%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 47 0 R 82 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930132235+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930132235+01'00') /Title (Liberal Intellectuals and Public Culture in Modern Britain, 1815-1914: Making Words Flesh) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3517 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liberal Intellectuals and Public Culture in Modern Britain, 1815-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1914: Making Words Flesh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book sheds much light on the ascendancy of liberal values in the 19th century and their role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the fiscal military state of the previous century. While using a wealth of secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, including many essays and review articles in literary weeklies and monthlies, William Lubenow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts new and important territory. This centres on the aftermath of the repeal of the Test and Corporation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act and the passage of Catholic Emancipation in 1828 and 1829 respectively; no longer were office holders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound by the formularies of the Anglican Church, even if subscription remained a requirement for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matriculation and the holding of senior positions in the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1871. Lubenow does not deny that liberal values had other sources besides those analysed here; for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal Dissent, the Whig aristocracy, and the economic culture of Manchester \(p. 3\). However, his rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tightly argued book shows conclusively how the liberal values that emerged from the loosening of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shackles of confessionalism were instrumental in the reordering of both public and private space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1025)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Lubenow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843835592)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Stapleton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7374 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s wide-ranging thesis merits close attention on two accounts: first in terms of the analysis it offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of complex shifts of culture and power in 19th-century Britain; and second, in providing a new basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding some of the inflections in popular liberalism at the beginning of the 20th century. This review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will take each aspect in turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubenow?s primary focus is on the complex processes by which liberal values became established and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed. Not least, drawing upon a wide range of hitherto unused private papers, he traces the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change at the level of personal interaction between some of the main actors involved. The ?liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals? referred to in the title are no specialised breed of individual but include all those who benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the new atmosphere opened up by the two Acts, and whose conduct and beliefs changed accordingly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They include Liberal statesmen such as William Gladstone, and also Conservative statesmen like Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curzon and Arthur Balfour, as well as those who became early Fellows of the British Academy. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include Wranglers who became physicists, and mathematicians who were well versed in poetry and literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 40?1\), and who became MPs too \(p. 46\). Such intellectual and professional messiness was the life-blood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the liberalism discussed here, equally protean and intractable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What brought the subjects of this study into the same liberal fold was adherence to a new set of values. No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer would ?martial valour, birth ... property, patriotism and the law? provide the criteria of ?strength, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courage, manliness, and morality? but ?talent, ability, service in the public sphere? \(p. 61\). The latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required an ethic of restraint and reserve, character and resolution \(p. 220\). The new set of values was bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up with the fillip acquired by literature as an instrument for exploring the unsettled world of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Literary activity spawned a ?common culture? that extended to history and natural history and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing interest in religion as the borderland between the material and the spiritual, belief and unbelief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became increasingly opaque. At its core was the rejection of biblical literalism, the key to the advancement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both religion and culture \(p. 146\), as Matthew Arnold made clear in )] TJ ET BT 375.620 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literature and Dogma )] TJ ET BT 486.620 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1873\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Lubenow emphasises that it was not new social classes who became the embodiment of liberal values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the offspring of the ?placemen, pensioners, and sinecure holders? on which the old confessional state had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been built, in particular vicarage dwellers. They became the cornerstone of a new governing class centred on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professions currently undergoing a period of rapid growth \(pp. 42?3\). The multiple ancestral and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections through which liberal values were forged by this class were faithfully recorded in)] TJ ET BT 487.916 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 505.580 337.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 142.028 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Leslie Stephen \(p. 64\). If the new society was ?bourgeois?, its focal point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was associations rather than individuals. With overlapping rather than exclusive memberships, there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominant pattern of identity between individuals and the groups to which they belonged \(p. 59\). Nor was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new society in thrall to aristocratic modes of preferment such as knighthoods and peerages. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being tied increasingly to merit rather than birth ? much to the chagrin of a rising plutocratic class, as Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gorgius Midas in the )] TJ ET BT 138.680 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 169.340 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cartoon of 1880 well illustrates ? those in professional, especially literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles had to be prevailed upon to accept such honours, often by Gladstone \(pp. 86?7\). Tennyson as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Harcourt is a case in point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The phrase ?making words flesh? is a deliberate play upon John 1:14 to denote the conscious bid by a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary class to stabilize a world experiencing a major loss of certainty. Lubenow illustrates in much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating detail the basis of that bid in ancient letters \(Greek in particular\), mathematics, and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature and poetry. Words and numbers alike were employed in the search for meaning that could both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret and transform the world in accordance with a new, liberal sensibility: what Lubenow well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterises as the ?imaginative courage? to engage in ?imaginative procedures?. This he sees exemplified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in James Fitzjames Stephen?s insistence on the need to ?see things as they are, without exaggeration or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion?, and to judge which of several possible perspectives was the strongest \(p. 26\). The burgeoning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical societies served a new ideal of public knowledge, that which was grounded in probabalism rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than determinism in the same way that Darwin found order in randomness \(p. 140\). The role of statistics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like that of literature, poetry, and classics, provided security for a new social and cultural world that was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7210 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plagued by uncertainty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shift of authority from church and state to one grounded in personal relations formed the core of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associative idea, one from which coercion was absent. The shift was not without casualties, as Lubenow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates in the cases of Oscar Browning and William Johnson at Eton \(pp. 130?1\). Yet he also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the culture that Browning and Johnson represented ? one that reached outward from the self in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accordance with the new vogue of Greek learning ? was already well entrenched in the universities. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, this was due to contact with German learning. Guided by Hellenism, university dons sought to expand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the curriculum and strengthen the Honours Schools, drawing them away from the dogmatic certainties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established religion. No profession was left untouched by the changes, not even the Church, promotion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was henceforth linked to learning rather than patronage \(p. 47\). The rise of the cleric-historian bears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this out: William Stubbs, William Holden Hutton, and Mandell Creighton, all made major contributions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical study from positions in the higher echelons of the Anglican Church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, Lubenow emphasises that Hellenism, like literature and statistics, was part of the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of, as well as being a solution to, a world in which knowledge had fragmented. The effect of liberal values, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he maintains, was subversive as well as stabilizing; they were as multidimensional as the knowledge they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to champion, reflecting a world that was as indeterminate as the social bearings of those who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their champions. The questioning attitude associated with Hellenism in its drive for truth was no guarantee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a world that was whole, as Walter Pater?s )] TJ ET BT 250.628 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the History of the Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 450.284 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1877\) makes clear \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(133\). The ambiguity of meaning at the heart of the post-confessional state was intensified as ?intimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became literary?. The obsessive interest that writers such as Edward Carpenter, J. A. Symonds, and E. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forster took in love and friendship becomes much clearer in the light of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure of liberal values to implode before 1914 is for Lubenow due much to the establishment of clubs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and professional associations as new centres of social authority and debate. Here, he subtly explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of the gentleman?s club as a means of containing difference before the era of intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisation \(chapter four\). He also tracks the response of liberal intellectuals to two movements ? Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism and nationalism, Irish nationalism in particular ? which strained the values they espoused to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utmost; also, the equally mistrustful response of figures inside these movements to liberalism in turn. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates that a significant number of leading lay Roman Catholics with links to the professions increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified with conservatism, as did a significant number of Liberals who deserted Gladstone over Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rule. Characteristically, however, he points out that the lines of division were never clear cut, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(switches of allegiance ? as in Henry Sidgwick?s case \(pp. 205?6\) ? were always accompanied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalence and heavy-heartedness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inner contradictions that beset liberalism became accentuated after 1914, reaching a nadir in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubenow aptly characterises as the ?mental and emotional isolation? of Anthony Blunt and Bertrand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russell?s particular search for ?character? and ?authenticity?; while the former betrayed his country, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter betrayed his wife. Yet, Lubenow maintains, liberal values continued to fashion and refashion civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in the 20th century through the work of Hobhouse, Beveridge, Keynes, Tawney and the Hammonds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an appropriate and convincing conclusion to the book. However, the undoubted debt of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain to liberal values as defined in the 19th century should not obscure the challenge they encountered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early part of the 20th century, not least from liberal writers and thinkers who wrote for, and engaged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide constituencies. This can be illustrated by reviews and correspondence in the largest Liberal daily, )] TJ ET BT 530.252 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily News)] TJ ET BT 89.684 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Some of that newspaper?s contributors sensed that liberalism had been ill-served by those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had shaped liberal values in the 19th century, and those who now carried the legacy forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One such critic was G. K. Chesterton. In 1905 he reviewed a volume of Sir George Otto Trevelyan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate verse and prose from the 1860s that had just been republished, including ?Horace at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Athens? \(1861\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.992 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.992 55.299 m 191.984 55.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.984 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He had nothing against the youthful college literature that had emerged )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.9917 55.6135 191.9837 67.4935 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 9189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the centuries from the bastions of English learning, especially admiring its frivolity. But he emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a difference in Trevelyan?s brand of frivolity: a lack of detachment. This, he maintained, ensured that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan?s college humour would age less well than that of Charles Stuart Calverley or J. K. S. \(James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Stephen, son of James Fitzjames Stephen\). Trevelyan, he remarked contemptuously, wrote as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party politician, an old Whig who was bred in an atmosphere of rationalism and the ethos of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gentleman?; as a result, he loved liberty )] TJ ET BT 233.312 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(because)] TJ ET BT 271.964 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he was an aristocrat, not through any sympathy with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian and democratic ideals at its core. Nothing epitomised so well the corruption of Liberalism at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of the liberal elite than Trevelyan?s dismissal of Radicalism, albeit in the satirical tones of a ?modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ecclesiazusae? written after the defeat of Gladstone?s Reform Bill of 1866. Chesterton concluded the review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in bitter, ironical style: when the universities had been restored to the people, they would ?no longer [be] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places of that loveable uselessness that produces Calverley or ?Horace at Athens?. Then Sir George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan?s work will be carefully gathered up, to show to a happier world in which gentlemen will have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become unimportant, how good a Liberal a gentleman could be?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.292 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.292 624.003 m 360.284 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be thought that Chesterton was writing from a populist position well beyond the framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubenow?s study. It is certainly of some significance that he did not go to the universities in which liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values had taken root. However, while far from being to everybody?s taste, he was admired by liberals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, or had been, associated with these institutions: Arthur Quiller-Couch, A. C. Benson, and A. V. Dicey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to name but a few.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.996 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.996 540.723 m 136.988 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.988 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, his networks included contemporaries who )] TJ ET BT 402.272 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 420.272 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( been educated at Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cambridge, those such as E. C. Bentley, Conrad Noel and Charles Masterman. They shared much of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative set of liberal values in the early years of the 20th century, centred on Christianity and reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masterman, for example, was the literary editor of )] TJ ET BT 278.624 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily News)] TJ ET BT 355.292 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1903 until 1907, when he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected Liberal M.P. for West Ham. He had been educated at Cambridge in the 1890s, taking a first class in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Natural Sciences and Moral Sciences Tripos and becoming President of the Union. However, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewing the flood of memoirs and biographies of eminent Victorian thinkers that were published in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first decade of the 20th century, his admiration of the intellectual culture in which he had been reared was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than wholehearted. He judged Lord Acton ? whose lectures on Modern History he attended ? and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborator Richard Simpson a disturbing force for all religious believers of their time, not just the Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church which they sought to expose to modern thought.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.336 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.336 386.163 m 361.328 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 361.328 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He was no more complimentary about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Stephen; he emphasised the seclusion in which Stephen lived, despite his wide circle of friends and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, first in Cambridge and then in ?literary London?. Stephen?s vision of tranquility was never disturbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the ?confusion and despair represented by the life which lay outside these pleasant places?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.248 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.248 343.395 m 500.240 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 500.240 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation on, Masterman judged Matthew Arnold?s critique of contemporary religious ideals and dogmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology ?sterile and meaningless?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.656 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.656 314.883 m 218.648 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.648 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Towards Henry Sidgwick, from whom he had learnt much at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge through personal contact, Masterman was more charitable; this was despite Sidgwick?s failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make an impact outside of the narrow confines of Cambridge. Sidgwick?s saving grace was his refusal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender a belief in the immortality of the soul in the absence of any rational ground for such a belief, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance he attached to the associated question of how individuals ought to live.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.640 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.640 257.859 m 462.632 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was clearly a gulf between the liberal values explored by Lubenow, on the one hand, and liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of the character and needs of a newly emergent democracy, on the other. This was especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked in the dispute over the role of religion in state education in the early years of the 20th century. Many, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Chesterton, believed that those who influenced the Education Act of 1902 had betrayed the people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour, he maintained, ably supported by thinkers such as Sidney Webb, had made state education the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant of Anglicanism in order to shore up the ruling class. But, he maintained, the Liberal opponents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour?s Act were no better, despite their claims to represent the popular will; they merely sought to restore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Bible-Reading compromise? of 1870 that had been promoted by T. H. Huxley and other agnostics in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fit of nostalgia for a ?dying superstition?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.328 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.328 117.555 m 246.320 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chesterton supported a ?secular solution? to the conflict in the interests of both Liberalism and religion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.628 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.628 91.299 m 546.620 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar manner, he defended the application of the principle of freedom of belief and expression to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularists; no form of belief should enjoy protection against gratuitous offence. In this he echoed James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzjames Stephen?s response to the blasphemy trial against )] TJ ET BT 324.656 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Freethinker)] TJ ET BT 402.308 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1883, although in a different )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.2917 624.3175 360.2837 636.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.9957 541.0375 136.9877 552.9175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.3357 386.4775 361.3277 398.3575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.2477 343.7095 500.2397 355.5895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.6557 315.1975 218.6477 327.0775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.6397 258.1735 462.6317 270.0535 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3277 117.8695 246.3197 129.7495 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.6277 91.6135 546.6197 103.4935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 10542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit: that of democracy rather than consistency. When a tailor and secularist lecturer was prosecuted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy in 1908, Chesterton condemned the trial, as did the advanced Liberal journalist H. N. Brailsford. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why, asked Brailsford, was this particular prosecution being brought when a Cabinet minister with not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissimilar views ? John Morley ? had escaped any such charge? Why, moreover, was the trial conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sub judice)] TJ ET BT 83.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the order of a Liberal Home Secretary, Herbert Gladstone? It seemed to Brailsford that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been one law for freethinkers among the educated classes since the 18th century and another law for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who lacked establishment connections.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.656 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.656 709.539 m 269.648 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal values were strained further in September of that year when Asquith put pressure upon Cardinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourne to desist from carrying the Host in the Westminster procession of September 1908. Lubenow gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an illuminating account of the episode based on the personal reactions of those involved. He touches on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of the conflict to the controversy surrounding the King?s Declaration in May 1910 following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of Edward VII \(pp. 172?5\). Another dimension to this last episode is added by Chesterton?s letter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editor of )] TJ ET BT 95.672 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily News)] TJ ET BT 172.340 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the subject. The requirement that the Crown denounce Roman Catholicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of the Coronation oath, he argued, went against the grain of Liberalism; moreover, while Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be content with a compromise ? the essence of the Accession Declaration Act passed in August of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year ? Liberals could only be satisfied if the entire oath was swept away. In his view it was a purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?theological test for a purely political officer,? the only remaining such test; it could on no account be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with the Pope?s denunciation of the 16th-century reformers in his recent Encyclical, as many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his contemporaries believed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.656 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.656 526.467 m 191.648 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.648 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The failure of the Liberal government to remove the requirement that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign profess the Protestant faith emphasised the limits of the ?non-confessional? state that liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values had ushered in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These instances underline the halting and contested way in which liberal values were advanced; also, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile hold on public culture. It is fitting that Lubenow?s book should have been published in the year of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pope Benedict XVI?s visit to Britain, the first state visit of any pope since the Reformation. At one level, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a mark of the progress of liberal values that such a visit should have taken place. But at another level, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat ironic that it has fallen to a pope to spell out a new threat to liberal values in the guise of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendant secularism. In his address at Westminster Hall, he expressed concern at the increasing denial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?legitimate role of religion? in the ?public square?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.300 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.300 386.163 m 316.292 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.292 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If a new confessional state is to be avoided, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations and limitations of those who defined an alternative set of values in the wake of the dismantling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old could be instructive. To this )] TJ ET BT 207.344 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Intellectuals )] TJ ET BT 304.004 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has opened the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. O. Trevelyan, )] TJ ET BT 147.992 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interludes in Verse and Prose)] TJ ET BT 291.308 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1905\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.632 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.632 292.131 m 426.620 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. K. Chesterton, ?College Fireworks?, )] TJ ET BT 256.988 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily News)] TJ ET BT 312.656 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(hereafter )] TJ ET BT 365.288 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 381.956 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), 5 October 1905.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.604 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.604 277.875 m 523.592 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chesterton Papers, British Library.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.668 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.668 263.619 m 285.656 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. F. G. Masterman, ?Lord Acton?, )] TJ ET BT 237.656 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 254.324 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 September 1906.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.648 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.648 249.363 m 410.636 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. F. G. Masterman, ?Leslie Stephen?, )] TJ ET BT 252.992 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 269.660 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 November 1906.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.312 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.312 235.107 m 419.300 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. F. G. Masterman, ?Matthew Arnold?, )] TJ ET BT 261.656 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 278.324 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 March 1904.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.644 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.644 220.851 m 414.632 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. F. G. Masterman, ?Henry Sidgwick,? )] TJ ET BT 260.324 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 276.992 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 March 1906; Lubenow, pp. 24?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.300 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.300 206.595 m 506.288 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. K. Chesterton, ?The two compromises?, )] TJ ET BT 274.652 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Commonwealth: A Christian Social Magazine)] TJ ET BT 516.992 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IX )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(June 1904\), 178.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.004 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.004 178.083 m 201.992 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. K. Chesterton, ?The secular solution?, letter to the editor, )] TJ ET BT 356.972 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DN)] TJ ET BT 373.640 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 May 1905.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.636 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.636 163.827 m 500.624 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. K. 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