%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219120722+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219120722+00'00') /Title (The End of Byzantium) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3497 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The End of Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 has always interested historians. It has produced one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubted classic in the shape of Sir Steven Runciman?s )] TJ ET BT 310.988 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fall of Constantinople 1453)] TJ ET BT 467.672 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.672 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.672 100.857 m 484.664 100.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.664 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragic climax of the history of the Byzantine Empire, which provided some consolation for the humiliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its decline, reduced as it was in its final years to little more than Constantinople itself. It was living on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowed time, for Constantinople should have fallen to the Ottomans 50 years earlier and was only saved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1030)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300117868)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tonia Kiousopoulou)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789604351398)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athens)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Angold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6717 101.1715 484.6637 113.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the chance intervention of the central Asia conqueror Tamerlane, who defeated the Ottomans at the battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ankara in 1402. The question has always been this: what did the Byzantines do with this new lease of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life? The conventional response is that Manuel II Palaiologos \(1391-1425\) returned from self-imposed exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the West and was able to restore a measure of soundness to the Byzantine state. However, his eldest son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John VIII \(1425?48\) frittered away the opportunities thus created and another son Constantine XI \(1448?53\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was left to face the consequences. It is a )] TJ ET BT 229.292 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1066 and all that )] TJ ET BT 314.636 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of history, which has turned Manuel II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the last great Byzantine emperor, John VIII into a bad thing, and Constantine XI into a doomed hero. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also a reading, which reflects the sources. Manuel II was a scholar in his own right and his letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute the last important example of Byzantine epistolography. He is the subject of a magisterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography by John W. Barker )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.324 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.324 666.771 m 193.316 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.316 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , which is very largely written out of the emperor?s own works, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald M. Nicol has immortalised Constantine XI.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.004 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.004 652.515 m 293.996 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.996 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ivan Djuri? provides the only discordant note in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of John VIII )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.992 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.992 638.259 m 161.984 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.984 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by forcing us to think again about this emperor: was he such a bad thing, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all? Biography has been one avenue used by modern historians to study the last half-century of Byzantium?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence. In addition to the biographies of the three emperors, there are superlative studies of the two major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual figures of the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.664 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.664 595.491 m 195.656 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.656 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, more influential has been a small book by Nicolas Oikonomides )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 581.235 m 48.008 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , who drew attention to the similarities between late medieval Constantinople and the Italian city-states. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both boasted ruling elites, which supported themselves by commerce and business. This was an insight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has stimulated work by K.-P. Matschke and N. Necipoglu, who have studied the business activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried on in Constantinople in its final phase and have shown that in purely economic terms Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople was perfectly viable. Greek merchants had a major role to play as intermediaries between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italians and the Turks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kiousopoulou too takes Oikonomides?s insight as her starting point, but develops it in a novel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting way. She accepts that Byzantium had ceased in any recognisable way to be an Empire and had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosed into a city-state and wonders how its government and political structure adapted to such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous change. She frames the problem rather cleverly around a scene described by the historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Sphrantzes, where the Emperor Manuel II confided his misgivings about his son and successor John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII. In the emperor?s opinion the latter wished to rule in traditional style as a )] TJ ET BT 411.956 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Basileus)] TJ ET BT 452.624 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when what the times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required was an )] TJ ET BT 112.988 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oikonomos)] TJ ET BT 164.984 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or steward. There has been plenty of discussion of what exactly the emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant, when he drew this contrast. The general thrust is, however, clear. It was Manuel II Palaiologos?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that an emperor should not involve himself in ambitious diplomacy abroad, but concentrate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic matters. Kiousopoulou would like to be more specific. It was essential to concentrate on domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters because of changes, which meant that the authority of the Byzantine emperor was restricted in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of that of the doge of Venice. Kiousopoulou reminds us that because the Byzantine Empire was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon to disappear did not mean that it had become a living fossil. She argues that in its last years it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving a much stronger Hellenic identity. It was a process cut short by the fall of Constantinople to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottomans. It was nevertheless an important stage in the development of a modern Greek consciousness, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it went into cold storage under the Ottomans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris, by way of contrast, has no particular axe to grind. His main concern is to provide an overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last years of Byzantium, which is solidly founded on the sources and which treats the period from 1402 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1453 for itself and very much on its own terms. I think this may be the first time that this has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted. Harris clearly has a general rather than a specialist audience in mind because he is very careful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give references to sources in translation. His book is lucid; extremely well written with an excellent array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotes and spread of information. He provides in purely literary terms the best short account of the siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople and its aftermath that I know. His unrivalled knowledge of the Greek )] TJ ET BT 443.960 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(diaspora)] TJ ET BT 486.632 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also gives his book an extra dimension. Harris provides perceptive comments on individual episodes, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschews general interpretation and has nothing to say about recent historiography of the period. He appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accept the received opinion that Manuel II Palaiologos did enough to give Byzantium a fair chance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival, but this came to nothing because of his son John VIII?s overambitious foreign policy. However, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion suggests something much darker. It takes the form of an attempt to rehabilitate Andreas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palaiologos, who died at Rome in poverty in 1502. Born in January 1453 this prince was Manuel II?s eldest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson and might in other circumstances have hoped to become emperor himself. Instead, he spent a life )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3237 667.0855 193.3157 678.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.0037 652.8295 293.9957 664.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.9917 638.5735 161.9837 650.4535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6637 595.8055 195.6557 607.6855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 581.5495 48.0077 593.4295 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8566 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of exile taking his begging bowl around the courts of Europe. His life has always been judged an abject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure. Now Harris points out that he was not that different from other members of the house of Palaiologos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had not his great grandfather John V found himself marooned in Venice for lack of funds? The Venetians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were wary of advancing money to the Palaiologan emperors, because they knew there was little chance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever getting it back. It has been calculated that by 1453 the Byzantine emperor owed the Venetians 585,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hyperpyra)] TJ ET BT 83.336 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but this has to be set against a total indebtedness of 19,275,000 )] TJ ET BT 394.652 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hyperpyra)] TJ ET BT 443.972 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Andreas?s grandfather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuel II spent three uncomfortable years in the West looking for support. His uncle John VIII equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a tour of the Italian and Hungarian courts. Incidentally, the only way that John VIII was able to kit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself out in fitting fashion to attend the Church Council of Ferrara-Florence in 1438 was by purloining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alms sent from Russia for the upkeep of the monastery of the Pantokrator. Harris?s attempt to retrieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andreas Palaiologos?s reputation only leaves the impression that Byzantium was in more of a mess in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closing years than even Ivan Djuri? allowed in his notably pessimistic depiction of the Byzantine Empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reign of John VIII Palaiologos. There was, in other words, little hope for Byzantium; only a grim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for survival, which it was bound to lose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the recent historiography of late Byzantium Djuri? is a dissenting voice. His contention is that Manuel II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to make the most of the opportunities opened up by the Ottoman defeat in 1402 and bequeathed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost impossible position to his son John VIII, who with great ingenuity ensured Byzantium?s survival in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the face of rampant Ottoman expansion. Harris has Djuri??s book in his bibliography, but never once refers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it in his notes. It would have helped if Harris had addressed Djuri??s views directly, if only because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn on a fundamental problem of late Byzantine history: how reliable a guide is George Sphrantzes? Of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Byzantine histories his )] TJ ET BT 166.676 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronikon)] TJ ET BT 218.012 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most original and attractive, if not in terms of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine historiography the most accomplished. Its framework is that of the popular )] TJ ET BT 447.632 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Short Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 524.636 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its contents are more those of a commonplace book or journal, not unlike the )] TJ ET BT 405.632 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ricordanze)] TJ ET BT 457.628 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( so frequently kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Florentines. This provides an immediacy and apparent authenticity, which is not matched by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine histories. Sphrantzes was especially good at recording or possibly embroidering conversations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Constantine XI wanted to send him on yet another diplomatic mission in search of a wife, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian remonstrated that this must positively be the last. Otherwise, his wife would have every reason to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorce him, because he had been away from home so much on imperial service. This is an anecdote, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has the ring of truth about it. Sphrantzes becomes a man, whom the modern reader thinks he can know and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust. His judgements underpin virtually all political histories of late Byzantium. He had a high opinion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuel II and Constantine XI, both of whom he served personally, and a correspondingly low opinion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John VIII, with whom he had little to do. Harris is happy to follow Sphrantzes without subjecting his views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to critical assessment. If he had, he would have produced a rather different book, which dealt in uncertainties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than certainties. He is more concerned to set out what we can reasonably know about Byzantium?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final years. This often means passing over apparently important events without comment, as for example the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary flight in 1450 of the Orthodox Patriarch Gregory Melissenos to the safety of Rome. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular case, any explanation soon turns into speculation. This is equally true of Constantine XI?s failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to go through with a coronation. This may be the most baffling mystery of Constantine XI?s reign, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris does not even mention it, almost certainly because it commands no agreed explanation. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantine?s lack of a coronation was noted at the time and clearly an important issue. It needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, if only because it reveals the conflicting forces, with which Constantine XI had to contend on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve of the final siege.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kioussopoulou, by contrast, is willing to delve beneath the surface of Byzantine political life. She uses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, which Harris has been careful to avoid. The most important of these are the satire of )] TJ ET BT 482.912 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mazaris)] TJ ET BT 522.248 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comedy of )] TJ ET BT 105.668 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Katablattas)] TJ ET BT 161.684 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Harris makes limited use of the former and completely ignores the latter despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its being possibly the most significant, certainly the most interesting, newly discovered text from the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of Byzantium. These texts provide a humorous insight into the bitter infighting, which characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine court life. They call to mind similar Komnenian texts: the )] TJ ET BT 365.324 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Timarion)] TJ ET BT 410.000 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the case of )] TJ ET BT 479.648 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mazaris)] TJ ET BT 518.984 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikephoros Basilakes?s )] TJ ET BT 152.000 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adversus Bagoam)] TJ ET BT 238.988 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in that of )] TJ ET BT 288.320 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Katablattas)] TJ ET BT 344.336 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A comparison of these texts suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of the late Palaiologan court were little different from those of the early Komnenian court. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advancement depended on imperial or aristocratic patronage, to which end denigration of rivals was a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 9190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable weapon. )] TJ ET BT 120.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mazaris)] TJ ET BT 160.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 183.656 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Katablattas)] TJ ET BT 239.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( do not in the end provide solid support for Kioussopoulou?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention that the Byzantine emperor was becoming more of a ?constitutional? monarch, as he sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapt his authority to the realities of the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much turns on the role of the senatorial and political )] TJ ET BT 289.316 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 336.644 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Kioussopoulou regards them as constituting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semi-official bodies, which represented aristocratic and popular interests respectively before the emperor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We know quite a lot about the senatorial )] TJ ET BT 231.320 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 278.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They were court dignitaries, whose position was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected by convention. George Sphrantzes has recorded a long conversation he had with Constantine XI )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about his possible promotion to Grand Logothete. The emperor was not able to satisfy his trusted servant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(request, because such a promotion would upset the legitimate expectations of other senatorial )] TJ ET BT 485.276 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 532.604 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reveals that even over appointments the emperor did not have a free hand. Constantine XI also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confided to Sphrantzes that on most policy matters there was very little that he could do because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition from his chief minister the Grand Duke Loukas Notaras. This may not have been an entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional matter, more a reflection of the emperor?s financial obligation to his chief minister, who stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surety to the Venetians for a loan they made to the emperor. However, these episodes provide some support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Kioussopoulou?s view that by the end of Byzantium the emperor?s authority was hedged around by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic privilege. But there is no reason to suppose that it was given any institutional basis. It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of convention. The ceremonial and the hierarchy of the imperial court seem still to have provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework, within which politics worked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the senatorial )] TJ ET BT 133.664 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 180.992 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are easily identifiable, the political )] TJ ET BT 353.300 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 400.628 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are a much more shadowy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group. They undoubtedly existed, but what exactly they did is hard to determine. They may or may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been identical with the demarchs, who appear in the sources with responsibilities for the different quarters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. At best, the political )] TJ ET BT 213.020 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(archontes)] TJ ET BT 260.348 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were the self-appointed intermediaries between sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the populace and the palace. Their very obscurity suggests that there was little progress towards anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like a popular assembly at Constantinople. There was an almost complete absence of any popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure in late Byzantium. Gone were the guilds, which in the 11th century had had a political role to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play. Kioussopoulou asks a great many questions, which are pertinent and well framed, but they are based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an expectation that Byzantium will follow patterns of change observable in other medieval societies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trouble with Byzantium is that change never followed any clear direction. It was more a matter of adapting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to circumstances. It was a way of protecting the fiction of an ideal order \()] TJ ET BT 386.264 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taxis)] TJ ET BT 408.932 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which in the end was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or less all that was left. As the Castilian traveller Pero Tafur observed, when he visited Constantinople in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1437, ?the emperor?s state is as splendid as ever, but, properly regarded, he is like a bishop without a see?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their different ways Harris and Kioussopoulou provide excellent commentary on this judgement. Harris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has more on the emperor?s splendid state and only hints at the abject poverty it concealed. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kioussopoulou the bankruptcy of an old order opens up possibilities for the creation of something new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was of course still-born.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Runciman, )] TJ ET BT 155.012 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fall of Constantinople, 1453)] TJ ET BT 314.696 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.016 220.851 m 466.004 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John W. Barker,)] TJ ET BT 142.664 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Manuel II Palaeologus \(1391?1425\): a Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship)] TJ ET BT 523.304 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunswick, NJ, 1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.340 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.340 192.339 m 226.328 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald M. Nicol,)] TJ ET BT 148.676 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Immortal Emperor: the Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, the Last )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emperor of the Romans)] TJ ET BT 178.340 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.660 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.660 163.827 m 329.648 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivan Djuri?, )] TJ ET BT 125.000 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le crpuscule de Byzance)] TJ ET BT 249.296 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.288 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.288 149.571 m 371.276 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M.-H. Blanchet, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georges-Gennadios Scholarios \(vers 1400?vers 1472\): un intellectuel orthodoxe face )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( la disparition de l?Empire byzantin)] TJ ET BT 243.692 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2008\); C. M. Woodhouse, )] TJ ET BT 409.016 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gemistos Plethon: the Last of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Hellenes)] TJ ET BT 123.668 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.316 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.316 106.803 m 256.304 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicolas Oikonomides, )] TJ ET BT 174.344 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hommes d?affaires grecs et latins Constantinople \(XIIIe-XVe sicles\))] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Montreal and Paris, 1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.328 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.328 78.291 m 250.316 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 39.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.0157 221.1655 466.0037 233.0455 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.3397 192.6535 226.3277 204.5335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6597 164.1415 329.6477 176.0215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.2877 149.8855 371.2757 161.7655 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.3157 107.1175 256.3037 118.9975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.3277 78.6055 250.3157 90.4855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 972 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 210.320 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1030)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 328.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5268)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5267)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300117868)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 210.3197 807.2695 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300117868) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 328.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1030) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000530 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000004168 00000 n 0000004277 00000 n 0000004387 00000 n 0000004496 00000 n 0000008057 00000 n 0000008185 00000 n 0000008269 00000 n 0000008298 00000 n 0000008426 00000 n 0000008462 00000 n 0000008574 00000 n 0000017534 00000 n 0000017564 00000 n 0000017692 00000 n 0000017728 00000 n 0000017758 00000 n 0000017886 00000 n 0000017922 00000 n 0000017952 00000 n 0000018080 00000 n 0000018116 00000 n 0000018146 00000 n 0000018274 00000 n 0000018310 00000 n 0000018340 00000 n 0000018466 00000 n 0000018502 00000 n 0000018567 00000 n 0000027186 00000 n 0000027305 00000 n 0000036548 00000 n 0000036676 00000 n 0000036731 00000 n 0000036859 00000 n 0000036914 00000 n 0000037042 00000 n 0000037097 00000 n 0000037225 00000 n 0000037280 00000 n 0000037408 00000 n 0000037463 00000 n 0000037589 00000 n 0000037644 00000 n 0000037735 00000 n 0000038759 00000 n 0000038886 00000 n 0000038994 00000 n 0000039122 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39218 %%EOF