structural connections between failures of planning, lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleanliness, exhaustion, illness, and low productivity. Filtzer explores in immense detail some of those areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of life, such as sanitation, which other historians have been too fastidious to handle. He describes post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities that lacked any proper sewage facilities, with excrement everywhere, in which a lack of clean water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hot water wrecked people?s days and nights. These cities are more shockingly miserable places than we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have understood up to now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer?s ability to draw the dots between different aspects of late Stalinist society, economy and politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows him to explain, for instance, why the Stalinist system was prone to pollute rivers in certain ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the overarching argumentative framework is deliberately light, the insertion of such rigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argumentative cameos always anchors the description in consistent analysis. Similarly, Filtzer inserts his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar points about the Stalinist command economy, such as the tendency of the profit-and-loss accounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system to ensure that industrial enterprises acted in their own interests rather than in those of the wider plan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with cumulatively disastrous results, to explain particular problems with urban water supply. In his chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on hygiene and public health, he goes into fearsome detail simply to describe what typhus is, but chains his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description to the bigger point: that Stalinist public health policy was indifferent to people?s quality of life; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely aimed to prevent epidemics and reduce levels of disease so that people would not be so ill, and die in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such numbers and so young, that the economy failed to reinforce the system of rule.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7716 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second half of the book, the focus shifts from the urban environment to detailed studies of nutrition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and infant mortality that rely on a very elaborate presentation of statistics. The level of detail is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinarily impressive, but its accumulation reduces the readability of the book. Nevertheless, Filtzer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds in making clear the connection between diet and the inner workings of late Stalinism. Poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrition made workers physically incapable of achieving the levels of productivity that the plan required; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiology rather than survival strategies or collective action made them literally slow down. Similarly, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on infant mortality is so careful and detailed that it is can scarcely be challenged. By the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, Filtzer has completed a holistic interpretation of living standards in the late Stalinist hinterland city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With very precise attention to the evidence, he shows how poor sanitation \(the subject of the first chapter\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fostered the gastrointestinal infections that caused high infant mortality \(the subject of the last chapter\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the fall in both indexes from 1951 was most likely the result of public health campaigns, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning personal hygiene, that had been launched some years before.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Filtzer is writing about hinterland cities, he can show that these dreadful conditions were caused not by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime destruction but by the malevolence of the Stalinist elite, repressing the working class ever more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiercely in order to restore their post-war power and guarantee their ?extraction of the surplus?. But does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on hinterland cities really show this? On the one hand, such cities offer far from a scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?control?; they might not have suffered direct wartime destruction, but their economies were still wrecked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the war. They were thrown off balance by complex, conflicting economic claims; they were subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreadful shortages, to the terrible overcrowding that followed the influx of evacuees, and to appalling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect of infrastructure. All of those problems were as much the consequence of the war as they were of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pure Stalinist system. Of course, war and Stalinism cannot be analytically disentangled: but that is the point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, some aspects of these cities? economies recovered particularly quickly. housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction was much more rapid in the hinterland than it was in areas that had been subject to destruction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though there was great variation and many exceptions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.964 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.964 443.187 m 309.956 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 309.956 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Housing construction was relatively high during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these years, and late Stalinism established the basis for the major programme that was launched later in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s. Yet Filtzer?s argument cannot explain this. Nothing could be less reasonable than asking Filtzer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consult more archival sources, and he has shown indisputably how bad life was in late Stalinist cities; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material in other funds makes the picture more blurred and varied. Take Filtzer?s point that the growth in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision of gas in the urban housing stock was largely confined to Moscow. Examination of documents that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more directly tied to this topic than Filtzer?s suggest that ?gasification? was more widespread, and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached the hinterland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, Filtzer?s use of comparative history raises questions which the book does not answer. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positioning the Soviet case developmentally, on an historical arc of urbanization, he argues that even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1940s and 1950s, Soviet urban life was decades behind Britain and Germany, even according to such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic indexes as the provision of sanitation and hot water. But what about comparisons that have the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological frame as Filtzer?s book, comparisons with other parts of Europe and Japan in the 1940s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s? How bad was water supply in Brno, or sanitation in the most squalid parts of Glasgow, or infant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality in Kyoto between 1945 and 1953? The long-range developmental comparisons contain an implicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleology and fit with the rhythms of Marxism; they might or might not be misplaced, but they are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive to contingency. One could make very provisional comparisons of hinterland cities in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, which would throw at least a little light on the extent to which the dreadful conditions that existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Soviet cities were indeed the result of the elite going to war against the working class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer?s characterization of Stalinist society relies on an assumption that the Stalinist elite was united. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this does not seem right. After all, a history without individual people cannot reflect the contingencies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes and ambitions that help shape individuals? actions. The behaviour of local leaders ? the bosses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filtzer?s hinterland cities ? is indeed consistent with Filtzer?s ideas about the ?planless? economy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vicious, selfish accumulation at the expense of ordinary workers. But his arguments cannot explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of what might be considered ?enlightened officials?: that minority of professionals and bureaucrats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based in Moscow and republican capitals who designed the social policies that were grounded in an explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to fulfil the promise of 1917 and pay back the sacrifice of 1941?5. Such officials took seriously the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.9637 443.5015 309.9557 455.3815 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?s rhetorical re-legitimation of the Soviet project. Much of the recent literature is preoccupied with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking out how the work of these officials prefigured and made possible the reforms of the Khrushchev era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 48.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Filtzer does not engage with this debate; the conclusions he draws from his class analysis do not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make such an engagement possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, Filtzer?s conception of Stalinism has long depended on the notion of ?atomization?: a totalitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic which placed ordinary people in repressive vertical relations with authority rather than in horizontal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties with members of their own class. Workers thus distrusted those around them, and were left to rely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to get the things they needed in the economy of terror and shortages. In this latest book, Filtzer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has acknowledged that our knowledge of people?s survival strategies )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.948 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.948 669.027 m 382.940 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.940 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( undermines the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?atomization?: it is better, he contends, to talk of ?molecularization?. But this witty mouthful does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain how the regime sought to co-opt the energies of the population \(to the extent that those energies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed\) for the sake of projects that satisfied both individual aspirations and wider social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs. The ultimate goal was indeed the entrenchment of the Stalinist system, but post-war Stalinism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently different from pre-war Stalinism for the process to become collaborative as well as coercive. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable example is the expansion from 1944 of the scheme by which credits were provided for those citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who wished to build their own house. Society was indeed fractured after the war, as Elena Zubkova?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, but it seems schematic to introduce rigid state-society divisions, or indeed models based on class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to describe it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.008 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.008 540.723 m 113.000 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( People cooperated and quarrelled across all kinds of faultlines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, there is a magnificence about Filtzer?s achievement in )] TJ ET BT 365.936 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hazards of Urban Life)] TJ ET BT 495.944 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Most of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical detail, and many of its conclusions, cannot be challenged. It stands right at the front of writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Stalinism ? but it is strangely old-fashioned. Few researchers are now drawn to Soviet history by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the politics of the Left. More often they are attracted directly by the historical problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how to explain modern dictatorship or indirectly by the charms of Russian culture. Objectively speaking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Filtzer?s convinced approach has dated. But anyone who disagrees with his conclusions will only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a case by working as hard and as long in Russian archives as he himself has done. In research on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-economic history of late Stalinism, Filtzer is the vanguard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and Stalinist Industrialization: the Formation of Modern Soviet )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Production Relations, 1928-1941)] TJ ET BT 224.348 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\), p. 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.672 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.672 334.899 m 383.660 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and the Collapse of Perestroika: the Soviet Labour Process and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gorbachev?s Reforms)] TJ ET BT 170.996 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1994\), p. 224.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.316 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.316 306.387 m 358.304 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Workers and Late Stalinism: Labour and the Restoration of the Stalinist System )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after World War II)] TJ ET BT 154.340 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.660 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.660 277.875 m 305.648 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark B. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 141.692 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property of Communists: the Urban Housing Program from Stalin to Khrushchev)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(DeKalb, IL, 2010\), p. 38.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.656 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.656 249.363 m 243.644 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example the essays in )] TJ ET BT 208.652 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet State and Society under Nikita Khrushchev)] TJ ET BT 447.296 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Melanie Ilic and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Smith \(Abingdon, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.344 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.344 220.851 m 276.332 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As defined in such major works as Sheila Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 323.984 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s)] TJ ET BT 297.344 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.980 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.980 192.339 m 468.968 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elena Zubkova, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions and Disappointments, 1945-1957)] TJ ET BT 491.660 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Armonk, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.340 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.340 163.827 m 172.328 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 119.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 102.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 102.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1014)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 100.809 m 328.316 100.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 75.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5197)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H 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