%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219021735+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219021735+00'00') /Title (Writing National Histories. Western Europe since 1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4138 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Writing National Histories. Western Europe since 1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters in this collective work derive from a conference entitled Apologias for the Nation-State, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized by the editors at the University of Wales in 1996. Taken as a whole, in two respects the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes an unusual and enterprising undertaking. First, as an exercise in comparative history in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly appropriate field - the role of historians in the writing of national history. Second, in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention paid to the differences over time in the role of historians, highlighted by the structuring of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into chronological sections, each with an introductory comment: 'the age of bourgeois revolution', 'the age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masses', 'liberal democracy and anti-fascism', 'fascist historiography and the nation-state', 'the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years', and 'contemporary trends'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apart from an introduction \(primarily by Stefan Berger\) and conclusion \(primarily by Kevin Passmore\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays are exclusively on France, Germany and Italy, plus one essay \(somewhat anomalous in so structured a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context\) on England. Its author, Benedict Stuchtey, is concerned with the very English tradition of amateur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, epitomized by Macaulay, that maintained its vigour until Trevelyan, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encroachments of later nineteenth century professionalism within the universities \(Churchill is added, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas, as a politician, he provides a less clearcut example\). Ceri Crossley, Stuart Jones, Peter Schttler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bertram M.Gordon, Hugo Frey and Julian Jackson write on French historians; Georg G.Iggers, Patrick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahners, Alastair Thompson, Peter Lambert, Hans Schleier, Mary Fulbrook and Stefan Berger on Germany; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(103)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Berger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Donovan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Passmore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415164273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Woolf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Martin Thom, Mauro Moretti, Philip Morgan, Martin Clark, Roberto Vivarelli and Carl Levy on Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, the book has many virtues, the positive result of its comparative approach. It raises questions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences as much as or more than similarities in history writing in nation-states. For this reviewer, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits of comparison are accentuated by the 'foreign eye' of the overwhelming majority of the contributors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who \(by education or professional practice\) come from national historiographical traditions different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subject matter, and hence are writing with the \(presumed\) advantages \(and certain traps\) of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance and detachment. Bahners, in his very interesting notes of British reviews of Ranke's "History of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation in Germany", is the only contributor to comment on contemporary foreign discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of history writing; more perhaps could have been made of this dimension \(for example, through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Elie Halvy's works on nineteenth century England\), as it adds another layer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of national and foreign perceptions of historical narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are considerable differences between the individual contributions in aim, language and clarity \(very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common in a collective volume\), and more rigorous sub-editing by the publisher would have avoided a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infelicities of euro-speech and quotations unnecessarily in two languages. But these are minor blemishes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book should prove its utility, perhaps more as a teaching tool than as a text directly accessible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university students who may not be adequately versed in the histories of the three countries. One of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing aspects is its distance from the tradition of both the history of historiography and the little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuals on 'what history is about and how to write it' that were still very dominant when I was a student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(over forty years ago\). It is a book of postmodernist times, in terms not so much of its language \(although a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple of the essays bear the mark of that nowadays familiar opacity\), as of its deconstruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longstanding self-confidence of academic historians in their role as the vestal virgins of historical Truth. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable that the editors should have dedicated the book to Georg Iggers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first sight, the central theme around which the book has been organized - historians and the construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national historical narratives - seems clear enough. But to read the essays in sequence reveals certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguities and omissions underlying the guide lines presumably provided by the editors. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental ambivalence, possibly because of the specific interests of individual contributors, as to whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book is about historians as constructors of national narratives, or about their responses to the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures, beliefs and cultural Weltanschauungen of their countries in different periods. Undoubtedly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Passmore argues in his conclusion, the two aspects are intimately related and have a deep influence on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians write histories \(whether national or not\). But they are very different matters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays on the nineteenth century concentrate on the construction of historical narratives as an element in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of nation-building, by individuals \(such as Ranke, Cattaneo and Taine\) or a generation \(Thierry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamennais, Guizot, post-Unification Italian historians, turn of the century Germans, such as Delbrck and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meinecke\). The contributions on the first half of the twentieth century are more concerned with the direct, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmediated relationship between historians and politics, particularly during the fascist period. Schttler, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his excellent essay on Marc Bloch and German historiography, documents Bloch's remarkable effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain his methodological criticism and constructive dialogue with the corporation of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, even in Nazi Germany, distinct and separate from what he called, in a most telling phrase, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal "terror of every scientific nationalism" \(1934\). Others, such as Morgan \(on the Rosselli brothers\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Clark \(on Volpe\), or Lambert \(on Rrig\) and Schleier \(on Nazism and the historical profession\), discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of the dictatorial regimes on the political use of history. They identify the responses of historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from outright opposition to adaptation, in terms of change of orientation and themes in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings; those who adapted displayed varying degrees of enthusiasm, accompanied by professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations about the historical crassness of the regimes' propagandists. The last two sections, on the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent half-century, oscillate between the two poles: Frey discusses what he calls the Gaullist 'reorganisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history' to remove the stain of Vichy from the French republican tradition; Vivarelli, in a nostalgic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vindication of liberal history as the only valid interpretation of the Italian national state, condemns postwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian historiography as dogmatically dominated by the opposing communist and Catholic political parties; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fulbrook \(in the best essay of the volume\) uses the unique potential offered by the political existence of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7471 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two Germanies for a systematic comparison of the contribution and the responses of historians in the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states during the successive phases of the Cold War; Jackson, Berger and Levy concentrate on the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historians of the crisis of credibility, particularly among the young generations, of the hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestioned tradition of the nation-state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambivalence that results from these two different objectives is evident in the uncertainty about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate subjects for study - professional historians? academic historians as part of the broader category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social scientists? or as intellectuals? or popularising historians, journalists, politicians and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagators of elements of man-in-the-street historical consciousness, memories and myths of the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past? Some of the essays are concerned less with historians than with political ideas and social theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loosely linked to the theme of historians and nationalism \(Jones\); others with the response to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures of academics in the human and social sciences, rather than specifically historians \(Thompson\), or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Benda's trahison des clercs \(Schleier, Gordon\); others with right-wing pseudo-historical tracts, in good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part written by political hacks or fanatics\(Gordon, Frey\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book tends to contrast the historical writing in France to that in Italy or Germany. Nor is this surprising, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the stress placed on political experiences, particularly in the twentieth century. But, curiously, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the choice of countries, there is no discussion of imperialism and its significance for history writing \(apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a few marginal references\). I suspect that a reading of Seeley, Lavisse, Volpe and Delbrck would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered the contrast between democracies and authoritarian states less sharp, as all of them were narrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the destiny of great powers. Precisely for that reason, in an ideal volume, comparisons with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical experiences, particularly those of historians of small states that lacked or had long lost an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist past, could have been revealing. It is not accidental that both a Dutch historian \(J.Huizinga, Im )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bann der Geschichte\) and a Swiss \(W.Kaegi, Historische Meditationen\) should have written essays at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darkest moment of the second world war \(1942\) on the absence of destructive imperialism in the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness and political traditions of the small nation-state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does emerge very clearly from the comparison of history writing in these countries is the notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different role of the state in conditioning the historical profession. There is a danger, as Jrgen Kocke noted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently \(History and Theory, 1999\), of asymmetrical historical comparison through excess concentration on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany's presumed Sonderweg. Even so, Iggers, past master on the theme, makes the very telling point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Prussian universities, after Wilhelm von Humboldt's reform, enjoyed considerably more autonomy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research and teaching than French or other Continental universities, but that the mechanisms of selection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured a far greater degree of conformity among academics after 1848, while the more advanced level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalisation excluded the non-academic and amateur historians so visible in France and Britain. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half of the twentieth century the contrast between the compliance of academic historians under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist and nazi regimes and the boycotting of Vichy by the French academic profession is even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking. Schleier's account of collaboration with the Nazi regime was written before the 1998 Historikertag, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where a session was dedicated to the active involvement of distinguished German historians in the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme for repopulating the conquered eastern territories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berger claims that the historical professions in all three countries were successful in maintaining their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional autonomy. In a formalistic sense this may be true, at least of those with tenure within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, and certainly compared to Soviet or East German historians. Fulbrook illustrates the point in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different research and career prospects that characterised the two post-Nazi Germanies. But there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency, for many of the authors of this volume, to adopt too direct and literal an understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between history writing and politics. The limits to choice of topics, approaches and methods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research and writing, in Kuhn's sense of the paradigm of academic acceptability within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific world, would have merited reflection, not least because it would have deepened the understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the implicit ties between writing history and politics. There is also a broader issue of social prestige \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material benefit\) that is intimately connected to the prevailing political mood, that emerges clearly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moretti's essay on Italian post-unitarian historians and Lambert's on the career and writings of Fritz Rrig. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The public recognition, esteem and influence of historians \(and of academics in general\) is undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to the role attributed to them by the state: it was \(and still is\) notable in Germany, France and Italy. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Perhaps the lack of such social status explains what subjectively seems to me the relatively more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualistic approach towards research themes of historians in Britain, at least until the recent disciplining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of universities by government.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A related issue is that of the influence of historians on the mental world of their readers. In the grand age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-building, nobody - neither historians nor the political class - had any doubts about the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ex cathedra historical texts. Fulbrook stresses the extreme political sensitivity to the impact on public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion of historical writing on both sides of the Berlin wall, where national identity and nazism were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central issues in the cultural cold war. In contrast, the essays by Jackson, Berger and Levy on contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends in France, Germany and Italy over the past ten-fifteen years raise the major issue of the current crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of credibility of historical narratives of the nation-state. What they have to say is pertinent, perhaps would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have gained in depth by discussing more fully not just the production but the consumption of history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship, that is, between historians and their readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surely of prime importance for academic historians today to reflect on why, in recent decades, they have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost their hegemony as narrators of the national past. The path has been opened, via wholly different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches, by Rudy Koshar in his research on what were the elements of 'official' histories that attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were recalled by their readers in Wilhelmine Germany; by Nicola Gallerano in his analyses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('public use of history' in Italy; and, throughout the West, by the increasing attention paid to the intricate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delicate theme of the relationships between subjective memory and history. What they have in common is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in doubt the importance today of the influence of professional historians on the formation of ideas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably, the writings of most professional historians do not attract the interests of the non-captive \(i.e. non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student\) reading public. The sort of history that interests the general reader, on the Continent as much as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, would appear to be what probably the majority of academic historians today would regard as old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hat - simple narrative political history, particularly of the contemporary period, military campaigns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies of Great Men \(and Women\). Increasingly, professional historians, as a category, have lost out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public arena to the competition of alternative means of 'providing' interpretations of history - films, TV )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(soon\) Internet - in societies where the formal acquisition of a national history memory has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote, whether as part of the educational curriculum or as a component element of political pedagogy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be little doubt that writing national history today is a different cup of tea than it used to be. Few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have the self-confidence of our prolific predecessors of the last century. The direct pressures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorial regimes are too recent to ignore and have unquestionably created profound and structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for their historians related to the dangers of too unmediated a vicinity to the sirens of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and patronage. Presumably, as professional historians, we have been at least partially inoculated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against such dangers. But, at the same time, it would be an illusion to imagine that we are now beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national myth creating and that, in the brave new world of postmodernist subjectivity and the crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, historians have become blas about the implicit political messages that have always formed part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the writing of national histories. In the new nation-states of Europe that have emerged since the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union, and outside Europe, national foundation myths and narratives are actively being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed and written. In the western world \(although not in the United States\), the signs of a decline in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of the nation-state can be read in the boom of regional self-identification and the hopes placed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European Union. Narrative histories, to legitimate both the former and the latter are being written and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught in schools, in the traditional mould of nation-state histories. Writing national history has not lost its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role as the hand-maiden of politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 130.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 112.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 112.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/103)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 111.561 m 322.316 111.561 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 111.8755 322.3157 123.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/103) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/669)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000645 00000 n 0000004835 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000008724 00000 n 0000008852 00000 n 0000008936 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000016574 00000 n 0000016639 00000 n 0000024163 00000 n 0000024247 00000 n 0000030996 00000 n 0000031124 00000 n 0000031219 00000 n 0000031284 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31641 %%EOF