%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228061831+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228061831+00'00') /Title (Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4282 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Control)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1842, the American popular magazine writer Eliza Leslie wrote a story entitled ?The Rain King, or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glance into the Next Century?, which was published in )] TJ ET BT 302.648 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Godey?s Lady?s Book)] TJ ET BT 409.964 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 58\). Looking forward to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional 1942, Leslie portrayed the so-called Rain King offering weather on demand to the residents of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia area. Unfortunately for the Rain King, the people of southeastern Pennsylvania could not agree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the weather they wanted: washerwomen, for example, demanded fair weather, while umbrella makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted rain. Swayed by the demands of a high-society matron, the Rain King decided to make rain. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the rain came it satisfied nobody: what had previously been a question of natural chance now aroused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread suspicion. Finding himself increasingly unpopular, the Rain King fled on a steamboat to China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refusing to give up on his pathological ambition to control the climate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Rodger Fleming?s )] TJ ET BT 157.676 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fixing the Sky)] TJ ET BT 226.328 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a history of human folly on a grand scale, a Rain King writ large. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranging widely, the book documents humanity?s varied attempts to control the climate from the classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era to the present. The book is replete with stories and anecdotes similar to Eliza Leslie?s prescient morality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale, as people at various times and in various places have sought to take up the reigns of Prometheus and fix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sky. Cannon are fired into clouds to prevent hail, chemical concoctions are used to attract rainclouds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50,000 mirrors of 40 square miles each are launched into space to reflect incoming sunlight and cool the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1028)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Rodger Fleming)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780231144124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Howkins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7501 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earth. One of the book?s most powerful arguments for human folly is in its artful blurring of fact and fiction: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes that appear well suited to the outer realms of science fiction turn out to be found in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy documents \(the idea for launching mirrors into space comes from a 1992 National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy Report entitled )] TJ ET BT 157.664 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy Implications of Global Warming)] TJ ET BT 347.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(p. 244\). As yesterday?s fantasy becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today?s reality, Fleming views this history as a mixture of comedy and tragedy \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming?s concerns about the viability of geo-engineering stem not from an anti-technology Luddism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a healthy respect for the complexity of the atmospheric system. In a succinct definition of ?climate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?weather? in the introduction, Fleming cites the meteorologist Harry Wexler in noting ?if you change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weather repeatedly on a large spatial scale, you are changing the climate, and vice versa? \(p. 7\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of atmospheric geo-engineering that this book presents is full of unintended consequences. Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rain in one place runs the risk of manufacturing drought in another, and there is often little sense of real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control in human attempts to fix the sky. In August 1952, for example, a tragic flood in the town of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynmouth in the southwest of England killed 35 people \(p. 161\). Although denied by authorities, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicions that a British government cloud seeding project, variously known as Operation Cumulus or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Operation Witch Doctor was partially responsible for the six-to-nine inches of torrential rain that caused the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flood. William Studdard Franklin, a physics professor at MIT in the early 20th century believed that small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions taken in controlling the atmosphere could have significant consequences, and thought that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation could be used to control the weather through ?small amounts of judiciously placed energy? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(84\). Others might be less excited about causing what Franklin called ?atmospheric collapse? through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triggering of unstable equilibrium processes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem with climate engineering stressed by Fleming is its lack of viability. The reality of climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering in 1942 was not quite as Eliza Leslie had imagined one hundred years earlier, but the ambition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to control the weather certainly existed. During the Second World War, British scientists developed a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clearing fog from military airbases to permit take offs and landings during foggy weather. The somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primitive system, known as Fog Investigation and Disposal Operation \(FIDO\), simply burnt vast quantities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fuel around the edge of the runways to raise the temperature and lift the fog \(p. 132\). The system worked, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provided Allied airmen with safer takeoffs and landings in adverse weather conditions. But it worked at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cost. To land one plane using FIDO required 6,000 gallons of gasoline, at least 300 times more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plane itself required to land. Over the course of the two and a half years in which FIDO was in operation, 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million gallons of gasoline were burned around the edge of British runways at an estimated cost of 44,500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an hour. Such wastefulness could only be justified in a wartime situation and at the end of the war, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British abandoned FIDO. Within its very limited scale, FIDO could be described as a successful weather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification project, but the success was unsustainable: beyond the special circumstances of war, the ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply could not justify the means. Such questions of feasibility hang over all climate-engineering projects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As yet, few, if any, have passed the test.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet another problem brought up by Fleming with historical attempts to ?fix the sky? is the prevalence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charlatans. In one of the most entertaining sections of the book, chapter three examines the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Rain Fakers? who, for a price, have offered their weather-making services to the public. The stories in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter are populated by fascinating characters, such as Charles Hatfield, described by Fleming as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charlatan?s charlatan.? In the first three decades of the 20th century Hatfield traveled around the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, Mexico, and Canada with special towers full of chemicals which, he claimed, attracted moisture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsurprisingly, the period just before a rainy season seems to have been a popular time for most charlatans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sell the ability to make rain. Fleming is very good at exploring the motivations of the people paying for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather: there was a certain precariousness to agricultural life in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, that led communities to take chances on the claims of weather-makers that a more secure society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have laughed at. On the other side of the story, Fleming could perhaps have made more of the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whether or not the quacks and hucksters really believed what they were doing? Did it even matter what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they believed? The material included in this chapter and the questions it raises could easily make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating book in themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A lesson that weather charlatans could have learned from medicine doctors of the Mandan Indians of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7881 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Upper Missouri River is simply to keep trying until rain comes \(and then if you are wise, bask in your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success and don?t try again\) \(p. 22\). This raises the interesting question of causation in the past, present, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future of atmospheric geo-engineering. If a rainmaker says it is going to rain, and then it rains, can it ever be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said that the rainmaker caused the rain to happen? We would almost certainly answer no. But when it comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to more complex claims about fixing the sky ? claims that may involve science, technology, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematical modeling that potentially go beyond the ability of any single individual to comprehend fully ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are perhaps more willing to accept claims for causation that may not be possible to substantiate. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including an extensive discussion of weather charlatans along with other more ?scientific? attempts to fix the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sky, the result is that the whole enterprise seems to have a whiff of charlatanism about it. This would seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be an intentional and legitimate criticism of geo-engineering projects that may make claims for effectiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that go beyond their ability to prove.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book progresses it gets progressively darker as Fleming describes the connection between weather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and warfare. Chapter five, ?Pathological science,? examines Irving Langmuir?s work on weather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control at the General Electric Corporation. In relation to Langmuir?s work on cloud seeding, Fleming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuses the Nobel laureate in chemistry of ignoring his own warnings about pathological science, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science of things that aren?t so? \(p. 137\). In the 1940s and 1950s, General Electric claimed that it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make snow and even control hurricanes. Between 1966 and 1972, attempts to modify the weather were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infamously used by the United States in the Vietnam War \(p. 179\). The so-called Operation Popeye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to seed clouds to increase the rainfall over the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and make life more difficult for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Viet Cong. In 1972, the threat of repetitions of episodes such as this led to the United Nations developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ENMOD\), which was opened for signature in May 1977, and which came into force in October 1978. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalists, however, saw ENMOD as a deeply flawed Convention since it did not prohibit research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and development of weather modification. The US military liked the fact that it kept options open.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Eliza Leslie realized as early as 1842, perhaps the one thing that can confidently predicted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of atmospheric geo-engineering is that it creates a sense of agency where previously there has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only been chance. In the preface, Fleming describes an experience he had when working on cloud research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flights with the National Center for Atmospheric Research near Leadville, Colorado \(p. xii\). One evening the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local police informed the researchers that a Molotov Cocktail had been thrown into the hangar by locals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had mistaken their activities for cloud seeding, or ?stealing the sky water.? If people in Colorado became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently upset by the prospect of weather modification to fire-bomb a research aircraft, the consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such sentiments on a global scale could be catastrophic. Of all the arguments advanced by Fleming about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the folly of climate and weather control, this seems to be the strongest. The prospects for the global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community deciding upon an ?ideal climate? that suits everyone would seem to be even more remote than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility for finding a workable mechanism for fixing the sky. The most likely scenario would seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that those countries with the necessary technological capabilities would decide for themselves where to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set the thermostat. The unintended consequences of these decisions could be more devastating than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems that they are intended to fix.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due to the nature of its subject, )] TJ ET BT 187.328 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fixing the Sky)] TJ ET BT 255.980 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is more than just a fascinating work of history. As Fleming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knows all too well, plans for geo-engineering the climate are being discussed at the highest levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government as potential solutions to the ?problem? of global climate change.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.640 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.640 188.835 m 417.632 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 417.632 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In a world that appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly resigned to continued and increasing greenhouse gas emissions \(at least in the short to medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term\), policy makers face stark choices. In comparison with the economic and political difficulties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducing carbon dioxide emissions, and the uncertainty and expense of adaptation to climate change, geo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering appears to some to offer a ?quick fix? to cool the planet.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.608 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.608 131.811 m 377.600 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.600 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A few thousand mirrors in space \(to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect solar radiation\), a handful of particulates pumped into the stratosphere \(to reflect or intercept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sunlight\), and a little iron in the oceans \(to encourage the growth of carbon sequestering phytoplankton\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might seem to provide a neat recipe for ?business as usual?. But this is a recipe that is clearly not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming?s taste.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Near the beginning of his introduction, Fleming notes that the book ?is an extended essay arguing for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.6397 189.1495 417.6317 201.0295 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.6077 132.1255 377.5997 144.0055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance of history?. The fact that this history deals with one of the most pressing issues facing humanity at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the current time raises the question of how historians should engage with contemporary issues and debates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a question is as old as the discipline of history itself. Does Fleming?s hostility to ?fixing the sky? shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way he writes history? Or does the history itself shape Fleming?s hostility? The more immediate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues involved, the more pressing these questions become. In answer to the first question, the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly influenced by the author?s antipathy towards weather and climate modification. As noted above, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of a chapter on ?Rain Fakers? has the consequence of giving the whole geo-engineering enterprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a quite appropriate sense of hucksterism. But there is no suggestion that Fleming lets his argument interfere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the evidence. The inclusion of rare examples of climate modification ?success stories?, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British wartime FIDO project, demonstrate a balanced and scholarly approach throughout the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more interesting question is how the history of weather and climate modification can shape present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions about geo-engineering fixes to climate change. The history of weather and climate modification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? with example after example of hubris, charlatanism, and unintended consequences ? has clearly shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming?s views, and will most likely influence the opinions of readers of this book. But will would-be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate engineers be swayed by a litany of past errors? One likely response is that the history of climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering will simply encourage climate fixers to try a little harder, think bigger and assert more control: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply because atmospheric geo-engineering has not always worked in the past, they might argue, does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that it cannot work in the future. As Fleming repeatedly shows, weather-makers are seldom known for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their humility. Past failures may, in fact, serve as a provocative challenge for future endeavor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most powerful arguments that )] TJ ET BT 202.328 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fixing the Sky)] TJ ET BT 270.980 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( raises against atmospheric geo-engineering are in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions it raises. What might the unintended consequences be? How do we know that weather or climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification has been successful? Is it economically and environmentally feasible? What are the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military applications of these technologies and the consequent geopolitical implications? And, perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, with which country, corporation, or organization does the responsibility for fixing the sky lie? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are questions that Fleming?s book bring to the fore, but which are not necessarily present in all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technocratic discussions about atmospheric geo-engineering that are taking place in response to climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. These questions bring culture, politics, philosophy, theology, economics and other humanistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines into the center of discussions of atmospheric geo-engineering. And these human dimensions may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately be impossible for even the most ambitious Rain King to control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming?s book opens the way for further historical studies of weather and climate modification. The history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in )] TJ ET BT 95.336 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fixing the Sky)] TJ ET BT 163.988 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is largely, although not entirely, a Western story. A wider range of examples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn perhaps from African, Asian, and Latin American histories of weather and climate modification, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might add a new set of questions to the list raised by Fleming?s book. The global nature of climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering makes a global approach to the subject imperative. An acceptable practice for one culture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of tinkering with the weather and climate may not be acceptable to another. Such considerations can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only add to the unintended human consequences of atmospheric geo-engineering, and ought to feed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy debates. As Fleming?s work demonstrates, there is plenty of material for historians to deal with in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to this subject. The history of human attempts to control the weather and climate not only make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderful history, but also has a crucially important role to play in contemporary debates about fixing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sky.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an excellent discussion of the ?problem? of climate change see M. Hulme, )] TJ ET BT 443.612 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why We Disagree )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and Opportunity)] TJ ET BT 444.008 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 109.059 m 118.004 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent works discussing geo-engineering include Jeff Goodell, )] TJ ET BT 370.628 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How to Cool the Planet: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth's Climate)] TJ ET BT 374.564 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, MA, 2010\), Eli Kintisch, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hack the Planet: Science's Best Hope ? or Worst Nightmare ? for Averting Climate Catastrophe)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Hoboken, NJ, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.332 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.332 52.035 m 222.320 52.035 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 109.3735 118.0037 121.2535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.3317 52.3495 222.3197 64.2295 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 1765 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Books in History \(audio interview\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newbooksinhistory.com/2010/10/20/james-fleming-fixing-the-sky-the-checkered-history-of-weather-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 548.936 766.563 l S BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-climate-control/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.307 m 131.996 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of American History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/98/1/169.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 274.352 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.352 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 720.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 702.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 702.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1028)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 701.289 m 328.316 701.289 l S 0.000 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