%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831221713+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831221713+01'00') /Title (Mitterrand, the End of the Cold War, and German Unification) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4237 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mitterrand, the End of the Cold War, and German Unification)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frdric Bozo?s book on French foreign policy around German unification in 1990 is a superb work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary diplomatic history. Already widely reviewed, it has assumed its rightful place as a must-read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand the period and the earth-shaking international transformation that followed it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.288 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.288 257.673 m 487.280 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.280 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Berghahn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books is to be congratulated for publishing the volume \(which first appeared in French in 2005 by Odile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob Editions\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because German unification was a tipping point leading to the end of the Cold War, the democratization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central and Eastern Europe, the collapse of ?already existing socialism? and eventually the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union, it has produced considerable scholarship. Documentary evidence has been in short supply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however. Much, if not most, of what will allow us to know the story in its full complexity has not yet been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(released. We do have memoirs and accounts by various actors and a lot of broader essays, whose stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly focus on the roles of US power and diplomacy, the tragedy of Mikhail Gorbachev and the wily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maneuvering of Helmut Kohl, then the German Federal Republic?s \(FRG\) Chancellor, and his Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A stylized digest of these stories would focus first on the reform and changing foreign policy of the USSR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the opening of the central European socialist bloc and undermining the viability of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democratic Republic \(GDR\). Next, smelling unification, Kohl, a tough and shrewd politician, moved rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1024)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frdric Bozo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845454272)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(450pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Ross)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2877 257.9875 487.2797 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7360 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prepare for it, then practically buying it and tipping Gobachev to cover the moving expenses of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops to return home. As unification became ever more certain, the large Cold War powers took centre stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to help Kohl?s ploys succeed. The most important of these were the Americans, George H. W. Bush and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Baker, and Gorbachev. Kohl came out of the unification period winning an election in 1990 that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might otherwise have lost and pointing an expanded FRG towards the return of its full sovereignty. The end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cold War then came without major conflict while poor Mr. Gorbachev lost the Soviet Union. Smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors, like the British prime minister Margaret Thatcher was dead set against unification, and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president Franois Mitterrand, who attempted to slow down the process, really did not count for much.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bozo?s main purpose is to tell the French side of things as fully as he can in order to evaluate basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatures of French roles in these stylized stories. The first is that Mitterrand was opposed to German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification. The second is that the French didn?t make much difference, at best they followed the Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Kohl who did the really hard work. The third is that Mitterrand and the French sought to slow down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events as much as they could, sometimes getting in the way of the clear-sighted Americans and the energetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kohl. Bozo?s incident-by-important-incident narrative is meant to show that all three of these views are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccurate. In doing so he has had the help of many others, mainly in French politics, as well as privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to archives public and private, and interviews with many of the insider-artisans of the policies that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so thoroughly tracks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Practically every shred of evidence that Bozo provides demonstrates that the first caricature is an absurdity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franois Mitterrand, his Elyse staff, and the Quai d?Orsay diplomats were not opposed to German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification \(in contrast with Margaret Thatcher, who almost certainly was\). The second caricature, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitterrand and France were simple followers of the Americans, Gorbachev, and Kohl, is no more true. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, as Bozo shows definitively, the French played very important roles in the complicated diplomacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around unification. It is the third contention about Mitterrand slowing down German unification that is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious, however. This is because Mitterrand did indeed hope to slow things down, as the book?s ample )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation demonstrates. But these hopes did not lead to much. What the evidence mainly shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is that Mitterrand and France had their own strong objectives which they did their best to achieve. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last analysis, however, the speed of the process was driven mainly by the rapid collapse of the GDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the efforts of Kohl to use this to promote unification. Slowing things down after a certain point was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(futile, therefore. But the French had significant other goals in the crisis, particularly concerning European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration, which they were able to achieve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s preface and early chapters set out Mitterrand?s general objectives, many of them familiar longer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term dimensions of French foreign policy. Gaullist and, more broadly, Gallic unhappiness with the Yalta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement and its bipolar Cold War definitions was a constant. This should not be taken to mean, as many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans have long done, that France was a disloyal member of the Western camp. If not obediently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlanticist like the British, France was ?differently? Western. France had long striven for a ? French-led ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe endowed with policies and capacities, including in the realm of security, that would be relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent of American hegemony. The chosen vehicle for this was the integration of Western Europe into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European Community \(EC\) with the French-German partnership at its heart. In pursuing this strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration the French had tried to exploit, when possible, German post-war ?semi-sovereignty?. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of this was assiduous French effort, institutionalized in the EC?s early days by the 1963 Elyse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty, to promote ever-deeper German commitment to European integration, which the French saw as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution of Europe?s 'German problem?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitterrand?s specific objectives in 1989?90 were derived from these larger goals, and they pointed initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a gradualist French approach to German unification, as Bozo?s first chapters show. Mitterrand was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone in his deep concerns about destabilizing Gorbachev and possibly unleashing dangerous Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists, the Soviet military and hard-line CPUSSR apparatchiks. But his worries about the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid German unification on European integration were of a different order. Bozo restricts his discussion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German unification period, but the background to this is important. Mitterrand, a ?European? from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of the Fourth Republic , had directly tied France?s dramatic economic policy U-turn in 1982?3 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong efforts to renew European integration which, until that point, was mired in ?Eurosclerosis?. The 1984 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7320 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fontainebleau European Council and then the Delors? Commission?s 1985 European single market program )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated new energies and a cascade of EC changes toward much greater integration. When the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification crisis began in 1989, France and the European Commission were engaged in the delicate last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of trying to persuade a reluctant FRG to open final negotiations about European Monetary Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(EMU\). It was reasonable, therefore, for Mitterrand to be apprehensive that a rapid push to unification might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divert the FRG from EMU and perhaps even pull it away from other European commitments. To American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high officials, relatively disinterested in such European domestic matters when they were not oppposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, these concerns could look like distractions from the immediate and urgent tasks at hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his early chapters Bozo underlines Mitterrand?s hesitations and concludes that while real, they did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow unification down. The French president?s caution was most evident in autumn of 1989 and early 1990 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the German unification train turned into a TGV. At that point, when the GDR tottered on the edge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse, central and eastern Europe moved toward unpredictable changes, and Gorbachev?s freedom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre narrowed, there were good reasons to worry about the kind of Europe and Germany that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge from the crisis. When Mitterrand pressured Kohl to recognize the Oder-Neisse border in the hope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easing eastern European anxieties about German intentions, Kohl was reluctant to do so, in part for domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political reasons, feeding Mitterrand?s worries. Massive transition in eastern Europe might also disrupt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EC?s rapid forward movement that was well under way. During this period Mitterrand also reflected on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea, building on the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe \(CSCE\), of a European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?confederation? in which the EU-12 would pursue their ?deepening? without rapid ?widening? to the east. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The confederation would be a new European architecture of concentric circles in which the central and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern European countries would be put in a political halfway house to prepare themselves for eventual EC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 began processes that made such careful and cautious forward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement more difficult. Kohl?s 10-point plan of November 28, which took the French and others by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise, announced an FRG run for rapid unification that then obliged a game change for everyone. The US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly recognized this, seizing the diplomatic lead to organize the best possible international outcome for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the west. Mitterrand continued to urge caution, however, as his trips to Kiev to meet Gorbachev and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversially to East Berlin, demonstrated. But the collapse of the GDR in January 1989 meant that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was little practical space anymore for such ?gradualism?. The French president then fell into international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line, where he stayed through through the complicated 2+4 dealings which eventually unified Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated the peaceful restructuring of central and eastern Europe, albeit after decisive German elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and massive transfers of German money to the ex-GDR and the Soviets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As 1990 wore on, French attentions turned toward European integration and Germany?s place in it. And here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French strategies led to positive results. Bozo is emphatic that there was no direct quid pro quo between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Germany about EMU, no deal in which the Germans bargained acceptance of EC inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental conferences \(IGCs\) on EMU to obtain open French support of unification. The IGCs went on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless, leading to the monumental Maastricht Treaty in December, 1991. The Germans themselves first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed to move forward on EMU at Strasbourg in December, 1989, indicating that Kohl would keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany at the centre of what soon would be EU Europe while also continuing the drive to unification. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French had since recognized that EMU would have to be built around Germany monetary policy strictures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and structures, even if they tried and failed to get more. Kohl did insist on a second ?political union? IGC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at improving the EC?s democratic performance, in particular by giving greater power to the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament. Mitterrand, largely through Elisabeth Guigou, his able lieutenant on EC matters, was able to talk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Germans away from their initial strong federalist proposals towards French intergovernmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferences on matters of EU institutions. The Maastricht Treaty also would contain vague but significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language about the creation of an EU common foreign and security policy which recognized French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about post-Cold War security.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bozo?s goal is to provide a very careful narrative to expose, in detail, French strategies in the events leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to German unification. The goal is deliberately modest, even if the book envelops readers in a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity. Bozo wants to set the record straight about what the French did, why they did it, and, for better )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6840 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or worse, what the results were. His central purpose is reconsidering what he believes to be unfair and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccurate evaluations of French actions, and he knew that to do this successfully he needed to steer clear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical engagement with the strategies of countries other than France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underlying this is a conceptualization of the fateful period of German reunification as a complex game )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose many players had different interests, objectives, and resources, with the French only one player )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among many. Moreover, whatever France?s objectives, it was not always fully endowed with the resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to win them all. Despite this, Bozo argues, they were able to attain some of their more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goals. The big ?winners? were clearly Kohl and the Germans., who had the most to gain, the all-important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource of proximity which allowed them to take risky initiatives, and the advantage of overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support from allies \(including France\) who themselves had much to gain if unification could be made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen safely. The Americans were the other big winners because their Cold War centrality, their sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, and their importance to Gorbachev?s reformist goals for the USSR allowed them to broker a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic solution that worked for everyone, themselves in the first instance. The initial cautious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradualist French responses to German unification thus lost out in the face of German and American actions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These initial responses, which others shared, cost little, if anything, in the ultimate outcome, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly because behind his Florentine mysteriousness, Franois Mitterrand was a genuine realist who knew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when to stop insisting. The French also lost out in their Gaullist quest for a pan-European, as opposed to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic, post-Cold War security order, and Mitterrand?s 'confederation? idea was a casualty of this. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans came out of the unification period very well placed to nail down central and eastern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties to NATO in ways that made a post-Cold War reconfiguration of NATO feasible, to the chagrin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitterrand and the French. But as Bozo frequently underlines, the French had other, perhaps more important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives. They were successful in their quest to deepen European integration, in large part by persuading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Germans to continue joint action toward EMU and in the Maastricht Treaty. Gorbachev was the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loser. Getting him to cooperate in unification was absolutely necessary to maintain international stability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he got little in return except honorable retirement as an international political sage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bozo?s book is a landmark which helps us understand the immensity and intricacy of a major turning point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in international relations. Some day we will have all the documents and be better able to put all of the pieces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. In the meantime, Bozo has moved us well beyond initial credit-claiming and blame-avoidance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates. What more could we ask? There may be one thing. Even after reading Bozo, Franois Mitterrand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ways in which he worked remain cloudy. Unclouding this remarkable man and his methods is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the task that Bozo chose, of course. He has done extraordinarily well at the task that he did choose, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this is enough.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a good sampling of review responses see the H-Diplo roundtable review, which includes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion by Marc Trachtenberg, Will Gray, Jacques Lvesque, as well as by two American authors )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were also diplomatic actors in the German unificiation period, Robert Hutchings and Philip )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zelikow, 11, 23, 26 April 2010 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/-diplo/roundtables)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 168.339 m 263.444 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.444 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 280.436 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 14 December 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.480 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.480 168.339 m 491.468 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 131.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-France)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-france.net/vol10reviews/vol10no176Chapman.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 101.571 m 342.980 101.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.980 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H=Diplo)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/reviews/PDF/AR256.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 73.059 m 292.844 73.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.844 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 69.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 51.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 51.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1024)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 50.553 m 328.316 50.553 l S endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.7837 168.6535 263.4437 180.5335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/-diplo/roundtables) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.4797 168.6535 491.4677 180.5335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 101.8855 342.9797 113.7655 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-france.net/vol10reviews/vol10no176Chapman.pdf) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 73.3735 292.8437 85.2535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/reviews/PDF/AR256.pdf) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 50.8675 328.3157 62.7475 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1024) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 518 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5245)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/-diplo/roundtables)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-france.net/vol10reviews/vol10no176Chapman.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 726.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/reviews/PDF/AR256.pdf)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000005056 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000005275 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009077 00000 n 0000009205 00000 n 0000009241 00000 n 0000009306 00000 n 0000016719 00000 n 0000016784 00000 n 0000024157 00000 n 0000024269 00000 n 0000031162 00000 n 0000031289 00000 n 0000031380 00000 n 0000031508 00000 n 0000031563 00000 n 0000031690 00000 n 0000031800 00000 n 0000031925 00000 n 0000032026 00000 n 0000032152 00000 n 0000032248 00000 n 0000032313 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32883 %%EOF