%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028195115+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028195115+00'00') /Title (Wellspring of Liberty: How Virginia?s Religious Dissenters Helped Win the American Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4168 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wellspring of Liberty: How Virginia?s Religious Dissenters Helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Win the American Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Often forgotten in any analysis of American constitutional rights is the extent to which those rights are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded in the state-level revolutionary settlements prior to 1787. In this short monograph, John Ragosta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a valuable contribution to the field by showing how religious disestablishment in Virginia, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the template for freedom of religion at the national level, was the hard-won product of political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military mobilization during the War of Independence and the early years of the peace. Rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handed down from on high by the Anglican-dominated Virginia Assembly, Ragosta makes the case that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious freedom resulted from grassroots political action that forced the Anglican gentry to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions in exchange for back-country military mobilization. By the time the war ended, the dissenters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had built up a critical mass of political power that in 1786 made possible the passage of Thomas Jefferson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A lawyer by profession, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellspring of Liberty)] TJ ET BT 254.996 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is Ragosta?s first book, adapted from his doctoral dissertation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the University of Virginia. His background in law brings valuable context to the historical material; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1776 petition from a Presbyterian synod rejecting the logic of being a Christian nation and a 1785 petition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Chesterfield County citing the equal rights of Muslims resonate during an age of ?ground zero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mosques? and religious bigotry \(pp. 143?4\). Ragosta is also keenly aware of a historical and jurisprudential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1023)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John A. Ragosta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195388060)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Clinkman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition that gives primary credit for disestablishment to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. )] TJ ET BT 499.964 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellspring)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is very much a dissent of its own from the Jefferson-centric historiography of early American republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious liberty. ?Although both men were intimately engaged in the fight for religious freedom in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia,? Ragosta argues, ?overemphasis of their work tends to deny an appropriate voice to the dissenters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, it was the dissenters who bargained for, and fought for, religious freedom? \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellspring)] TJ ET BT 86.684 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore very much a social history, in similar style to Michael McDonnell?s recent )] TJ ET BT 508.616 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of War)] TJ ET BT 106.688 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which examined the War of Independence in Virginia as a class struggle of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landowners and tenants politically coming into their own.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.664 683.283 m 324.656 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.656 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ragosta?s research nicely complements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDonnell?s, as many of those small landowners were from the ranks of the back-country dissenters who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form the core constituency of Ragosta?s book. But the book is also an intellectual and political history. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions of dissenting congregations and synods, such as the vocal Hanover Presbytery, form much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary source material Ragosta works with. Discussions of rights in the pages of petitions frequently rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in complexity those of Jefferson in the )] TJ ET BT 221.660 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes on the State of Virginia)] TJ ET BT 364.004 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Madison in the )] TJ ET BT 455.000 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memorial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrance)] TJ ET BT 102.668 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into six chapters with two appendices, the chapters being arranged in chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order with a transition chapter explaining British policy. In an arresting opening chapter, Ragosta shows, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great detail, how oppressive the establishment regime was on the eve of revolution, with British officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to enforce the Act of Toleration an only partially-effective check on the excesses of local gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials as they attempted to impose conformity on dissenters. Next, Ragosta explains the process by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenters leveraged concessions in exchange for their mobilization. He then transitions to a discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policy, and how imperial officials could not conceive that it was the Anglicans who led the resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to colonial rule, and therefore could not construct an effective policy for wooing dissenters to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard. Returning to Virginia, Ragosta examines the extent to which Dissenters did respond to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization, and then in the final chapter assesses what they got for their participation. The book concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with two appendices containing more information on pre-revolutionary persecution by Anglican authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on denominational mobilization by county.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ragosta?s argument can be understood via three broad themes: the role of dissenter agency in organizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own affairs, the needs of the state in war, and the individual versus institutional ways people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced religion. The Virginia that he describes is one very much still in the early modern period, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more in common with the 17th century than the 19th.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rationale for the entire book is that dissenters were active agents in their own liberation. Ragosta takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated issue with any suggestion that religious liberty was a gift bestowed by Jefferson, the gentry, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Assembly. He rejects the notion that disestablishment was foreordained by republicanism, reversing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the equation and instead arguing that rather ?than republicanization inevitably leading to the patriot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and disestablishment, the process of negotiating disestablishment, necessitated by the moment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicized the dissenters, which proved to be a key element in the republicanization of Virginia? \(p. 45\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his emphasis on mass military mobilization paired with grassroots political activism, Ragosta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the dissenters active agents in Virginia?s revolutionary settlement. The contest between establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dissenters breaks down into four periods. From 1768?75, dissenters engaged in ?unsuccessful pleas for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater tolerance.? With the outbreak of war in 1776, dissenters began to demand religious freedom in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange for their support for the war effort. From 1777?80 they engaged in wartime negotiations, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled to hold the line during the period of demobilization from 1781?6. Ragosta emphasizes that ?it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to keep in mind the corresponding progress of the war and various crises of recruiting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization ? all of which affected the tenor of the dialogue between dissenters and the establishment?\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While disestablishment remained a far-off goal virtually until the moment of passage in 1786, the war years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were marked by considerable give and take on both sides of the Establishment divide. Ragosta details how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity taxes and the vestry system in dissenting counties were relaxed, and how in turn dissenting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.6637 683.5975 324.6557 695.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7309 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preachers often functioned as enthusiastic recruiters, putting thousands of able-bodied frontiersmen into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginian forces. It is this dynamic that forms the ?wellspring of liberty? from which the book takes its title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which comprises another main theme. As Ragosta describes it, ?the Whigs? need for broader support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be the wellspring of liberty by requiring political leaders to enlist the evangelicals in the war.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connecting developments in Virginia to those in the United States as a whole, he continues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wellspring led ?to a uniquely American development of the modern state, first and most impressively in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of religious freedom and separation of church and state. Democratization in this context then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated development of every aspect of the young republic? \(p. 70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most striking is the degree to which religion, as experienced by Virginians before 1786, was very much an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional affair unrecognizable to a 21st-century observer, and the extent to which this institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm remained intact virtually until the moment the Statute for Religious Freedom was passed in 1786. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Virginian state levied taxes for support of Anglican parishes and vestries throughout the colonial period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phasing them out in certain dissenter strongholds during the war as part of the ?wellspring? phenomenon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as late as 1785, the General Assembly?s Committee on Religion was considering a plural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Establishment of the Protestant denominations, supported by a general assessment of all Virginians to pay a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax for the support of the denomination of their choice. This general assessment was narrowly defeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through parliamentary maneuvering in the House of Delegates and in the following year influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenting congregations and synods switched their support to Jefferson?s disestablishment bill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Key to this institutional way of experiencing religion was the debate over the incorporation of the Episcopal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. After independence, the Anglican Church in Virginia had severed its ties with Britain and reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself as an independent, Episcopalian denomination. As the successor to the Established Church, it sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and received incorporation under state law. This allowed it to securely hold property and gave it a material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage over its unincorporated dissenting competitors. Along with the general assessment, Ragosta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the incorporation battle as the last stand of an Establishment out of touch with new realities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginian politics, but nonetheless exercising ?continued strength? as it negotiated with the increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous and enfranchised dissenters \(p. 110\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The specter of historical contingency hangs over the passages dealing with the years 1784?6, for it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during these years that the establishment made its last stand. The description of the battles over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporation, the general assessment and disestablishment leave the reader with the conclusion that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalization of Virginian religious life nearly did not happen, and until a very late date the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came close to co-opting the largest dissenting denominations into a plural arrangement that would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadened the establishment but left its core assumptions and institutions in place. Had that happened, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been no disestablishment, and no model of secularization for the federal constitution to follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall Ragosta?s arguments are highly persuasive and the book stands well on its own. However, given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brevity, coming in at a mere 261 pages including appendices and index, one wonders whether the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have gone into more depth on other aspects of the dissenting communities not strictly related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military mobilization but still relevant to political enfranchisement and religious disestablishment. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, rather than excluding Jefferson and Madison from the main narrative, more could have been done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to integrate them as partners with the dissenting community. This holds especially true for Madison, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was educated by Presbyterian clergy and carried on a lengthy correspondence on the moral meaning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution with Samuel Stanhope Smith, a Presbyterian clergyman who founded a dissenting academy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia back country and later became president of the College of New Jersey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ragosta also goes slightly astray by excluding Jefferson from the main narrative due to his desire to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?voice? of disestablishment. ?The change in Virginia politics that allowed adoption of religious liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had far more to do with the dissenters? views than the erudite reasoning of Madison and Jefferson?, Ragosta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims. Perhaps so. But aside from the fact that Madison, educated by Presbyterians, was intellectually as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much at home amongst dissenters as he was amongst the Anglicans, Ragosta?s focus on dissenting thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and agency overlooks the material support given the dissenters by sympathetic Anglican gentry, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Jefferson and Madison. It was Jefferson whose proposals for increased representation of dissenter-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 3469 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populated western counties, and for making land available to western settlers, swelled the ranks of dissenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delegates in the General Assembly and provided the votes for final passage of the Statute for Religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedom. And it was Madison who assumed floor leadership within the House of Delegates on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenters, and thereby successfully blocked the general assessment vote and organized the vote on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disestablishment. Even if the voice of disestablishment was that of dissenters, the arguments had to appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough Anglicans to get them to switch sides when the vote was called. Ragosta acknowledges as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he writes that the ?Enlightenment rationale, joined with the dissenters? ideology, was essential? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winning support for final passage \(p. 169\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This criticism is not to take away from Ragosta?s excellent treatment of the dissenters themselves ? it is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to note that the scope of the book could have been expanded. His core theme, that the dissenters created their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own liberation through prudent manipulation of wartime conditions, is an important antidote to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography that often does privilege Anglican elites and treats religious freedom as a right bestowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downwards from the Olympian heights of the Virginia Assembly. As a social history, it is a superb telling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an inadequately explored part of the revolution in Virginia. )] TJ ET BT 320.636 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellspring of Liberty)] TJ ET BT 423.308 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deserves to take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent place on the shelf of religious and social history during the American Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael McDonnell, )] TJ ET BT 167.000 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of War)] TJ ET BT 260.672 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.000 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.000 517.971 m 436.988 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 474.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 456.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 456.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1023)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 454.953 m 328.316 454.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 429.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9997 518.2855 436.9877 530.1655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 455.2675 328.3157 467.1475 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1023) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000004898 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000005117 00000 n 0000005226 00000 n 0000008787 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000008999 00000 n 0000009083 00000 n 0000016690 00000 n 0000016720 00000 n 0000016848 00000 n 0000016884 00000 n 0000016949 00000 n 0000024311 00000 n 0000024402 00000 n 0000027924 00000 n 0000028052 00000 n 0000028107 00000 n 0000028235 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28331 %%EOF