%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723071420+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723071420+01'00') /Title (Men of Color to Arms! Black Soldiers, Indian Wars and the Quest for Equality) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4479 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Men of Color to Arms! Black Soldiers, Indian Wars and the Quest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(for Equality)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the late 1980s, a promising young African-American actor named Denzel Washington was asked to take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading role in the movie, )] TJ ET BT 160.004 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glory)] TJ ET BT 188.000 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Directed by Edward Zwick, a white liberal, )] TJ ET BT 404.948 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glory )] TJ ET BT 435.944 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told the story)] TJ ET BT 502.280 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively minor action in the American Civil War. The attack on Battery Wagner, South Carolina, on July )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18, 1863 was an unsuccessful attempt by the black Union troops of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their elite white commander, Robert Gould Shaw, to storm a strongly-defended Confederate fort in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensive line around Charleston. The news that blacks had fought in the Civil War came to Washington as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete revelation. Like most African-Americans of his generation, he had assumed that his forebears were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves until the Civil War liberated them from bondage. However, as Elizabeth Leonard makes clear at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of her perceptive account of blacks in the late 19th-century United States Army, this was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case. Around 200,000 African-Americans, the majority of them ex-slaves, fought in the North?s increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanguinary campaigns to defeat the pro-slavery Confederacy. The mass recruitment of blacks into segregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments, supported by race leaders like Frederick Douglass and Martin Delany, began in earnest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months after President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic courage at places like Fort Wagner and in several important actions during the siege of Petersburg, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia, in 1864 and 1865, not only contributed to the North?s dearly won triumph but also convinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many northern whites that the liberated bondsmen were entitled to equal citizenship. By 1870, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1032)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Leonard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393060393)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(315pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Cook)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7062 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ratification of the 15th Amendment, African-American males were constitutionally entitled to vote. For a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short time during the post-war reconstruction period, it appeared that the nearly 37,000 black troops who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perished in the Civil War had not died in vain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even before reconstruction began, there were intimations that blacks in the military were not going to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fair deal from the United States government. No African-American troops were permitted to march in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great victory parade which took place in Washington in March 1865 and white volunteers were demobilized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a much faster rate than blacks. This meant that more than 100,000 armed black men were still stationed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southern states that summer, a fact which occasioned widespread and sometimes violent resentment on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part not only of embittered Rebels in the defeated Confederacy but also of white Unionists in notionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal states like Kentucky where slavery was not abolished until ratification of the 13th Amendment in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1865.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although conservative Democrats were eager to expel African-Americans from the country?s armed forces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the most moderate congressional Republican was determined to ensure that the government should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reward black loyalty to the Union. During the spring of 1866 the country?s dominant party passed a rash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federal legislation to promote greater equality and security for the former slaves. Republicans at the Capitol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also oversaw a reorganisation of the military, mandating a 54,000-strong army of which two cavalry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four \(from 1869, two\) infantry regiments were set aside for blacks. While this policy replicated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated pattern of the Civil War, Leonard argues convincingly that this primitive form of affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action was the only way of guaranteeing blacks a significant role in the country?s armed forces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Desegregation at this juncture in American history would almost certainly have resulted in the expulsion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks from the military, for relatively few whites were willing to serve alongside African-Americans. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of high-profile officers, George Armstrong Custer among them, refused point blank to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of ?coloured? troops.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard makes a few nods to the experiences of African-American soldiers in the reconstruction South but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is concerned principally with the experience of black regulars in the Far West in the 1870s and 1880s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here she is forced to maintain a difficult balance between detailing ? in generally positive terms ? black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service on the frontier and acknowledging that her subjects were being employed by the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to subjugate another oppressed race. Black troops fought in all the major Indian conflicts of the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the 1874-5 Red River War against several different tribes and the final campaigns against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apache in the following decade. She maintains that balance reasonably successfully by demonstrating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both blacks and Indians were victims \(not always passive ones it must be stressed\) of white racism. African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American soldiers confronted racial prejudice every day of their lives in post-bellum America. Out west they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to endure not only sweltering heat, execrable food, and unsanitary quarters, but also harsh military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline unequally administered by some white officers. Among the latter was Captain Lee Humfreville, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly sadistic captain, who handcuffed several of his black troopers to a wagon and then dragged them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several hundred miles across Texas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even when blacks came to the rescue of white soldiers, they received only limited thanks for their efforts. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1868 black soldiers from the Tenth Cavalry relieved a detachment of white troopers who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent eight harrowing days besieged on an island in the Arikaree River by hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warriors. Matters had grown so desperate at what soon became known as the Battle of Beecher?s Island that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the white servicemen were forced to drink the blood of dead horses and their own urine to stay alive. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skin colour of their rescuers did not staunch their relief at being saved. One former slave belonging to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tenth Cavalry recalled the whites? delirious response: ?[W]e all cried together as we helped them out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their starving condition? \(p. 91\). Those same white cavalrymen, however, soon expunged the heroism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their black rescuers from the record. In his published account of Beecher?s Island written 20 years later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major George Forsyth failed to acknowledge that the men who relieved his embattled troop had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-Americans ? a response that mirrored the wider, ongoing effort by white Americans to write out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks from the country?s historical memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The few black men who attempted to train as officers at the United States Military Academy at West Point )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subjected to alternating harassment and social ostracism by white cadets. A Georgian, Henry Ossian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flipper, did manage to graduate in 1877 but even he was eventually dismissed from the army for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mishandling funds at his post at Fort Davis, Texas. The fact that no African-American graduated from West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Point for half a century after 1889 tells its own story about the racism of the military establishment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing about the determination of black soldiers to prove their worth as men and patriots. By the 1890s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-Americans, their Civil War loyalty and frontier service notwithstanding, were being lynched by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds and experiencing wholesale loss of their constitutional rights with the connivance of the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government that sought their military assistance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Leonard recounts the efforts of white paternalists to disseminate information about the work of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops on the frontier, she rightly stresses the damage that well-intentioned whites did to the Indians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being corralled steadily onto reservations by the army. Captain Richard Henry Pratt, formerly a white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer in the black Tenth Cavalry, thought that with proper discipline and sustained acculturation Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be assimilated into white ?civilisation? in the same manner as African-Americans. His practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the civilising process was to set up the Carlisle Indian School at an old military base in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania in 1879. Intended to provide vocational training for Indians, this was modelled on General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Chapman Armstrong?s Hampton Institute in Virginia where Pratt had launched his educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career by setting up an Indian adjunct. Even though the school represented a more humane response to ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian problem? than the murderous solutions propounded by many settlers and some military personnel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can certainly argue, as Leonard suggests, ?that Carlisle embodied a vision of assimilation that amounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to nothing more than cultural genocide or ?education for extinction?? \(p. 151\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is hard not to be impressed and, indeed, moved by the experiences of African-Americans in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States Army during the late 19th century, one might wish that Leonard?s awareness of the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troopers? ambiguous function as citizen-soldiers and racial oppressors had led her to attempt some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful comparisons between the United States? use of blacks in the military with the way imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers like Britain and France deployed non-whites in their contemporaneous colonial wars. It seems clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in all three instances governments were prepared to utilise black manpower when it served their interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that in some circumstances subaltern peoples could be co-opted by the state even when the rewards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accruing from co-optation were minimal. On this evidence loyalty to the Union in the Civil War gave black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans few, if any, advantages over the non-white troops who fought to extend the reach of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and French empires in Africa and Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although historians must pay close attention to the political and cultural context in which the frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulars operated, there is no getting away from the fact that African-Americans in the United States military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were witting agents of an aggrandizing state and that indigenous people of colour suffered appalling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardships because of their actions. How, then, did black frontier regulars explain their military service and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what did the Indians themselves make of their African-American oppressors?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard?s account provides numerous clues relating to the first of these questions. Blacks joined the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war United States Army for many reasons, not least the prospect of swapping the drudgery of sharecropping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an occupation that provided them with regular wages, the possibility of excitement, and a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putting their new-found citizenship into action. Although black politicians like Frederick Douglass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised the common humanity of the Indians, most African-Americans embraced the hegemonic notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the country?s indigenous peoples were savages who needed to be tamed for the good of the republic \(if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not of themselves as well\). Having exhibited their loyalty to the Union during the Civil War, it was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise that they should have thought in this way, particularly when so many of them shared the outlook of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native-born Protestants \(here Leonard might have made more of nineteenth-century African-Americans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent efforts to draw a distinction between their patriotic selves and allegedly unpatriotic foreigners\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if any black frontier regulars altered their views of the Indians as a result of their military service in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, there is no evidence in this book to prove it. As for what the Indians thought about black troops, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record here too is largely silent. In this respect )] TJ ET BT 259.304 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of Color to Arms!)] TJ ET BT 368.636 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reflects the fact that the book is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research-based monograph. Leonard makes adept use of printed primary materials such as courts martial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, personal memoirs and newspapers but writing for a trade press necessitates a degree of intellectual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2730 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concession. Relatively few manuscript collections or oral history sources, for example, are cited in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes. The Indian side of this complex story of racial interaction within a broadly imperial framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore remains untold ? but this does not mean that it cannot be related at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Army is now the most integrated institution in the United States, a fact that most Americans would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard as a cause for celebration. But, better rewarded though they may be than their 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors, black United States troops today continue to serve the geopolitical interests of an imperial state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which remains at best indifferent to the plight of large numbers of African-Americans at home. Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard offers no thoughts in this commendably accessible and nuanced text about the ironies embedded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern black military service but there is no reason, even in the wake of Denzel Washington?s ascent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stardom and the election of a black president, for readers not to reflect on their unsettling persistence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful for Dr. Cook's generous review of her book, and offers no further comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Dallas Morning News)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.dallasnews.com/entertainment/headlines/20100905-Book-review-Men-of-5532.ece)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 573.747 m 490.940 573.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 493.940 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 570.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 552.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 552.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1032)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 551.241 m 328.316 551.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 526.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5278)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.dallasnews.com/entertainment/headlines/20100905-Book-review-Men-of-5532.ece)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 574.0615 490.9397 585.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.dallasnews.com/entertainment/headlines/20100905-Book-review-Men-of-5532.ece) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 551.5555 328.3157 563.4355 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1032) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000661 00000 n 0000005192 00000 n 0000005301 00000 n 0000005411 00000 n 0000005520 00000 n 0000009081 00000 n 0000009209 00000 n 0000009293 00000 n 0000009358 00000 n 0000016473 00000 n 0000016538 00000 n 0000024082 00000 n 0000024173 00000 n 0000026956 00000 n 0000027083 00000 n 0000027221 00000 n 0000027349 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27445 %%EOF