%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141218013938+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141218013938+00'00') /Title (A Companion to Byzantium) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4126 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Companion to Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whom would one choose as a companion to Byzantium? Many might ask for Michael Psellos, the 11th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century polymath who appears in nine of this volume's 27 chapters. A measure of the distance Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies has travelled in recent decades, but also of how far it has still to go, is the publication of editions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations of Psellos' many surviving works. Of other candidates for companionship, the ninth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarch and bibliophile Photios appears in five chapters, and the erudite tenth-century compiler and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos in four. Those seeking a female companion would find that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Komnena appears as herself only in one chapter, plotting with her husband, although her )] TJ ET BT 491.600 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alexiad)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features far more frequently, and the wife of Justinian, the most famous of four Theodoras listed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index, appears only twice in the same chapter, Neil Finneran's study of non-Chalcedonian churches. Our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal guide to Byzantium is, therefore, Liz James, Professor of Art History at the University of Sussex, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has edited this collection of essays by leading and emerging scholars in the study of history, literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology and art history, and of the various interstices and overlaps between these sub-categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantinistik.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James has adopted a reasonable organizing principle ? four sections, their titles explained very briefly on p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7, and each comprising between five and nine essays ? for the presentation of chapters on 'Being Byzantine', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('God and the world', 'Reading Byzantine texts', and 'Some questions in material culture'. All of the essays are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1019)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth James)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405126540)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(110.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(488pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Stephenson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, but James's introduction is, as its title announces, 'Very, very short'. One finds here no summary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outline of essays that follow, which would appear to be the minimum an interested reader, for example a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(busy teacher looking to recommend additional reading, might ask from a learned companion or guide. Fiona )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haarer's paper is also included in the introductory section, and its title is a little misleading. Without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space to offer a proper outline of 'the historiography of Byzantine history' \(by which she means an overview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern historical approaches to Byzantium\), Haarer identifies two themes deserving of fuller study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These themes are well chosen: the notion of decline and fall, which has received a great deal of attention; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Byzantine identities, past and present, but notably in the modern European Union. Haarer postpones the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter discussion until her final page and a half, which is a shame, as it is studded with useful insights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no strong editorial line on what an essay must, or even might cover, as is apparent from reading, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the other, the six chapters that together are held to address 'Some questions in material culture'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first chapter, with the tersest title, 'Archaeology' by Jim Crow, offers a nine-page conspectus that is akin to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handbook entry. The last chapter, which has the volume's longest, most shambling title ? 'Late and Post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine art under Venetian rule: frescoes versus icons, and Crete in the middle', by Angeliki )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lymberopoulou ? runs to 20 pages with 14 maps or figures, and reads like a summary of a specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph. The photographs in this chapter, particularly the author's own shots of wall paintings, are rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too dark to be of great use. They appear to my eye to be significantly worse than those illustrating John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanson's 'The rise and fall of the Macedonian Renaissance', which may prove to be a useful essay for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching both art historical and historical courses. Kurt Weitzmann, who was concerned throughout his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career to identify classical models for Byzantine motifs, is fingered as 'the key player in the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Macedonian renaissance', and therefore of a parallel strand in older art historical thought, namely of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Byzantine art as the preserver of the classical tradition', which it later transmitted to 15th-century Italy. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowden is identified as instrumental in revising the narrative articulated by Weitzmann, of ancient model to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early manuscript drawing to Byzantine copy, through careful study of the same evidence. Hanson ends with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a question more intriguing than that of origins, namely the significance of a particular image and the medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which it is communicated to a tenth-century observer. The paper offers a nice balance of useful synthesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and insightful commentary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three art historians \(Cutler, Eastmond, Brubaker\) employ no illustrations in their essays, doubtless to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delight of the publisher. Anthony Cutler, in his essay 'Makers and users', offers a prose diptych, each leaf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concise, its tone astringent, its \(intact\) hinge being 'attitudes towards representation, and the definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that term, in Byzantium'. On makers he observes both the futility and silliness of seeking to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine artists, their origins, or style, or their relationships to those who commissioned their work, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('distract from more important questions such as the meaning intended or reception enjoyed by a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work'. To explain the re-use of familiar motifs Cutler appears to prefer 'the magpie talent' of Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists to the oft posited, but not yet demonstrated copying from model or pattern books, for such books have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to survive from \(or did not exist in\) Byzantium. For users, Cutler observes, Byzantine art was realistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it was efficacious and emotive, not because it represented lifelike figures. Icons were to be touched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and caressed like people, paraded among people as instruments of devotion but also of social control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secular art was less predictable, and therefore more fantastic. Eastmond begins his essay with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartographical cavils, in considering catalogues for major exhibitions of Byzantine art staged at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 1997 and 2004. His concern is to problematise the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine art, and his point of entry is whether 'The limits of Byzantine art' coincide with the limits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, however they might be defined. At what point, he asks, does Byzantine art become Georgian art, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian art, or Coptic art. Like Hanson and Cutler, Eastmond highlights the shift from an art history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with creation to one concerned with reception, and like Cutler he highlights a recent obsession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with identifying crusader artists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brubaker's essay, 'Icons and iconomachy', begins with a reference to a British beer mat. Such references very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly go out of date, of course, and many of the papers in this collection were commissioned more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five years ago. More enduring is the substantial point Brubaker is making: Byzantine lager drinkers would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have recognised themselves as iconoclasts, and only after the 740s might some, but not many, have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of themselves as engaged seriously in a 'struggle over icons', or iconomachy \(sensibly not elevated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by capitalization\). The origins, development and meaning of the struggle rather than of the icon is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter's principal subject, so the reader is offered not an answer to a question in material culture, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important contribution towards better understanding of Byzantine political and religious history in the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ? and still called, in Brubaker's forthcoming monograph with John Haldon ? 'Iconoclast era'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay is informed by a close reading of many pertinent texts and, even more than Hanson's chapter, it will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove very useful to those who wish to discuss a controversy in Byzantine historiography with a group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able students. Brubaker's conclusion reminds us that the issue on which the struggle hinged, like Cutler's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prose diptych, was representation. A by-product of the analysis is to pinpoint the 'beginning of the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox Byzantine state' in 680.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brubaker's important paper both establishes and advances the state of research in a key area of Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, and with a long history of its own, by summarising the findings of her larger project with Haldon. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar manner, Paul Magdalino, who has offered a slim monograph in French on medieval Constantinople )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2000\) and a 'Variorum' collection on its history and topography \(2007\), and has also spent much time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching in Istanbul, reflects upon the empire's capital city. His title, the equation 'Byzantium = )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople', is explored only in the first two pages, where we are told that the empire which its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants called 'Romania', and which we call Byzantine, 'was defined not by its fluctuating, shifting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(porous borders, but by its secure and stable centre ...'. This is a judgement echoed by Catherine Holmes, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following chapter entitled 'Provinces and capital', but only after tours of alternative centres and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of provincial history. But what does one make, in the light of Eastmond's paper, of Magdalino's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that 'Studies of medieval Byzantine art ... are effectively, but only implicitly, studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinopolitan culture'? The greater part of Magdalino's paper is devoted to a useful overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship concerned with Constantinople, from the fourth-century )] TJ ET BT 363.296 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notitia)] TJ ET BT 396.644 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and various medieval )] TJ ET BT 505.292 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patria)] TJ ET BT 535.964 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Gilles and Du Cange to Mango, Dagron and himself. The final part dramatically telescopes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the city from 'the last ancient polis' to 'the greatest Christian city of the Middle Ages'. One is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanting more but knowing where to find it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Cecily Hennessy demonstrates in her essay 'Young people in Byzantium', when we write of Byzantines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we frequently are writing about youths and children, since together they were always the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Childhood and youth each lasted for approximately the same length of time, with youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning at sexual maturity and ending at 25. The largest single age group was always children, since every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth must once have been a child aged under 12 \(girls\) and 14 \(boys\), and many more than this number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were born, perhaps twice as many. A very large proportion of Byzantine babies and infants died. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abortion and infanticide were far less common that in the pre-Christian empire ? the practices was banned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later fourth century ? around half of children died before the age of five, largely through disease and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accidents, but also through hunger and thirst. In times of hardship, children were the most vulnerable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium as in all subsistence societies. Hennessy has updated her paper carefully to reflect the publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2009 of a volume on childhood in Byzantium. She explains that most children and youths were educated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some extent regardless of wealth, although it is wrong to suggest \(p. 86\) that Theodore of Sykeon was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor because he was the son of a prostitute. In fact his mother was an enterprising innkeeper, a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business owner who supplied her son with expensive clothes and a gold belt. Moreover, Theodore spent a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal of time with a companion who was possibly a slave, and the fact that Byzantium was a slave-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owning society where many children were born into slavery is explored here briefly. Hennessy's passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights highlight the absence of a chapter on slavery and its omission from the volume's index. A plumper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companion might have introduced the visitor to Byzantium's ubiquitous slaves, and also to its army and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military thought, to its architecture, both church and secular, to its monks and monasteries, to its habours, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ships and sea-faring, to the imperial office, ceremonies and political thought, all of which have received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important recent treatments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several important paths for future research are cleared in papers on memory, emotions and performance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Papalexandrou, in 'The memory culture of Byzantium', encourages 'future students of sound and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aurality in Byzantium' to forage for evidence of everyday life, and in her essay, a model of condensed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8495 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erudition, she starts in church, with the sights, sounds and smells of the liturgy, and a famous apse mosaic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before passing from lament to encyclopedism through signet rings, carved monograms, and the tattooed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreheads of iconophiles, all devices intended to thwart the three great enemies of memory: time \()] TJ ET BT 503.924 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chronos)] TJ ET BT 542.588 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envy \()] TJ ET BT 64.340 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phthonos)] TJ ET BT 108.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and forgetfulness \()] TJ ET BT 205.316 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lethe)] TJ ET BT 228.644 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Martin Hinterberger, in his essay 'Emotions in Byzantium', is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in )] TJ ET BT 96.008 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phthonos)] TJ ET BT 140.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which he describes as playing a far larger role in Byzantine life than its English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent, envy, does today. )] TJ ET BT 176.996 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phthonos)] TJ ET BT 222.332 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a Byzantine 'hypercognized emotion' that stands in stark contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to guilt, for example, which is identified as characteristic of modern life but virtually absent in Byzantium. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might suppose that guilt would have been ubiquitous in a medieval Christian society stained deeply by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin, but as Hinterberger observes, we cannot rely on modern expectations and definitions, but must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise and consistent in our use of Greek terms to understand medieval emotions. The Greek term that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equates most closely to emotion is )] TJ ET BT 202.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pathos)] TJ ET BT 234.020 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which Hinterbergers translates as 'passion of the soul'. Passions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had caused the fall of Satan, whose manipulation of passions allowed him to lead humans astray. Klimakos' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ladder of Divine Ascent)] TJ ET BT 151.004 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( identifies certain passions and prescribes the means to overcome them. After 390, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodosios I legislated to prevent his own anger getting the better of him \(again\), instituting a 30-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlude between capital judgment and execution, which ruling was reinstated in the 11th century. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papalexandrou's, this is a compelling piece of original writing, informed by the best new research from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of Byzantine studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Mullett's 'No drama, no poetry, no fiction, no readership, no literature', reviews a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent scholarship devoted to Byzantine performance, including her own important studies and several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles available only to their authors and to her \(as editor of a forthcoming collection, the proceedings of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine spring symposium entitled )] TJ ET BT 216.020 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Performing Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 325.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). It is here clear that 'performance suffused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine civilization', and that scholarship has moved far past a stale debate about whether there was 'real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre' in Byzantium. Of poetry we are reminded that there was plenty, that Byzantine prose, inscriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and invocations might all be poetic, and that letters, of which some 15,000 have survived in 150 collections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed functions expected of poetry in other cultures. Poetry also features in Byzantine romances, works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fiction that flourished from the mid-12th century. But fiction had flourished before this too, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and hagiography and, particularly, in a vast repertoire of beneficial tales or parables. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine 'literature' did not conform well to the modern paradigm, a triangle with the genres of drama, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry and fiction at its three corners. If earlier critics were disappointed not to find a neat triangle, today's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers delight in the absence of lines and corners, or indeed of genre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Large-scale narrative coherence presumes a certain kind of sustained reading from beginning to end of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. But some of the genres more illustrative of Byzantine narrative technique and style, like hagiography or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles, function more like repositories of smaller self-contained stories held together by little more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a convenient organizing principle, like the life of a saint or an indiction[al] year'. This observation is taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the fine essay by Emmanuel Bourbouhakis and Ingela Nilsson, on Byzantine narrative and storytelling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reminds us that few Byzantines would expect to hear, and far fewer still to read, an extended piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in one sitting. It is an observation that might easily be applied to the book in which it is found. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we learn of the Byzantine love of story-telling, complementing Mullett's paper and also Roger Scott's on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Text and context in Byzantine historiography', which begins with the story of a blind dog who performed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tricks. Set in the reign of Justinian, the anecdote features in more accounts of that period than any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except for the construction of Hagia Sophia. It is as well to emphasise, as these three chapters do, that short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories, amusing or edifying, circulated widely throughout the Byzantine millennium, for example the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial tales that John Wortley has done so much to excavate and popularise. A chapter devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual and liturgical writings and readings is a notable omission from the volume, although Judith Waring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers astute commentary on the circulation of the )] TJ ET BT 276.632 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ladder of Divine Ascent)] TJ ET BT 393.620 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by John Klimakos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If all Byzantines loved stories, the educated also posed rhetorical questions, about which Mary Whitby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes with great insight, if not, like Psellos, in 15-syllable political verse. Psellos' course-book )] TJ ET BT 492.824 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On rhetoric)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented earlier works that remained in use, notably those from Late Antiquity, including Menander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhetor's treatise on epideictic rhetoric and Aphthonius' )] TJ ET BT 300.632 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(progymnasmata)] TJ ET BT 377.960 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, literally 'before exercises'. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grammatikos)] TJ ET BT 96.680 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would provide his pupils with practice in composition 'before' proceeding to exercises in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8046 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declamation, the delivery of a speech. Formally, the roles of )] TJ ET BT 325.628 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grammatikos)] TJ ET BT 388.292 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and rhetor were distinct, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter's job could be far more lucrative. According to Diocletian's edict of maximum prices, issued in AD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(301, an elementary teacher might command 50 )] TJ ET BT 262.640 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(denarii)] TJ ET BT 297.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( per pupil per month, whereas a teacher of rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public speaking would earn five times that amount. We do not have comparable data for the 11th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, but certainly a literary education and grounding in rhetoric remained essential to securing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment in a local or municipal bureau, or in the offices of a provincial governor or administrator. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were always far more qualified candidates than there were bureaucratic jobs, and therefore to excel in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric gave one an advantage in this regard, and quite trifling matters may be addressed in Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents in a highly rhetorical fashion. Such language was used, in many cases, to impress those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not understand it, as legalese or other jargon is today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Hinterberger observes that for Byzantines, 'emotions were understood mostly as a problem for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between humans and God', a timely editorial insertion refers to the reader to Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham's paper, 'Byzantine views of God and the universe'. The Orthodox Church taught, and teaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'human beings possess the potential to become like God \()] TJ ET BT 330.152 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(theosis)] TJ ET BT 363.488 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) both by means of spiritual endeavour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by divine grace'. Yet, the universe was conceived as rigidly hierarchical, like Byzantine society, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress was slow, painful, and required the help of intermediaries. Hades remained distinct from hell, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike in the West, until the Last Judgement, when it would give up the souls of the dead, to be reunited with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their bodies. Until that time, when time ends, the prayers of the living rather than purgation \(the Byzantines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected the notion of purgatory\) might be effective in saving a soul. After death, but pending the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment, the soul would pass through various toll booths, where good and bad deeds would be weighed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the soul assigned to a part of Hades. The fortunate might find themselves in the lap of Abraham. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numbered among good deeds, one might have donated to a church, or indeed donated a church, as Vassiliki )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dimitropoulou explains in 'Giving gifts to God'. Gifts would frequently contain invocations to intercessors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including a variety of saints, but especially the Mother of God, the Theotokos. Liturgical vessels were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently donated in this way, for example the Hama flask and chalice, in silver with repouss decoration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, which were presented to a church in fulfillment of a vow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably following an efficacious prayer. The flask bears the inscription 'In fulfillment of a vow and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the salvation of Megale and her children and nephews, and for the repose of the souls of Heliodoros and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akakios'. They both date from the mid to later sixth century. Still richer donors might found and endow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole churches or monasteries, and as the middle Byzantine aristocracy emerged and seized control of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding economy during the 11th and 12th centuries, there was a boom in the construction of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches, effectively family chapels, uniquely preserved in Kastoria in northern Greece, and of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries for which the powerful often acquired tax exemptions and provided with foundation documents \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(typika)] TJ ET BT 63.344 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) that specify the material and spiritual beneficiaries of the patron's largesse. Donations might also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include expensive manuscripts, as Judith Waring notes in passing in her essay on 'Byzantine book culture', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although a good percentage of manuscripts preserved in monasteries were produced there. Of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('approximately 60,000 manuscripts in Greek' to survive from Byzantium and post-Byzantium, around 15,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('are housed in the libraries of the monasteries of Mount Athos'. A disproportionate number of expensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(items has survived, and many of these have in turn received a larger amount of attention from scholars. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cataloguing of the archives of Mount Athos is as yet incomplete \()] TJ ET BT 348.308 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archives de l'Athos)] TJ ET BT 440.864 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1937-\), and news on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the progress of a digitization project is hard to locate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Louth, addressing 'Christology and heresy', starts with an awkward typo that should have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caught. A succinct summary of controversies and conciliar rulings, the first half of this paper focuses by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity on material that precedes the dedication of Constantinople, which James has chosen as the starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date for the volume. It rather peters out in the eighth century, when the last ecumenical council was held at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicaea in 787 \(and a cross-reference to Brubaker's paper might have made sense\), after which 'the dogmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of the Byzantine Church achieved a certain stability'. In contrast to other papers, Louth offers no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references other than Biblical citations. In addition to the short selection of 'further reading', those in search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of longer definitions for the many heretical -isms might turn with profit to the various handbooks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictionaries of Late Antiquity published in the past two decades. Those interested in heresiology and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits of Orthodoxy might look to Averil Cameron's recent writings. For the extension of those limits )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically, one can read Jonathan Shepard's 'Orthodoxy and northern peoples: goods, gods and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidelines'. Here Shepard expertly condenses some of his recent substantial contributions on the expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Orthodox world, generally on diplomatic-cum-missionary activity, and particularly on the application )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mary Helms' theory of 'superordinate centers' and 'acquisitional societies', sketching a spectrum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses among Byzantium's northern neighbours, notably Bulgars, Rus' and other inhabitants of the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the Black Sea, of which Shepard knows more than anyone else currently writing in English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Topics of interest to Byzantinists, as with all specialisms, have shorter or longer shelf-lives, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographies have continued to grow since papers in this volume were written. Identity has endured, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature that is only now beginning to ebb. Dion Smythe was among the first and best students of Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, and specifically of alterity, editing an important collection in 2000. His paper in this volume gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impression of having been written only shortly after that. Consequently, it is heavy on 'otherness', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot take account of works published more recently than c. 2002. Since then both Averil Cameron \(2006\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and velyne Patlagean \(2007\) ? whose essay of 1981 is considered, and listed as 1981b in the bibliography ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have devoted much energy and erudition to his question 'Who were the Byzantines?' Less interestingly, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless pertinent to points Smythe makes about flux, the US INS \(alluded to on p. 69\), has changed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name several times in recent years, apparently now settling on USCIS. The idea of 'feudalism' in Byzantium, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which once enjoyed heated discussion, has been quietly shelved, and Peter Sarris devotes only a couple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages to it in his rapid overview of the 'Economics, trade, and "feudalism"'. There is a useful paragraph on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of 'feudalism' in the West, where the views of Bloch, Ganshof and compounded 'Marxists' are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossed, but no comparable commentary on the Russian school that pushed the idea in Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, and against which the emigrant Alexander Kazhdan wrote once he was settled at Dumbarton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaks. One might read, for some background, his 1993 paper 'State, feudal and private economy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium', which is not cited. Sarris' essay is very good and covers a wide period, although most detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns matters before c. 750, dovetailing with his impressive book on the early Byzantine economy. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are in addition comprehensive and synthetic works on the middle and late Byzantine economy, from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarris cites only sparingly. He draws attention to six, by my count, of the 51 articles in the )] TJ ET BT 470.312 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 97.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Laiou \(2002\), including four by the late Professor Laiou herself, and one of the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles written or co-written by Ccile Morrisson ? here and in the bibliography misspelled as Morrison, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it is correct under 'further reading' ? who has done so much to expand our knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numismatics and economic history. Since Sarris' paper was written, Morrisson and Laiou have offered an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the Byzantine economy \(2007\), which is added to the list of 'further reading' but not integrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the paper, and in 2008 Morrisson presided at the Dumbarton Oaks symposium on 'Trade and markets in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium', the papers of which will be published. Sarris correctly highlights the importance of archaeology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in expanding the source base for economic historians, which is manifest in many of the articles Laiou )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned for the 2002 collection and also the papers delivered at the 2008 symposium, both of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be accessed as full papers or abstracts via the Dumbarton Oaks web pages \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.904 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.doaks.org)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.904 284.115 m 491.888 284.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 494.888 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 508.880 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two essays with light-hearted titles present some solid scholarship in interesting areas. Myrto Hatzaki )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores Byzantine aesthetics \(oddly without using the term\), and attitudes to the body. She shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers reduced physical beauty to a check-list which, nevertheless, had its basis in a perceived truth, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which as an ideal persisted through many centuries. Those today interested in neuroaesthetics might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the apparent importance of the peak-shift effect, where such essential features can be exaggerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to produce an intensified response in a viewer, which would appear to correlate well with the function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icon, and a Byzantine listener might more easily imagine a beautiful person by being offered an essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of one. Hatzaki suggests that 'Byzantium has been seen as a world which valued spirituality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above physicality', where physical characteristics were held to reveal spiritual characteristics. Therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features considered ugly are attributed to those with bad characters, who may be described as 'broad with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fat paunch, shaggy hair, prominent lips and a large face with a big greying beard' \(Nikephoros I, who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just died in battle with the Bulgars\), rather than with 'fair curly hair, large eyes, a white and rosy face, deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black eyebrows' and a chest 'a fathom broad' \(the poetic hero Digenes Akrites\). Yet, as one might expect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty can also be deceiving, and ugliness mask a beautiful soul. Dark skin is always a bad sign, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demons are frequently described as Ethiopians, while the faces of angels shine with skin of ineffable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.9037 284.4295 491.8877 296.3095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.doaks.org/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whiteness. Shaun Tougher's 'Having fun in Byzantium' is devoted to chariot-racing and mimes in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and middle periods, beginning with Julian's disdain for both expressed in his )] TJ ET BT 404.492 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beard-hater)] TJ ET BT 463.148 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Zercon the Moor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a mime by default, and as described by Priskos he conforms to Hatzaki's criteria for ugliness, being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moor, short, with a hunchback, deformed feet, a flat nose and a stammer. A more deliberate jester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theophilos 'Gryllos', entertained Michael III and his friends, but not the emperor's mother, whom Gryllos, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disguised as the patriarch of Constantinople, blessed with a fart. It is a shame to realise that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparaging tales, contained in the secular life of Basil I, may well be fictions. Tougher notes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequency, if not the popularity, of chariot racing declined into the middle period, and he might have drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to several more tenth-century accounts than he does, including a lacunose poem by Christopher of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mytilene in praise of the races, and the scolding received by Gregory, a pious follower of St Basil the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Younger, who was drawn into the stadium en route to visit the holy man, thus coming under the spell of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demon who presided there. Most expansively, Constantine VII had rules for the staging of imperial races )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written down in his )] TJ ET BT 130.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Ceremonies)] TJ ET BT 227.336 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which Gilbert Dagron has edited and translated into French \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travaux et mmoires)] TJ ET BT 135.332 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection ends with a 71-page bibliography. I note that this and other front and end matter \(including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full list of contents, and a handy list of Byzantine rulers and key dates\) is available currently as 'free content' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at 'Wiley Online Library'. A subscription to this service appears to provide access to all chapters as PDF )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(files, which would be of great benefit to those wishing to use the collection in teaching. A diligent student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may encounter some niggling omissions and errors in the critical apparatus. I was not checking carefully, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumbled across the following while looking into topics that interested me. Papalexandrou refers twice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(James 2005\), an article by the editor, which does not feature among her eight listed works. Hinterberger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers to his own article \(Hinterberger 2006\), but the volume in which it is alleged to appear \(Jeffreys \(ed.\): )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vol. 2\) is not listed. Two works \(Dennis 1977, 1997\) are cited as an author's condemnation of and 'generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repentance' on the value of Byzantine literature \(p. 232\), but the bibliography offers only Dennis 1997a and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997b, hardly sufficient time for the erudite Jesuit to repent. Sarris refers to \(Haldon 1993\), and one suspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is Haldon's book listed as 1993a in the bibliography. However, in that year Haldon also offered a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and important paper on military service and lands. More significantly, the index is short and weak, at fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than eight pages, and one suspects the reason might be a decision by the publisher to save space, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the employment of an indexer attuned to the importance of people and places, but unfamiliar with key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts. Entries for some individuals are also incomplete, for example Theodore and Theophanes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tattooed iconophiles to whom Papalexandou refers \(p. 117\), also appear in Brubaker's chapter \(p. 335\) as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(graptoi)] TJ ET BT 69.356 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There is no entry for 'Memory', despite there being a chapter devoted to it by Papalexandrou, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which she observes presciently that when looking 'through the index of nearly any book devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantines ... one will be hard pressed to find an entry for "memory" or its affiliates \(memento, )] TJ ET BT 495.404 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mneme)] TJ ET BT 529.388 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memoria)] TJ ET BT 76.676 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\)'. Sin, according to the index, appears only on pages 128 and 156?7, so in fewer places than sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 70, 84?5, 348?9\), which is identified in three sinful contexts: Bogomil abstinence, the sexual appeal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young boys to monks, and those taking pleasure in the sexual misfortunes of others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 226.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 208.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 208.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1019)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 206.841 m 328.316 206.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 181.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5222)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.doaks.org/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 207.1555 328.3157 219.0355 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1019) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004917 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005136 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008909 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000016533 00000 n 0000016598 00000 n 0000024214 00000 n 0000024279 00000 n 0000032827 00000 n 0000032892 00000 n 0000040991 00000 n 0000041075 00000 n 0000049213 00000 n 0000049341 00000 n 0000049414 00000 n 0000049498 00000 n 0000056306 00000 n 0000056434 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 56530 %%EOF