%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820143223+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820143223+01'00') /Title (The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4235 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editor notes in his introduction to this collection, the events of 2001 and after have created intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the Crusades and the conflict between Christianity and Islam and the West in the Middle Ages. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of publications has appeared from popular histories to detailed articles in academic journals. Much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that interest, however, has been focused on the political history of the Crusades and on the motivations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders. The articles published here aim to explore a relatively neglected area: the cultural history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades and how they shaped European identities. All ten are lively and accessible but they are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustively footnoted. They both synthesise previous work and bring new insights of their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sini Kangas, for example, investigates one literary aspect of the western encounter with Islam during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades: the often scurrilous ?lives? of the prophet Mohammed produced in Latin from the mid-12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century onwards as crusade propaganda. The sudden growth of this type of literature in this period has often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seen as a response to the resurgent power of Islam. Kangas does not dispute that but she also places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these writings in the context of increasing concern about heresy in the Christian west \(p. 132, 150\). She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on four of the earliest texts, written by Embricon of Mainz, Adelphus, Guibert of Nogent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gautier of Compigne. Their main sources of information seem to have been oral, for Guibert of Nogent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complained that he was unable to find any information about Mohammed in the Latin Church Fathers \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(133\). Even so, some literary texts seem to have been consulted such as the Latin translation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronographia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1034)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conor Kostick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415580410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Theophanes \(p. 137\). Theophanes, a Byzantine monk writing in the early 9th century, )] TJ ET BT 461.276 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mohammed?s life in a ludicrous and farcical way. The prophet was an epileptic camel dealer whose wife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw money making possibilities in presenting his fits as religious visions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.360 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.360 766.563 m 400.352 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.352 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 12th-century texts certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect that approach, portraying Mohammed not so much anti-Christ as a low and impoverished trickster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selling a concocted religion to the gullible. In Gautier of Compigne?s )] TJ ET BT 375.308 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Otia de Machumete)] TJ ET BT 469.952 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1137 and 1155, Mohammed starts out as a Christian but he presents his fits as visions in an attempt to win )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hand of a wealthy heiress and having done so finds himself the religious leader of his society. Guibert of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nogent claimed that Mohammed was set on the wrong path by a Christian hermit who was embittered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he had not been appointed patriarch of Alexandria \(pp. 144?5\). References to specific Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachings, however, are few and far between in these travesties. Kangas therefore concludes that they should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be seen as an attack on the teachings of Islam but rather as crude attempts to smear it by defaming its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founder \(p. 152\). An interesting point of comparison here are the polemics against Islam produced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine authors in earlier centuries. These did attempt to counter Islamic teachings but not always with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great success. Niketas Byzantinos who wrote between 842 and 867 had a copy of the Koran in Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation and he made use of this to identify the tenets of Islam. Unfortunately the translation was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good one for it rendered Sura 96.2 as saying not that man was created from clots of blood but from leeches. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niketas then spent pages refuting this ?error?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.300 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.300 566.979 m 268.292 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.292 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given that the Byzantines had been in direct contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Islamic world for centuries, it is perhaps not so surprising that Gautier of Compigne and others were so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorant of what it was that Muslims believed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving on from polemic, issues of peaceful cultural interaction between crusaders and Muslims are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed by Sue Edgington and Jrgen Krger. Edgington provides a useful overview of the state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research into the possible influence of Arab medicine on medical practice in the crusader states. She argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the widespread assumption that Arab medicine must have been superior simply because so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical texts in Arabic survive. The treatments described in these texts may have borne no resemblance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatsoever to what was carried out in practice. Rather it would seem that Frankish and Arab physicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned from each other \(p. 208\). Krger looks at architecture and especially that of the church of the Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sepulchre in Jerusalem. He discusses spolia, discarded fragments of earlier buildings that were incorporated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the walls and the extent to which the hand of individual artists can be discerned in stone carvings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pointers are given at the end as to where the study of architectural imitation and influence may proceed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Murray looks at the impact of the crusades on a neglected aspect of Western European consciousness: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national sentiment. The first crusade was a truly pan-European enterprise with numerous mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomprehensible languages being spoken by the different contingents. Murray argues that language was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both less and more important as a signifier of identity than it is now. Allegiance was the primary indicator, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all to a king, and it was this which marked one out as French, German or whatever. Within those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms a multiplicity of languages was spoken \(p. 111\). On the other hand, most of the rank and file on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusade would never have heard any other language apart from their local dialect \(and the Latin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church services presumably\). Even among those broadly termed ?Franks? there must have been endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication problems and they would not have had access to any lingua franca to overcome the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty. Murray assesses whether this was a factor in the numerous conflicts that arose among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders. He points out that the frequent stand-offs between Raymond of Toulouse and the other leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not be unconnected with the Provenal language spoken by his followers which would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomprehensible to the other Franks \(p.118\). The article ends with a brief survey of ?national? histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusades compiled in the later Middle Ages, which sought to play up the role of a particular ethnic group.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three articles, those of Natasha Hodgson, Chris Wright and Lan N Chlirigh, examine the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades on the Christian neighbours of Frankish Outre-Mer, the Byzantines and the Cilician Armenians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natasha Hodgson looks at diplomatic marriages between Armenians and Latins, providing detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples and analysis. Both sides were well aware of their cultural differences and would even exploit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Baldwin II of Jerusalem married Morfia, daughter of Gabriel of Melitene, an Orthodox Armenian, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received 50,000 gold bezants as the dowry. He was, however, to extort even more. He publically announced )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.3597 766.8775 400.3517 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.2997 567.2935 268.2917 579.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was so ashamed that he could not pay his debts that he would shave his beard off. His father-in-law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was horrified because for Armenians the loss of the beard was the worst possible dishonour and would bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame on the family. Gabriel duly paid up \(p. 89\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A broad ranging contribution by Chris Wright surveys Byzantine interaction with the Crusades from 1095 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Wright recounts how the Crusades and the ambivalent Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response helped to marginalise the empire on the international stage during the 12th century. In an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting departure he then turns to consider how the Crusades impacted on the Byzantines? perception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own empire and its role \(p. 68ff\). In striking contrast to the claim of Donald M. Nicol that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantines became more anti-Latin and xenophobic as their empire shrank )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.608 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.608 669.027 m 410.600 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.600 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Wright lays emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how in the later Middle Ages, educated Byzantines ceased to refer to western Europeans as barbarians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even came to question the unique status of their own state. He sees the Crusades as having played a role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gradual shift whereby the literati of the 14th and 15th centuries came to see themselves as heirs not of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome but of ancient Greece and to refer to themselves as ?Hellenes? rather than ?Romans?. These were, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, minority views among a certain intellectual coterie but they have seldom been considered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Byzantine relations with the crusades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lan N Chlirigh looks at the issue from the other direction, examining how the crusades changed western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of Byzantium through the accounts of the First Crusade written by Guibert of Nogent and Fulcher of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartres. While both accounts are heavily indebted to the anonymous )] TJ ET BT 370.964 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Francorum)] TJ ET BT 456.620 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for their account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, both depart from it in their attitude to the Byzantines and their emperor, Alexios I Komnenos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guibert takes a decidedly more hostile line, introducing elements of criticism not found in the )] TJ ET BT 487.304 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta)] TJ ET BT 515.300 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter generally restricts its attacks to the emperor alone, Guibert fulminates against all ?Greeks? taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classical line that their effete and idle character was influenced by climate. He also introduces an element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is entirely lacking in his source, the religious errors of the Byzantines. Presumably, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement that ?Guibert attacked the Eastern Church for its use of the )] TJ ET BT 367.952 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Filioque)] TJ ET BT 408.620 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clause in the Creed? \(p. 167\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a slip. The Byzantines never used the Filioque which only appeared in the Latin version of the Creed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fulcher, by contrast, avoids almost any criticism of Alexios and the Byzantines. Chlirigh suggest that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may reflect the experience of the contingent to which he was attached during the crusade but also an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adherence to the policy of Urban II who hoped that the expedition would bring about a reunion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churches of East and West \(p. 180\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in a volume devoted to cultural histories, it is not possible to escape warfare altogether. John France?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution synthesises much work that he has published elsewhere but presented in this compact form it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a fresh look at warfare in the Mediterranean region in the Crusades era. Western and Turkish military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics are compared and contrasted and related to the societies in which they evolved. By contrast, Yvonne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman focuses on the considerable periods of peace that punctuated this era of holy war with 120 Muslim-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusader treaties mentioned in the sources. Both Christianity and Islam, after all, lay great stress on peace. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman examines the mechanics of peace making from choice of envoys to prisoner exchange to agreeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a set of gestures and symbols. As regards the latter, the overcoming of cultural differences was one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first steps. At the battle of Ascalon in 1099, the defeated Egyptians gave their standard gesture of surrender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by throwing themselves flat on the ground. The crusaders proceeded to kill them, presumably not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognising their intention. By 1150, however, as a new gesture had evolved that was recognised by both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides: laying down weapons and clasping the hands together, first on one side of the body and then on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other \(p. 242\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yehoshua Frenkel looks at the Muslim response to the arrival of the Franks in Palestine in 1099. He plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the popular idea of a united Muslim population engaged in constant )] TJ ET BT 391.316 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jihad)] TJ ET BT 415.988 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to expel the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intruders in favour of an approach that takes into account the complexity of local conditions. He traces how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jihadist response to the crusades developed during the first half of the twelfth century but also pays attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the frequent truces between crusaders and Muslim rulers. He argues that the conflict should not be seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endless jihad but as a political rivalry for hegemony in the region with the Franks not as invaders but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitors \(p. 42\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.6077 669.3415 410.5997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3787 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many volumes of collected essays can be something of a mixed bag with no linking theme. Not so this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether thanks to the hard work of the editor or the co-operation of the authors \(or both\), the articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented here complement each other very well and all contribute to the overall theme. A helpful afterward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Bernard Hamilton pulls their main points together, highlighting the similarities and contrasts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches of the authors. So while this book will be of interest to researchers in the field, it will also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful for teaching the crusades especially to those teachers who wish to go beyond the stereotyped ?clash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures? and explore complexity and diversity in the ways that human societies interact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284-813)] TJ ET BT 501.668 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyril Mango and Roger Scott \(Oxford, 1997\), pp. 464-5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.656 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.656 617.763 m 390.644 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Meyendorff, 'Byzantine views of Islam', )] TJ ET BT 285.632 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dumbarton Oaks Papers)] TJ ET BT 405.620 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 \(1964\), 113-32, 122.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.608 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.608 603.507 m 553.268 603.507 l S BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 589.251 m 90.344 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald M. Nicol, ?The Byzantine view of western Europe?, )] TJ ET BT 355.952 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies)] TJ ET BT 534.260 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1967\), 315-39, 330 and reprinted in D.M. Nicol, )] TJ ET BT 302.984 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium: its Ecclesiastical History and Relations )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(with the Western World)] TJ ET BT 177.680 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1972\), No. I.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.664 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.664 546.483 m 343.652 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having read the review, the editor has no further comment, finding it very insightful and, indeed, generous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 476.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 458.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 458.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1034)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 457.209 m 328.316 457.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5286)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6557 618.0775 390.6437 629.9575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.6077 603.8215 553.2677 615.7015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 589.5655 90.3437 601.4455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.6637 546.7975 343.6517 558.6775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 457.5235 328.3157 469.4035 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1034) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000005031 00000 n 0000005141 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009023 00000 n 0000009114 00000 n 0000017086 00000 n 0000017116 00000 n 0000017244 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017310 00000 n 0000017438 00000 n 0000017474 00000 n 0000017558 00000 n 0000025287 00000 n 0000025317 00000 n 0000025445 00000 n 0000025481 00000 n 0000025593 00000 n 0000029433 00000 n 0000029561 00000 n 0000029616 00000 n 0000029744 00000 n 0000029799 00000 n 0000029925 00000 n 0000029980 00000 n 0000030108 00000 n 0000030163 00000 n 0000030291 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30387 %%EOF