%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828183209+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828183209+01'00') /Title (Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England 1860-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4579 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England 1860-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I come to Paula Bartley's book as someone who has for a number of years, been examining the extent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of prostitution in Ireland. Attitudes towards prostitutes and prostitution within Irish culture were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways similar to those that prevailed in England. They were also distinctly different. The difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes most obvious from the late nineteenth century when nationalist Ireland began to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiate its culture from that of England and when Catholicism as a social, ethical and moral force was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supreme. It is also from the end of the nineteenth century that Bartley sees distinct developments emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the area of social purity and attitudes towards prostitution in England. Her book is a study of attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rid society of the curse of prostitution through prevention and reform, placed firmly within the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue work. There is already a significant body of scholarship on prostitution and much of that scholarship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as it relates to England, concentrates on campaigns to control or abolish prostitution. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant research explores the organisation of commercial sex and historians have been much influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by cultural and literary studies that examine the discursive elements within prostitution and the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural construction of the prostitute. The development of women's history has made the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution a more complex one. Issues of the representation of women who engage in prostitution, together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the material circumstances of their lives and the examination of the social construction of sexuality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender has broadened the subject of prostitution to encompass an exploration of a wide range of interrelated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues which include masculinity, femininity and sexuality amongst other topics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into four sections and the issues covered in each are in many ways distinct from each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. Section one looks at the extent of prostitution, attempts at reform within refuges and life within these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform institutions; the second section is taken up with an examination of the role of the Ladies' Associations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(102)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Bartley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria Luddy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Care of Friendless Girls; part three examines the links between prostitution and the category of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('feeble-minded' and the fourth section looks at the suppression of prostitution and the issue of men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality. The sources used are varied, and many will be new to historians of this subject. The papers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Society for the Protection of Young Girls, together with the correspondence of the Homes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hope, papers relating to the London Lock Hospital and Asylum, as well as diaries and correspondence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals are used. Together with parliamentary papers and other official documentation these sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal the complexity of the issues under discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the issues and arguments raised by Bartley will be familiar to those who have studied prostitution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of the book, for instance, examines the extent of prostitution, the nature of reform homes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and life within these institutions. Estimating the population of prostitutes is fraught with difficulties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartley is wisely sceptical of the numbers of prostitutes given by contemporary sources. Life within rescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes is detailed. We see how women gained entrance to these institutions, their daily routine, the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of their lives, and the work engaged in. This was often laundry work, which helped to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution. Two years was generally considered to be a sufficient time to 'repent and reform' though here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons might have been made with convent-run institutions where, by the end of the century, nuns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reluctant to let any of their charges leave their institutions. Bartley also provides some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical information on the careers of these women once they had left the institutions, which reveal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited success of these reform institutions. These statistics are taken from the published annual reports of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rescue Society and the Church Penitentiary Association. The small numbers of women who availed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these rescue homes reflect the inability of these reformers and refuges to combat the commercialisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodification of women. It is unclear whether the actual registers of these rescue agencies still exist. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the entrants to Magdalen Asylums in Ireland, for instance, presents a complex picture of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who worked as prostitutes. Where asylum registers are available in Ireland, it is clear that many women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered these refuges regularly and used the institutions to tide them over poor work availability. Entrance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often seasonal and for the women who remain in the institutions it could be argued that they were making a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice to 'retire' from their occupation. A comparable analysis of registers for asylums in England might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show up similar, or even different, patterns. Using such information is one way of gaining a picture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of women who worked as prostitutes in this period. However, I am aware that access to such records, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly where they relate to Catholic convent institutions, can be difficult. However, the lack of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative analysis between lay and religious-run refuges, especially those managed by nuns, excludes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to examine the attitudes of religious-run institutions to reform. In the case for Ireland it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the extent of Magdalen Asylums under convent management reinforced the conservative reaction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution and women who worked as prostitutes. Amongst the middle classes such women were always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed shameful. In England however, as Bartley shows, the apparent failure of reform work encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some rescue workers to try to stop the problem at source. Prevention, rather than cure, became the way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the agencies deemed to have a particular effect on the extent of prostitution was the Ladies' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association for the Care of Friendless Girls, which by 1885, had 106 branches across England. It was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many organisations attempting to promote social purity at this time. Power and authority framed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the Ladies' Associations and their supposed alliance with working-class women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring about a reform in morality and hence prostitution. The absence of 'good moral teaching' was deemed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of working-class life. The Ladies' Associations, together with groups such as the Mothers' Union, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girls' Friendly Society, the Woman's League, and other organisations set about teaching the poor, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially their children, of the value of self-control and obedience. Bartley shows that the similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between these groups was indeed superficial, they all had different aspirations and expectations for the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were doing. The Ladies' Associations also began to take in 'wayward girls' and while espousing family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values did not encourage their charges to maintain contact with their parents. In a sense parents also handed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over responsibility for their daughters to this organisation. It would prove interesting to find out why they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did this? What was the relationship between these homes and industrial schools? What kind of culture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being created when parents hand their 'wayward' children over to private organisations for 'care'? Is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow preferable to the state managing their care? I wonder also if it would be worth exploring the role of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside finance in these preventive campaigns. Had industrial capitalists, or their money, any place in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellice Hopkins surfaces regularly in Bartley's study and was a singular individual in preventive work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated strongly with the Church of England. I would have liked to know more about her personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on the rise of preventive institutions. With regard to Ireland Hopkins had a profound impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of long-lasting vigilance associations when she visited the country in 1885. One of her biographers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Irish woman named Rosa M. Barrett, had played a major role in child care and rescue in Ireland but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not publicly concerned with rescue or reform work. How were individuals in the English reform movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally influenced by Hopkins? Indeed Bartley eschews attention to individuals instead concentrating on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations and societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the more interesting aspects of the book is the discussion that emerges of the links made between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution and the 'feeble-minded'. Dr. Bartley correctly sees this link developing within the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('psychiatric revolution' of the nineteenth century. The medicalisation of prostitution was not only associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the implementation of the Contagious Diseases Acts. Discourses of feeble- mindedness allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution and the continuance of prostitution to be explained in a 'scientific' manner, a matter that no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt offered some comfort to reformers. However a reliance on such beliefs also allowed social purity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a social hygiene issue. The purity movement, as Greta Jones has pointed out, was the forerunner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social hygiene movement. There is scope also for seeing changing attitudes towards prostitution in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of the success of preventive medicine by the end of the nineteenth century. It is not psychiatry alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that encourages a 'scientific' diagnosis of the individual causes of prostitution. Preventive societies utilised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rhetoric of eugenics and medicine to initiate and force the government to enact legislation on sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters at a time when governments were not always willing to legislate on such issues. Preventive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations were keen on education. Did, I wonder, the drive for purity reform translate into moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education in the schools?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was clear by the 1880s that penitentiaries, reformatories and the various preventive agencies were proving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffective in stemming prostitution. Numerous social purity groups emerged from this time and while they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have generally been credited with lowering the level of prostitution, Bartley persuasively argues that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence might be less than has been accepted by historians. One of the ways of gauging the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution has been to look at judicial statistics. There is an obvious decline in convictions for prostitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the introduction of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885. However, while social purity activists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed a direct influence on this decline it seems that lack of police activity, leading to fewer arrests, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more likely reason. I would also like to suggest that the perceived, or actual, decline in prostitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also have been influenced by the growth of industrial capitalism and the impetus for urban reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which found expression through local government enactments, and the development of civic pride in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter years of the century. Confinement to particular urban areas, and keeping prostitutes from public view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a consequence of this development and the perception of a reduction in the levels of prostitution may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a result of such confinement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book explores issues around men and morality. While Bartley provides a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of the attitudes of feminist reformers to male sexuality there is terrific scope in this section to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of masculinity. One of the prime features of the 1880s was the passing of the Criminal Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amendment Act. One of the principal features of the Act was the criminalisation of homosexuality. This in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn had considerable impact on the idea of masculinity and the creation of a homosexual identity. How was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity defined within preventative work? How did men argue for their place in preventive societies? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1880s was also a period of perceived sexual danger particularly with the Jack the Ripper murders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1888. Did such fears allow the purity movement to experience the success and receive the support it did?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the women's movement made it clear that it wanted a single standard of morality, one that was based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on women's ideals, it was also women, unfortunately, who were expected to enforce this morality. All good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books lead one to new questions and a deeper understanding of the nature of the subject being discussed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartley's book is an important contribution to the study of prostitution. It is clear sighted and unsentimental. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1253 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It provides an interesting insight into the management of rescue homes and the ultimate failures of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preventive and reform work. Bartley argues that social purity groups were a mixture of radicalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative repression. Ultimately social purists were unsuccessful in eliminating prostitution and failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a significant impact on social policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/102)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/667)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/102) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000005491 00000 n 0000005600 00000 n 0000009161 00000 n 0000009289 00000 n 0000009373 00000 n 0000009438 00000 n 0000017120 00000 n 0000017185 00000 n 0000024390 00000 n 0000024474 00000 n 0000025780 00000 n 0000025908 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26003 %%EOF