%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140903003428+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140903003428+01'00') /Title (Child, Nation, Race and Empire. Child Rescue Discourse, England, Canada and Australia, 1850-1915) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4072 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Child, Nation, Race and Empire. Child Rescue Discourse, England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Canada and Australia, 1850-1915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the second half of the 20th century, scandals arising from abuses suffered by some children in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residential care in the UK encouraged the uncovering of the experiences of looked-after children in the past. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particular interest has been shown in the lives of those who were removed from their homes and sent as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants to the colonies ? a traffic that reached its height in the late 19th century but did not end until the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of children was flown to Australia in 1967. Descendants of child migrants, as well as adults who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves been sent abroad as children, have pressed for recognition of the abuse they suffered, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years the UK, Canadian and Australian governments, sometimes reluctantly, have responded to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure and acknowledged the distress experienced by many such children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Child rescue and child migration has claimed the attention of a number of historians, including Gillian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wagner, June Rose, Geoffrey Sherington, Patrick Dunae, Michele Langfield and Lydia Murdoch, all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom have explored the history of individual charitable organisations. In )] TJ ET BT 392.636 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Child, Nation, Race and Empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shurlee Swain and Margot Hillel have used their skills as historian and literature specialist respectively to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine a hitherto only partly explored aspect of child rescue ? the printed material produced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies in order to publicise their work and the children?s literature that accompanied it. They examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1033)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shurlee Swain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margot Hillel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Starkey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent behind the production of these books, house magazines, reports and pamphlets and then invite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to imagine how such material might have been received, not just by those whose moral and financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support was being sought, but also by those children whose lives were featured and who may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed to these stories during their work in the printing houses that produced them, as well as in the homes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and institutions in which they found themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Swain and Hillel show, changing ideas about the nature of childhood in the 19th century increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave rise to the assumption that children were entitled to statutory protection and supplied the impulse for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those concerned with their welfare to provide shelter and education, for example by means of ragged schools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or residential care. That it was desirable for malleable children to be removed from unsuitable parents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a fundamental principle underlying the work of child rescuers in the second half of the century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a climate that permitted those who believed particular children to be in physical or moral danger to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineer situations where they could be removed from their families and admitted to orphanages or refuges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transportation from the poorer parts of cities to the country, or at least to the suburb, was ultimately to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augmented by emigration to what were claimed to be new opportunities for rescued children in the colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assumed a specifically Christian twist. Although this was not a new solution to child poverty ? pauper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children had been sent to the Cape Colony, Western Australia and Canada from at least the late 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the enthusiastic adoption of the practice by all the main child rescue agencies from the late 1860s meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many thousands of children were uprooted and sent abroad. The underlying philosophy which stressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of separating child and parent in some circumstances also pervaded those parts of the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which the children were sent; the authors demonstrate its absorption in the colonial situation, in often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutal ways, when Aboriginal and First Nations children in Australia and Canada were forcibly removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their homes. As recent research has shown, the reality of their placements often bore little resemblance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the loving, comfortable ?homes? described in promotional literature and the methods adopted by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child rescuers have been subjected to critical scrutiny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main pressure for child rescue and the religious impulses which powered it can be laid at the door of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four men, Thomas Barnardo, Thomas Bowman Stephenson, Edward de Mountjoie Rudolf and Benjamin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waugh, the founders of Dr Barnardo?s Homes, National Children?s Homes, the Church of England Central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homes for Waifs and Strays and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children \(NSPCC\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their success in attracting financial and other support for their work owed much to the skill with which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tailored their publicity to contemporary ideas about childhood, the threats posed to the ideal by urban life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the irresponsibility, as they saw it, of many poor parents. They constructed a picture which permitted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion that removal of children from poor and inadequate homes was a Christian duty and in the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the child. Many children were wrongly characterised as orphans in order to deprive working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class parents of their rights and the everyday phenomenon of the street child was transformed into a cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that demanded individual and national action. Not only did their rescuers consider that the children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of a better life in this world would be enhanced if they were removed from parents deemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be failing, they believed themselves to be called to a higher and more important mission ? the salvation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those children?s souls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors note the paradox underlying child rescue. Although the founders of the British movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to establish rights for children and to rescue them from their legal status as parental ? effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternal - property, they also constructed a particular type of victim and prescribed a particular sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment which was not always in the child?s interest. The neglected child had not only to be made real, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of its suffering had to be described in such a way that it haunted the reader and prompted a generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response. To succeed it had to transform the frequently accepted picture of the urban street child as dirty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old beyond his or her years, destined for a life of crime and embodying a threat to decent people, into a waif )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the potential for transformation once fed, warmed and taught about the Christian gospel. Descriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both clothing and physical characteristics were employed as code for dirt and social unacceptability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to help to construct the child as victim. Magazines and pamphlets were liberally sprinkled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations that sought to give pictorial representation of change in case mere words failed to convey the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message. As has recently been shown by Seth Koven, Lydia Murdoch and others, the photographic image )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often carefully manipulated; children at the point of reception by the rescuers were pictured wearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothes that had been deliberately torn and smeared with skilfully-applied dirt. A second set of images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed the same children wearing clean garments, with their hair combed and bodies washed thanks to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care of their rescuers. Sometimes the children were pictured tucked up in bed between white sheets. In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reinforce the message that lives could be dramatically changed, stories intended for supporters and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families sometimes featured street children who had made good and were taking on themselves the mantle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue and mission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The wickedness of neglectful parents and substitute carers was used to emphasise the status of the child as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim and stress the urgent need for rescue, a process that was increased once the NSPCC, in its mission to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge the law that tended to see the domestic space as sacrosanct, added its voice to the chorus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of parents. Disability was a late entrant in the catalogue of characteristics worthy of compassion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by the end of the 19th century ?cripples? were also employed in the task of eliciting pity and, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial support. Although the causes of physical disability were many and various in Victorian England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child rescuers frequently chose to emphasise the role of parents and used statistics that suggested a necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causal link between neglect and child disability or mortality, thereby linking their new concern with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NSPCC campaign against cruelty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Successful though it was, the use of the individual ? the waif, the neglected child with potential, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cripple? ? was only a step on the way to portraying the problem as one of greater import. A powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter explores ways in which national as well as individual analogies were used to link child rescue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s imperial task. The authors describe how the rescuer was transformed from an individual religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiast into a national hero as a result of the process of rendering rescue a communal imperative by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascribing moral meanings to the body of the child. Urban environments were compared with biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples condemned for their wickedness, like Nineveh and Babylon, Sodom and Gomorrah ? descriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that constructed the city as threatening and were intended to shock as well as to shame. Oppositions such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darkness and light, urban and rural were employed to reinforce moral messages and were graphically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated both textually and pictorially. By using the vocabulary of evangelical mission, slum areas came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent ?Darkest England? \(although Scottish examples were often used\), a direct reference to Stanley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Darkest Africa? and freighted with the message that the needs of ?heathen? children in the poorest areas at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home demanded missionary activity every bit as urgently as those in much-publicised mission fields abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By employing the characteristic evangelical message of civilising those without knowledge of the gospel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and using language with strong racial resonance, like ?Arabs? and ?Indians? to describe the inhabitants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slum areas, whose shocking style of life condemned their progeny to lives of destitution and crime, rescuers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to portray themselves as saving both individual children and the nation from decay and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of contagion and contamination. Images enlisted in the cause were designed to elicit fear as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as pity and to encourage donations designed to protect the donor from the danger that the children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented as much as to save children from their plight. Racialised imagery and the frequent use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions which caricatured the physical features of indigenous peoples were also used to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons between the behaviour of ?natives? and some British parents ? to the latter?s disadvantage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to urge on potential donors their responsibility to act to encourage a civilising mission at home as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as abroad. The imperial project had a home base with a difference: with their religious cultural and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantages, British people should be expected to behave better than foreigners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The imperial imperative also saw a change in the discourse; children were transformed from a liability to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource. It began to be claimed that they would be valuable assets to any labour force and that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorption into colonial situations would help to ensure that their work contributed to the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their new homes and ?add to the wealth of the Empire?. Unsurprisingly, this prompted a backlash. Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to the continued immigration of children came to be characterised by a fear of the criminality they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be presumed to bring with them, together with a resentment-fuelled anxiety that such children were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being used as cheap labour with the potential to undermine the wages of local workers. The argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressed the essential usefulness of the children sent from Britain backfired there, too, when questions began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be asked about the wisdom of exporting such valuable assets at a time when middle and upper class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households were finding it difficult to recruit servants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Child rescue as an imperial endeavour involved the transportation of ideas as well as children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established new norms for both the definition and the solution of the problems of child abuse and neglect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Britain and the colonies. It provided the language in which the problems were described and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures for both legislative and institutional responses. By the end of the century, similar social sickness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was discovered to be prevalent in colonial cities and home-grown rescue societies which claimed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperative common to many of their British counterparts ? the heart-rending stories of individual children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the attention of child rescuers ? began to spring up, particularly in Canada and Australia. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required but a small shift to move to a more overt discourse invoking fears of degeneration. Gifts towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solving the problem were represented as a patriotic duty. And the solution to the problem was to be found, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not in any attempt to improve the situations in which children found themselves, still less to reflect on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society?s inequalities and failings, but in the removal of children from their home environment to ones in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they would experience the virtues of cleanliness and evangelical Christianity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a welcome and important addition to the growing literature on child migration. Its discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive literature produced by the child-rescue movement in the 19th and early 20th centuries has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated the extent to which it was influenced by a powerful amalgam of Christian evangelicalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism. It has shown clearly the extent to which the message of child rescue was used not just in overt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicity material but also in improving tales for children; within narratives by authors such as Captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marryat, G. A. Henty and R. M. Ballantyne, for example, it was celebrated within the broader narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial adventure. An important feature is the way that it has drawn together the threads that connect child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue in Britain with movements in colonial situations which portrayed indigenous peoples as barbaric, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child-neglecters and provided justification for removal of children, especially those of mixed race, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents whose culture the imperial power failed to understand and chose to impugn as degenerate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglectful. Society had the right and the duty to remove ?infected? children for its own protection. The final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section, which includes recollections of some of those children removed from their home situations ?for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own good?, and for that of society makes almost unbearable reading. It rehearses views that Swain has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed elsewhere )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.308 400.419 m 149.300 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.300 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and demonstrates the cruelty inherent in a system that severed both family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community ties and which, at the very least, subjected deracinated children to life in distant and unfamiliar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surroundings. A former residential school supervisor is reported as saying ?Twenty years ago I would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said that it was a good system with some bad people. Now I realise it was a bad system with a lot of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in it?. And as the authors opine, although ?there is no evidence to suggest that all children were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected to abuse, abuse in its various manifestations was, and is, endemic in all forms of out-of-home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care? \(p.160\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Swain, ?Child rescue: the migration of an idea?, in )] TJ ET BT 322.988 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Child Welfare and Social Action in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. International Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 370.004 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Lawrence and P. Starkey)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 2001\), pp. 115?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.664 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.664 220.851 m 259.652 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 177.007 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 159.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 159.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1033)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 157.833 m 328.316 157.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 132.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5283)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3077 400.7335 149.2997 412.6135 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.6637 221.1655 259.6517 233.0455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 158.1475 328.3157 170.0275 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1033) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000599 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000004805 00000 n 0000004914 00000 n 0000005024 00000 n 0000005133 00000 n 0000008694 00000 n 0000008822 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000008971 00000 n 0000016457 00000 n 0000016522 00000 n 0000024004 00000 n 0000024102 00000 n 0000030628 00000 n 0000030658 00000 n 0000030786 00000 n 0000030822 00000 n 0000030950 00000 n 0000031005 00000 n 0000031133 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31229 %%EOF