%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R 58 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930140633+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930140633+01'00') /Title (The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4624 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suspect that, at some level, Eric Foner was always going to write this book. He openly acknowledges in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 108.020 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Lincoln has always loomed large in his research ? even if he had not hitherto taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre stage as subject ? ever since he wrote his doctoral dissertation over four decades ago. Author or editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of more than 20 works on American history, Columbia's DeWitt Clinton Professor has long straddled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War years with his pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 215.324 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men)] TJ ET BT 373.628 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1970\) and )] TJ ET BT 431.948 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 507.608 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1988\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while he has traversed the period 1861?5 many times with broader projects and longer narratives. Yet only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now, in the wake of editing )] TJ ET BT 168.332 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Lincoln )] TJ ET BT 230.336 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2008\), has Foner turned his full attention to the defining figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.668 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.668 186.393 m 86.660 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps that's a bit misleading, though, since )] TJ ET BT 252.500 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 326.504 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, according to the author's own statement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose, 'is intended to be both less and more than another biography' \(p. xvi\). Less, in that Foner has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to submit a rehashed or comprehensive life of Lincoln to what is, without hyperbole, the most crowded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of historical fields. More, in that he wants to tease out Abe's precise thinking on slavery at different points, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst seeking at the same time to break what he \(rightly\) identifies as the self-referential mould of Lincoln )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, and to show how exposure to evolving public opinion and to new circles of people changed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual?s thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Foner?s introduction provides a concise and highly self-aware thumbnail sketch of where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1020)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Foner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393066180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Page)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.6677 186.7075 86.6597 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7618 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography stands, and how he is looking to correct it. From the outset he promises to avoid explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to other historians? work, and I would not want to put words in his mouth by offering any names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he might have in mind. \(I should also add that this deliberate omission at no point sees him make straw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men of others, and that it succeeds in keeping the narrative smooth and attractive to the popular market\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case, many of us will know what he means when he writes of the trend towards over-specialisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln studies ? and its concomitant weakness of self-referential thinking ? and of the kind of glib )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductionism that identifies ?a single quotation, speech or letter as the real or quintessential Lincoln? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xvii?xix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s leitmotif is one of Lincoln?s capacity for growth. He therefore places himself between two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonistic interpretations: the first ? and perhaps the more common one ? that the 16th president entered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the White House determined to pick away at slavery as quickly as advancing northern sentiment would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow, and the second, that he lacked personal conviction and went wherever uncontrollable political forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took him. Foner also suggests that African-American and white abolitionist agitation helped change the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context in which Lincoln and the Republican Party operated, allowing him to stake out positions that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had occupied and legitimised first. With this insight, he hopes to kill two historiographical birds with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stone: namely, the common dismissal of radical antislavery as impractical and extreme, and a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat public opinion as somewhat prone to inertia. As a theme, this becomes much more pronounced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of )] TJ ET BT 104.996 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 179.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which covers Lincoln?s time in office \(pp. xviii?xix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Lincoln comes across in this book as rather consistent throughout his pre-war life ? or at least, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much as we know of it ? in his broad outlook on slavery. This is where Foner excels, bringing out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuances and twists involved in taking a fairly steady course through changing circumstances. He takes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sincere Lincoln?s declaration of lifelong opposition to slavery as fundamentally unjust and un-republican, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and highlights the continuity in his belief that the federal government was perfectly able ? though was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily )] TJ ET BT 90.332 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(obliged)] TJ ET BT 126.332 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as the ?freedom national? doctrine would have had it ? to extirpate slavery where it fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under its jurisdiction. But Foner adds that this also came with a package of certain limitations, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprising not only enjoinders to respect the institution?s constitutional and legal protections, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking lack of either outward sympathy for free blacks or personal antipathy towards the South, and no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortage of hostility to abolitionism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus it was that Lincoln could find himself almost alone in issuing a formal protest against a resolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Illinois legislature that Congress had no power to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an aspiration that he later discussed with abolitionist Joshua Giddings once he had reached Washington, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade later. But thus it also was ? and no less significantly ? that in the meantime, his commitment to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyerly duties in the Matson case had seen him anticipate aspects of Roger Taney?s logic in )] TJ ET BT 484.604 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dred Scott)] TJ ET BT 536.264 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Representative Lincoln initially clocked up one of the 30th Congress?s most conservative voting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records on slavery for a northern Whig. Although Foner is not the first historian to recount such episodes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unsurprisingly, he never could be ? he accords them greater coverage, contextualisation and weighing-up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than most.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s Lincoln enters the 1850s in flux and possibly a little frustrated, still devoted to the conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation advocated by Henry Clay but aware of its shortcomings, and armed with ?developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antislavery ideas but not a coherent antislavery ideology? \(p. 62\), nor a way to pursue antislavery goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the political system. What follows is necessarily a familiar story, but Foner again manages to step )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back from his subject in a way that keeps the book compelling, even if with no more than an occasional light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prick of the mythology balloon. He challenges Lincoln?s 1858 explanation for his late arrival on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antislavery scene ? which was that it had been a ?minor question? with him until the Kansas-Nebraska Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overturned what he had taken as a national consensus ? with the simple observation that for this to be true, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln would have had to turn a blind eye to the fact of the addition of nine new slave states, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quadrupling of the slave population, between 1787 and 1854. Foner attributes Lincoln?s rise to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive rhetoric, but reminds us that all Republicans drew extensively on Jefferson and the Founders, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was not a little lucky to inhabit the same state as Stephen Douglas, since his political credentials all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way down to 1860 would be earned solely in challenging the opposition?s presumptive presidential )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7409 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nominee.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the author is in no way out to debunk the pre-war Lincoln ? who is, after all, such an easy target for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism-inspired cherry picking from the )] TJ ET BT 257.636 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collected Works)] TJ ET BT 337.292 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and sure enough, he comes out rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguingly in some of Foner?s comparisons. While most Republicans simply attacked Taney for addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the territorial question where he need not have done, ?Lincoln addressed head-on the vexatious question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black citizenship? \(p. 95\), which was no small risk in the Midwest. \(Of course, he also )] TJ ET BT 451.952 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 469.952 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to address the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter in such a region; but it was a dangerous business all the same, especially when delivering remarks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as those in the Galesburg debate, which Foner considers the most egalitarian sounds that Lincoln ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made\). And despite deeply held convictions of the superiority of free labour, he never argued in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnation of the South and its need for economic modernisation through emancipation ? even though, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative anti-slavery forces, this was often as low a common denominator as the non-extension of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foner?s chapter on the 1860 election and secession reads a bit closer to a conventional account of events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though this is inevitable in such a work. \(Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 270.992 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 344.996 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( strikes an admirable balance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to shift the focus of what might otherwise look like a normal Lincoln biography or general history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period towards questions of race and slavery, whilst not forgetting the man himself, or sacrificing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flow of the narrative for an unduly narrow definition of what should come under the rubric\). Wartime finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln devoted to promoting the border states? own emancipation efforts on gradual terms with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensation and colonisation, and even more so when the prospect of general emancipation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederate South starts to loom. As such, the infamous meeting with the African-American deputation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clauses attached to the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, and the constitutional amendments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested in the Second Annual Message do not add up to a cynical attempt to appease a racist backlash, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many historians would argue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the end of 1862 does represent ?a crucial moment of transition? for Lincoln \(p. 238\), and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclamation of 1 January 1863 ? which came with no reference to colonisation, compensation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradualism ? is transformative. Unlike in many accounts, Foner?s Lincoln had not entirely shed such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking, and would still toy with these policies from time to time. \(The author asks how a man familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illinois?s questionable history of indentured servitude and the poor example of emancipation in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean could really have considered apprenticeship even into the second half of the war, which certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave me pause for thought\). The Proclamation had set a new baseline for administration policy, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its call for black recruitment set in motion long-deferred questions in Lincoln?s mind about African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? place in society and entitlement to certain rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the more familiar claims surrounding the black contribution to the war effort, though, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author stresses the effect of the president?s encounters with ?talented, politically active black men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women? once in the White House \(p. 257\). This was what had been missing almost all his life until the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War; what had marked him out from abolitionists and colleagues like Charles Sumner and Salmon Chase; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what had given his brand of anti-slavery a moral but rather abstract air. Taken out of Illinois ? which, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the lurid fears that had inspired and maintained the Black Laws, had a very small African-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population ? and placed on a larger geographical and social stage, Lincoln?s prejudices began to soften, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if he never became a fully-fledged egalitarian. \(Indeed, Foner makes a rare comparison to what we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discern of his thinking on Indians, and reckons that his old frontier assumptions, combined with a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal engagement with Native Americans or with a pressure group equivalent to abolitionists, witnessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no improvement on that score\). Whilst committed above all to the military situation, and to securing ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through state constitutions and eventually the 13th Amendment ? the legally shaky emancipation of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proclamation, Foner?s Lincoln was nevertheless engaging seriously with the question of black rights in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war world at the time of his death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(much)] TJ ET BT 134.660 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that I agree with in this book, and Foner certainly raises plenty of new questions. Yet I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder if he does not ultimately break the historiographical mould to the extent that one might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected. This seems especially striking given that he has wiped the slate clean, in a way, by keeping out )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to existing scholarly debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s immediate jumping-off point for )] TJ ET BT 258.656 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 332.660 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was his own contribution to )] TJ ET BT 471.992 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Lincoln)] TJ ET BT 530.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago, an article on colonisation. Foner singles out that idea as something that historians tend to overlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the more progressive notes that Lincoln sounded at any given point in his career. In reminding us both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a politically inactive 1850s Abe had spoken up for the scheme, and that he pursued the policy into 1863, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author deftly swats aside the wishful thinking that would deem colonisation a crafty, short-term palliative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for northern concerns about the effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Foner does declare that Lincoln abandoned colonisation, and in arguing that black enlistment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands for labour sealed its fate ? and slowly forced the president to imagine a place for African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans in their native land ? he differs from most historians largely in pushing its presumed lifespan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward to about spring 1863. In fact, Lincoln engaged in a second wave of colonisation projects throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that summer and beyond, dealing directly with European empires ? including a mission from one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British colonies, whose failure the author pronounces prematurely ? in order to bypass the questionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private speculators who had produced disasters like the le Vache project. In fairness, Foner does then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the possibility of Lincoln?s later interest in colonisation, though only in an end-note.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.988 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.988 571.491 m 492.980 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That may raise a broader question, though: )] TJ ET BT 242.648 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 316.652 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a chronologically linear account based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of ?growth?, and as such it would have little flexibility to incorporate these contested points, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foner had not made the conscious decision to avoid them. Of course, he is quick to qualify ?growth? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, whilst the \(inevitable\) end of the Lincoln narrative in the last chapter allows him to sound some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumspect and eminently sage notes about what might have happened next. But still, Foner )] TJ ET BT 482.636 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(has)] TJ ET BT 499.304 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gone for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?growth?, and not unproblematically.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.656 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.656 473.955 m 227.648 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.648 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Many aspects of the slavery controversy ? were only marginally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to race? \(p. 120\), he argues, echoing recent remarks by Henry Louis Gates.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.560 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.560 459.699 m 443.552 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.552 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In that vein, I wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if he might have disentangled Lincoln?s growth with respect to slavery, and his growth with respect to race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bit more explicitly. I agree that Lincoln was not born ready to sign the Emancipation Proclamation, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there may be two different threads of growth running through )] TJ ET BT 332.624 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 406.628 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: one of Lincoln coming round )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a belief that the moment had come to strike against an institution that he had always hated, even if a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water had to flow under the bridge first, and the other a later, more novel departure of questioning his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepest racial prejudices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet even for the latter, ?growth? still troubles me. This is a tricky area for us all, with the significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that the president had reached a new stance on matters such as black suffrage by the end of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still chafing against the simple fact that, as Foner points out, Lincoln barely addressed the question of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights outside 1857?8. )] TJ ET BT 143.348 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 217.352 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a biography, and the author has succeeded more than most in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing Lincoln in the context of the attitudes of those around him. But paradoxically, this swings back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-eminence of his individual evolution when that context is one of abolitionists and persuasive African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans. Whilst it would be an exaggeration to call those positive influences a )] TJ ET BT 425.960 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(deus ex machina)] TJ ET BT 505.940 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, they certainly move the president on a lot between 1863 and 1865, given that Foner so rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects the ?secret Lincoln? of 1862)] TJ ET BT 204.968 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9877 571.8055 492.9797 583.6855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6557 474.2695 227.6477 486.1495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.5597 460.0135 443.5517 471.8935 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 9324 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An analytical framework of personal growth is indeed preferable to seeing Lincoln as a masked egalitarian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but I would like to offer some thoughts that may complicate or cut across the idea, both in our interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, crucially, maybe even in Lincoln?s own mind. I think that Foner hit the nail on the head with a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on NPR that Lincoln?s colonisationist proclivities were never founded in disdain for free blacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unlike many others?\), but rather because ?white people [were] so racist that blacks [would] never be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded equality in this country?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.652 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.652 711.795 m 213.644 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.644 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Was that not still a concern in 1865 ? as Benjamin Butler alleged ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with no-one knowing what would happen next, and the president having no sense that he could, or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should, interfere in the individual states? social systems? It might also reflect what Foner calls Lincoln?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious moral agnosticism in acknowledging, in his Peoria speech and the remarks to the deputation of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washingtonians, the powerful claims of popular \(i.e. democratic?\) prejudice. In that case, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisation was not really something for an individual to grow out of, but a racial safety valve, and one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several potential policy options in a world turned upside down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ditto Lincoln?s private, later public suggestion of a limited black suffrage, which although reflective of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant inner step, lacked political teeth as long as his understanding of the relationship between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states and federal government prevented its actual imposition anywhere. Indeed, given the president?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission that the executive?s role was due to shrink at the war?s end ? and the constitutional hang-ups that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeated his Reconstruction policy ? perhaps the greater mental stride for him would)] TJ ET BT 452.276 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have actually been)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second one, to go from suggesting to insisting on African-American enfranchisement. As historians, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also need to stop simply reaching for the multi-layered word ?citizenship? to describe Lincoln?s vision for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war blacks, even when it is used to argue how tentative this development might have been. I was glad, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, to see Foner?s summary of antebellum African-American rights echo Michael Vorenberg?s recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay in )] TJ ET BT 75.344 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln?s Proclamation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.684 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.684 471.699 m 208.676 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in reminding us to unpick the multiple and contested meanings of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all,)] TJ ET BT 79.688 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 156.692 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides an excellent, nuanced, and challenging account of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emancipator?s struggle ? meant in the broadest possible way ? with slavery. No uplifting moment stands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unqualified by sharp, detached observation of the limitations of Lincoln?s thoughts or deeds; no episode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which jars with modern assumptions is placed in anything other than accurate and fair historical context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even with some caveats about the idea of ?growth?, this should be the first port of call for both the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the lay reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Page was reviewing the US edition of)] TJ ET BT 264.344 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Fiery Trial)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eric Foner, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Soil)] TJ ET BT 167.336 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 173.336 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Labor)] TJ ET BT 228.332 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 234.332 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 84.680 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1970\); Eric Foner, )] TJ ET BT 242.312 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863?1877 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1988\); )] TJ ET BT 158.660 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Lincoln: new perspectives on Lincoln and his world)] TJ ET BT 429.992 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Eric Foner)] TJ ET BT 507.308 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 225.363 m 149.000 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an account of the ?imperial projects? and the question of the president?s late colonisation interest, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see P. W. Magness and S. N. Page, )] TJ ET BT 234.992 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonization after Emancipation: Lincoln and the Movement for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Resettlement)] TJ ET BT 155.660 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Columbia, MO, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.324 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.324 182.595 m 326.312 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fred Kaplan and Allen Guelzo?s reviews have taken issue with ?growth?, the latter rather more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severely. See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.096 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.096 154.083 m 315.764 154.083 l S BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dyn/content/article/2010/11/28/AR2010112802826.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 139.827 m 335.024 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.024 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 352.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 6 December 2010] and <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703556604575502871565475324.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 125.571 m 488.372 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.372 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 505.364 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 6 December 2010], respectively.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.276 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.276 111.315 m 323.264 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. L. Gates Jr, )] TJ ET BT 137.000 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln on Race and Slavery)] TJ ET BT 275.648 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2009\), p. xx.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.968 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.968 97.059 m 468.956 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=130489804)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 82.803 m 424.424 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.424 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 441.416 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 6 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.320 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.320 68.547 m 201.308 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Vorenberg, ?Abraham Lincoln?s ?fellow citizens? ? before and after emancipation?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln?s Proclamation: Emancipation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.6517 712.1095 213.6437 723.9895 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.6837 472.0135 208.6757 483.8935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 225.6775 148.9997 237.5575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.3237 182.9095 326.3117 194.7895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.0957 154.3975 315.7637 166.2775 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/28/AR2010112802826.html) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 140.1415 335.0237 152.0215 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/28/AR2010112802826.html) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 125.8855 488.3717 137.7655 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703556604575502871565475324.html) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.2757 111.6295 323.2637 123.5095 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.9677 97.3735 468.9557 109.2535 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 83.1175 424.4237 94.9975 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=130489804) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.3197 68.8615 201.3077 80.7415 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 4800 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reconsidered, ed. William A. 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