%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128182644+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128182644+00'00') /Title (New York Hustlers: Masculinity and Sex in Modern America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4616 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(New York Hustlers: Masculinity and Sex in Modern America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Issues related to homosexuality are currently at the forefront of public discourse. Globally, but particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States, marriage equity, military service, queer youth and bullying are not just matters of policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, but have engaged popular concern and action as well. A recent online video, titled )] TJ ET BT 468.584 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [({THIS} is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reteaching Gender and Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 194.984 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, challenges us to reconsider our understandings of sexuality while drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the plight of queer youth. In the video, queer youth appear in their own right, demanding a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalibration of how we define sexuality and sexual identities. As two speakers put it, ?I can like boys and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls. ? I can be none of the above?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.632 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.632 200.649 m 218.624 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.624 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For these young men and women, sexuality need not be defined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard and fast categories. L, G, B, and T are just letters, not identities. Nor need they be fixed markers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity across one?s lifetime. In light of this charge to question sexual binarisms, Barry Reay?s )] TJ ET BT 496.964 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hustlers)] TJ ET BT 74.684 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( explores a particularly relevant historical issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Hustlers )] TJ ET BT 127.688 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the fluidity and flexibility of sexuality in a period when the homosexual-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexual binarism was not yet entrenched. Reay is not primarily interested in the lives of gay or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexual men, or only of telling a history of homosexuality. Reay?s project is instead one of uncovering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social and cultural environment in which a range of male same-sex sex acts were available to men before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concretization of sexual identities in the 1960s and 1970s. He traces this through the 20th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on the 1940s to the 1960s, through the post-war period to the onset of gay liberation, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1026)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719080081)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Bengry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.6317 200.9635 218.6237 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant discussions going beyond this timeline as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the 1940s to the 1960s, Reay argues, hustlers, or male prostitutes who were paid to have sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other men, and trade, other presumably straight men who also had sex with men, existed in a fluid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual landscape. Hustlers and trade might have wives, girlfriends, be part of the armed forces, and exhibit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all range of otherwise conventional displays of masculinity. But they also had sex with other men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes they did it for money, sometimes they pursued it in the absence of other sexual opportunities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other times it was a matter of simple desire. Reay?s study is a history of the men, who might identify as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexual, but who participated in homosexual acts. This book, then, is as much a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality as it is of homosexuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay seeks to redress an oversight in the histories of sexuality and homosexuality. While hustlers and trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear regularly in the historical record and scholarship, they have been given little attention in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right. Building on important work by George Chauncey for New York and Matt Houlbrook for London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay argues that New York?s ?sexual culture of hustlers and trade mirrors the lack of binary division? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houlbrook found in London, but that the America example ?demonstrate[s] far more sexual fluidity than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English counterpart? \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.656 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.656 571.491 m 185.648 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 185.648 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( According to Reay, historians have missed much of the richness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity of the period from the 1940s to the 1960s by moving too quickly to the formation of modern gay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, thereby overlooking continuities remaining from older experiences and understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality. Because of this, continuities simply disappear with the coming of a more modern, identifiable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable sexual culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay accesses this other forgotten sexual culture through several key archival collections. Thomas Painter, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diarist, writer and photographer kept a record of New York hustlers for decades, particularly after he became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an informant for sex researcher Alfred Kinsey in the early 1940s. Until the 1970s, Painter submitted letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals, home movies, photographs, fiction and drawings to Kinsey?s research. Reay uses many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs that appear in the book from Painter?s collection in the Kinsey Archives at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indiana. As well as the Painter papers, Reay mines a variety of other sometimes previously unused Kinsey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources in this study, in addition to a range of literary, film, legal and sexological sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organizationally the book takes some time to get to its strongest points and evidence chapters. After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, the first chapter ?Contexts? establishes the ?lost? world that Reay seeks to restore to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness. Ultimately a continued introduction, ?Contexts? explores the now infamous 1920 naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into homosexual activities on Newport, Rhode Island navy bases. It also offers a close reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of George Henry?s study )] TJ ET BT 157.316 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex Variants )] TJ ET BT 221.312 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1941\). Through these two examples and others, Reay establishes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of sexual flexibility and of overlapping desires between heterosexual and homosexual men. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that homosexual activity was not just situational or functional, for example in prisons or other areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where there were no women. We must consider desire as well. But that desire relied on complex codings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effeminacy and masculinity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters are both the most interesting and the most valuable. They seek to explore ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untidiness of categories rather than gay-world-making? that authors like Chauncey have thus far taken as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their projects. In the chapters ?Hustlers and trade? and ?Sexualities?, we learn about the world in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these men existed. Identifying hustlers was never an easy task because although they might subscribe to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body-conscious style of clothes that exposed flesh and muscles, in general their outward aesthetic did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differ substantially from the working class or criminal elements. Authorities sometimes had difficulty, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, distinguishing ?hoodlum? from ?pervert? \(p. 80\). For some men, hustling was a survival strategy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to participate in the consumer economy, while for others it might offer a stepping-stone into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modeling, physique work or acting. Some worked in more organized male brothels or ?peg houses?. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most simply worked the streets, largely indistinguishable from other working-class youth. Many used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money they earned selling sex to other men to pay for dates with women. In the end, most transitioned away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from trade toward the life paths of their peers: working-class occupations, marriage and children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay rejects the impulse to define the men he describes as bisexual, a term that held even less meaning for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 171.6557 571.8055 185.6477 583.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them than homosexual and heterosexual. Many young men exhibited an ?omnisexuality? \(p. 114\). So long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they remained the masculine penetrator, and the queer man was penetrated, such men?s masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained secure and intact. They largely identified as heterosexual, and their homosexual acts did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict with that self-identity. Understandings of mid-century sexualities, Reay explains, were much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid and flexible than we have previously imagined. Other men who achieved orgasm with effeminate or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexual men, so long as they did not actively bring their partners to orgasm, similarly felt their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity intact and their heterosexuality unblemished. Some, simultaneously involved with women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not even consider such acts infidelities. ?That?s not really sex?, relayed one man. ?Sex is something I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have with my wife in bed? \(p. 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of the book is taken up with chapters on effeminacy and the continuing resonance of hustler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trade imagery. Not until the 1960s did the media and popular culture begin to recognize the complexity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of homosexual identities and practices. And as Reay points out, 1970s masculine homosexual performances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the clone or macho queer owe a great deal to the imagery and iconography of earlier trade. Trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to appear elsewhere as well. In his final content chapter, ?Hustler hustled?, Reay convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that ?the hustler and trade are surprisingly ubiquitous in the literary and visual arts of postwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America? \(p. 189\). Through the work of Andy Warhol, Tennessee Williams, the imagery of James Dean and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marlon Brando, films like the Oscar-winning )] TJ ET BT 254.324 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Midnight Cowboy)] TJ ET BT 340.664 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and myriad other examples, hustlers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade have been a feature of 20th-century American culture, appearing even in mainstream, commercially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful films, art and literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade, the larger category into which hustlers also fall, is treated in the book as another sexual category, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that bridges heterosexuality and homosexuality. A man identified as trade was not restricted to homosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or heterosexual sex acts, but nor could he be labelled homosexual. His heterosexuality was not rigid either. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Men defined for themselves what was transgressive or unacceptable. Or they simply enjoyed the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual acts physically available to them to satisfy their desires. As one Wyoming cowhand told a guilt-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridden friend of Gore Vidal?s after their sexual encounter in the 1960s: ?You know, you guys from the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do this because you?re sick and we do it because we?re horny? \(p. 237\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay describes this sexual landscape in his prologue as a ?lost world? \(p. 4\), but we have to wonder how lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it really is. Certainly Reay demonstrates that the strict division and patrolling of the space between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexual men and ostensibly straight or heterosexual men has increased since the sexual fluidity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period he describes. But, I wonder, to what extent this world has, in fact, disappeared? What areas of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain? Reay identifies the phenomenon of the ?Down low? or DL in African-American communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where presumably straight men have homosexual sex. He also notes the ?sexual flexibility? of the ?queer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation? appearing from the 1990s onward \(pp. 250?1\). But certainly male prostitutes and so-called ?gay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for pay? pornographic actors still tread this line. And we continue to see scandals when military men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in similar sexual economies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.324 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.324 274.371 m 238.316 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.316 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Further, what effect has the increasing social acceptability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality had on dismantling rigid sexual binarisms? Many people today choose to define themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through very particular and sometimes unique understandings of queerness and bisexuality. Then there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the youth in the ?Reteaching? video, for instance, who eschew limiting themselves to rigid sexual categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another issue in Reay?s study of hustlers and trade is that for the most part these men are spoken about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than heard. Many of his sources are from observers of this world. Men like Painter detailed the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such men, photographing them, fetishising them and having sex with them. But the men with whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had sex have little voice in his accounts. Photographs offer insights into self-presentation, to be sure, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body language as well as body modification choices offer points of access into their lives. Yet they are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated by the photographer. To what extent are photos staged? To what extent are the men performing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular identities or hiding others? And there are differences of power too. The men who could hire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hustlers were in a financial position to do so. Class differences further muddy the relationships between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout, the book is illustrated with an exciting range of images including many portraits of hustlers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.3237 274.6855 238.3157 286.5655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by Thomas Painter. These are fascinating historical sources in their own right that show a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staged poses, street scenes, portraits and snap shots. There are also film stills, cartoons and police file shots. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Reay?s captions often offer greater context for images, or some analysis, he misses the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do more with them. They are exciting sources, and reading this interesting book, one turns the page hoping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to find further analysis of the images as more than illustrative material to points made in the book. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis does appear, but more extensive use of these sources would have been appreciated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay?s writing style is engaging and readily accessible. Scholars will be interested to read the book for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the complex fluidities of sexuality, and engagement with existing literature. Students, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates, should have little problem grasping its overall themes and arguments. Copiously illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and full of concrete examples, )] TJ ET BT 181.976 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Hustlers)] TJ ET BT 272.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will hold the attention of students, even those first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountering the history of sexuality. They will be better prepared if they already have a knowledge of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by George Chauncey, Eve Sedgwick, Matt Houlbrook and others, but it is certainly not critical that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been immersed in the history and theory of sexuality to understand this book. Individual chapters could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be assigned to undergrads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay concludes by arguing that the ?shift in sexual configurations from acts to identities \(homosexual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexual\), supposedly in place by the mid-twentieth century? is complicated by the experiences and lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the hustlers and trade he has uncovered \(p. 254\). His story surpasses local histories of New York, offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead insights into sexual cultures of America, and perhaps beyond as well. What he has also created is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just a history of homosexuality, but also a history of heterosexuality, and the complex and fluid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of sexuality that overlapped, conflicted, and rubbed up against these constructs. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay?s study is not just a study of the hustlers who sold their bodies on the streets of New York. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully produced an engaging, interesting, thought-provoking study that, rather than being a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality, is a history of sexual diversity, and is certainly a study which will encourage wider historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introduction, Reay expresses his desire that the history of hustlers and trade ?challenges our notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both heterosexuality and homosexuality? \(p. 17\). In fact, his exploration of sexual fluidity shows a past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without rigid identity binaries. Such flexibility is clearly not new, nor necessarily radical, and it need not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversive or dangerous. In fact, it seems clear that it was a very natural, normal and unproblematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of sexuality for many men in mid-century New York, and very likely other places as well. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besides being intellectually challenging and historically engaging, this understanding of sexuality is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant. And as the youth in the )] TJ ET BT 193.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [({THIS} is Reteaching Gender and Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 403.232 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( video demonstrate, sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility is experienced today by many more men and women, youth and elders, than just the trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hustlers in Reay?s study. This book can make us think as much about our present as our past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?{THIS} is Reteaching Gender and Sexuality?, <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.596 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://vimeo.com/17101589>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.596 237.363 m 441.044 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.044 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 458.036 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 24 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 2010]. This online video is in part a response to Seattle columnist Dan Savage?s ?It Gets )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Better Project?, which started on YouTube, but owing to its success soon migrated to its own domain <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.itgetsbetter.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 194.595 m 194.012 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.012 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 211.004 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 17 December 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.048 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.048 194.595 m 422.036 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See George Chauncey, )] TJ ET BT 176.648 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World, 1890?1940)] TJ ET BT 154.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1994\); Matt Houlbrook, )] TJ ET BT 335.324 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queer London: Perils and Pleasures in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Metropolis, 1918?1957 )] TJ ET BT 214.676 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, 2005\). I?m not immediately convinced that the US example )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 75.020 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more)] TJ ET BT 99.680 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fluid than the British. Houlbrook certainly finds sexual fluidity among British working-class )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, guardsmen and others, but his primary focus is on the increasing power of homosexual identities )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that adhered to middle-class values of respectability and privacy. Though Houlbrook?s subject is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related, his questions, sources and historical actors only overlap imperfectly with Reay?s, and so direct )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison is difficult.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.676 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.676 80.547 m 229.664 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2006, members of the 82nd Airborne division stationed at Fort Bragg, NC were court-martialed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following discovery of their appearance on the gay porn site activeduty.com. Queer British writer and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.5957 237.6775 441.0437 249.5575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://vimeo.com/17101589>) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 194.9095 194.0117 206.7895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.itgetsbetter.org/) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.0477 194.9095 422.0357 206.7895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6757 80.8615 229.6637 92.7415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 2981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentator Mark Simpson?s evaluation critiqued those who thought these men )] TJ ET BT 455.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must )] TJ ET BT 481.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be gay because )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they participated in gay sex. See Mark Simpson, ?Sexual outlaws: ?gay for pay? paratroopers?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally posted 25 August 2006 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.452 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.marksimpson.com/blog/2006/08/25/sexual-outlaws-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.452 766.563 m 545.456 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gay-for-pay-paratroopers-given-a-dressing-down-by-gay-novelist/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 381.920 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.920 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 398.912 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 30 November 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 738.051 m 118.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Percy)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.williamapercy.com/wiki/index.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 259.676 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 240.992 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1026)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 328.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5250)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://vimeo.com/17101589>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.itgetsbetter.org/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.803 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.marksimpson.com/blog/2006/08/25/sexual-outlaws-gay-for-pay-paratroopers-given-a-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressing-down-by-gay-novelist/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.776 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.williamapercy.com/wiki/index.php?title=Review_of_Barry_Reay%27s_New_York_Hustlers%3A_Masculinity_and_Sex_in_Modern_America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=31263)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.4517 766.8775 545.4557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.marksimpson.com/blog/2006/08/25/sexual-outlaws-gay-for-pay-paratroopers-given-a-dressing-down-by-gay-novelist/) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype 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