%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150228234022+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150228234022+00'00') /Title (Fascism and Anti-Fascism Between the Wars) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2934 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fascism and Anti-Fascism Between the Wars)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two decades ago, it was possible for historians of fascism in Britain to remark that the literature of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject was unnecessarily limited. Up to that point, writers had accepted two self-imposed restrictions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1035)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Worley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230206977)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Copsey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrzej Olechnowicz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230006485)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Renton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7523 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were no longer capable of justification. First, historians had kept their research to the inter-war period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglecting almost entirely such post-war organisations as the National Front \(NF\) and the British National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party \(BNP\). Second, the careful studies of the ideas, organisation and activities of Oswald Mosley?s British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union of Fascists \(BUF\) had been almost entirely unmatched by any comparable interest in those who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigned against the BUF. The lack of attention paid to anti-fascists was especially striking. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly arguable that anti-fascists had been instrumental in Mosley?s defeat, and \(whether that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted or not\) it was clear that they had been as well organised, as politically diverse, and more numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than, Mosley?s followers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the intervening 20 years, that picture has changed. We now have a few valuable monographs studying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted fascist revivals of 1945?51 and 1974?9 \(although nothing of detail yet on the also important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of 1958?62\). There are also political and sociological studies of the BNP in the last ten years. Of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical works, the most impressive is Graham Macklin?s )] TJ ET BT 321.656 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Very Deeply Dyed in Black)] TJ ET BT 452.276 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosley and his followers. Macklin?s book is complemented by David Baker?s )] TJ ET BT 415.304 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology of Obsession)] TJ ET BT 521.960 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at A. K. Chesterton, a more direct influence than Mosley on Britain?s present-day far right.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.604 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.604 597.747 m 525.596 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There have also been at least three major works focussing on anti-fascism: Nigel Copsey?s syncretic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-fascism in Britain between c1920 and c1990, my own studies of anti-fascism in 1945-51 and 1974-9, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and now an important new collection edited by Copsey and Olechnowicz, to which I will return.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.280 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.280 542.979 m 510.272 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before focussing on )] TJ ET BT 133.664 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Anti-Fascism)] TJ ET BT 256.328 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I want to say something about Matthew Worley?s history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New Party, the interim organisation established by Mosley after leaving Labour and before founding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BUF. Worley?s work takes the story of British fascism earlier than was previously considered possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulties might be listed at the outset. This is for general readers the best known period of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist history, having been at the heart of Channel Four?s 1998 mini-series )] TJ ET BT 399.632 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mosley. )] TJ ET BT 440.288 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also the part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story which is most likely to find its ways into textbook histories of Britain. It has, as major and minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players, a number of vivid albeit over-familiar characters, including John Strachey, Harold Nicholson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winston Churchill and George Bernard Shaw. The New Party left almost no documents, making the task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially difficult for the careful historian determined to say something new, while Mosley?s own papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were only recently deposited after systematic weeding had removed anything shedding light on this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, any writer has to avoid the subterfuges played by Mosley?s two memoirs, his autobiography, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the account published by an amanuensis in 1975.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worley solves the over-familiarity of his subject by taking a collective biographical approach, placing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Party not merely at a point in Mosley?s life, but also in the context of the development of his chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lieutenants. These range from the well-known \(Strachey\) to the obscure \(Arthur Reade, previously best-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as a figure of some exotic importance in the micro-history of the left\). Worley eschews a narrative for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thematic approach, focussing on the ideology, the organisation, and the strategies for alliances adopted at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different times by the New Party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are three original points in particular worth taking from Worley?s book. First, that the New Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly employed in its political language a distinctively ?masculine? rhetoric, in which opponents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed repeatedly as old ladies, crones, or hag-ridden. This misogyny was neither accidental nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional, but a key part of the way in which the party attempted to set itself apart from its rivals. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation reminds us that British fascism was not merely an exaggeratedly racist party but the organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of a consistently inegalitarian approach to life. \(I would also say in passing that contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral fascism, a party of retired policemen and working security guards, deserves a similarly gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, Worley brings out in new detail the key part played in the persuasion of Mosley towards fascism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a small number of young, male ?hearties?, privileged and sporting, without any previous political baggage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trained in anti-socialism by the certainties of wealth and class. The BUF, it has previously been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed, was the organised successor not so much of the New Party but specifically of its youth wing. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.6037 598.0615 525.5957 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.2797 543.2935 510.2717 555.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worley names and sets out the history of the youths involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, Worley shows the part played in the New Party as by individuals who went on to play proud roles on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British left, not just Strachey, but also John Cornford and Esmond Romilly, both of whom went on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteer for the Republic during the Civil War in Spain. They were serious converts into and subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from what might be termed ?Oswald Mosley thought?. I doubt that the part played by guilt in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent biographies has been properly explored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before turning to Copsey and Olechnowicz?s book, various declarations of interest have to be made: first, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the network of British historians of fascism is not wide. I have been published myself by Copsey and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olechnowicz?s publisher Palgrave, including in a 2005 collection of essays )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.960 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.960 657.027 m 412.952 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.952 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which I jointly-edited with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copsey, himself. Yet I feel that I am entitled to write critically about their latest work, not least because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors of the collection use my own studies of anti-fascism in places as a negative reference point, to set out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly how their work is distinguished from previous accounts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The purpose of )] TJ ET BT 109.664 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Anti-Fascism)] TJ ET BT 232.328 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is set out with admirable clarity by its title; ?varieties? because, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is said, previous writers have tended to reduce anti-fascism to a narrative of street confrontations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascists. But, the editors argue, anti-fascism as a concept must be broad enough to take in practices such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opposition of Liberals and Conservatives \(alongside Labourites and Communists\), cultural anti-fascism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and above all the whole story of Winston Churchill?s wartime government which in practice marginalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British fascism utterly by employing the cultural and repressive organs of the state, rather than through street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of this contrast of approach, between Copsey and Olechnowicz on the one hand, and previous authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other, is illustrated by their critique of the metaphors historians have used. The contributors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of my own definitional emphasis on anti-fascism as ?activity?, and are not quite satisfied even by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copsey own previous distinction between ?active? and ?passive? anti-fascisms. \(I personally would accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copsey?s distinction as helpful, perhaps combining it with a further distinction between institutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular anti-fascist strategies\) They settle on a practical consensus that anti-fascism has been various and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the advantages of the editors? inclusive approach is that it enables them to publish as studies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of anti-fascism accounts of institutions and organisations that have not previously been analysed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this way. For example, Janet Dack?s chapter on the attitude of the national press towards Mosley argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bulk of the newspapers were for the majority of the 1930s hostile to the BUF, and that this antagonism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a major factor limiting the fascists? support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still more ambitious, although not entirely successful, is Tom Lawson?s account of Christian opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism in the inter-war years. Watson argues that Church anti-fascism would have been unlikely to take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militant form and is therefore closed to historians who are interested only in street demonstrations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty with Lawson?s chapter, frustratingly, is its narrow evidential base, which is essentially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpart in the national Christian press of Dack?s study. It neglects Mosley?s own attempts to reinvent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, especially in the Roman Catholic newspapers, either \(in 1936?8\) as Franco?s British counterpart, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in \(1939\) as the country?s sole true pacifist. More importantly, I can?t help but feel that a still more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting approach to the same issue would have been to take a committed anti-fascist church \(for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conrad Noel?s at Thaxted\) and to have asked how an anti-fascist message was adopted into distinctively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian forms \(sermons, prayers, the iconography of banners, etc\). I have no doubt that this was done. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do I doubt that it was real and effective anti-fascism, even without a street demonstration in sight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The limits of Copsey and Olechnowicz?s collection are best illustrated by its ?outrider? chapter \(my term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not theirs\), by Julia Stapleton on the Catholic novelist G. K. Chesterton and the patriotic historian Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryant. Stapleton gave herself or was given the title ?the limits of pro-fascism and anti-fascism?, but if her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose was to show that the difference between the two terms was mere shades of grey, her examples are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly chosen. Both figures wrote copiously about fascism, and in both cases the majority of their copy was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9597 657.3415 412.9517 669.2215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive. At the cost of simplification, we may say that Chesterton took the view that Mussolini was on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance an unlikeable ruler of Italy, but that he should be defended from his opponents, who \(being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks\) were worse. Mosley also was undesirable, for the reason that he was insufficiently anti-Semitic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for Bryant, he was not merely a popular journalist but also a leader of Kinship in Husbandry, a modest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(player in what Stapleton rightly terms the wartime ?fascist fringe?. In a historical context other than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of the 1930s and 1940s, Bryant might well have found more quickly his ultimate intellectual resting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, which was a nostalgic hostility to both capitalism and communism. Such politics is of course distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from fascism?s reactionary ultra-modernism. In her final sentence, Stapleton defines the anti-fascism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two figures as having expressed itself in ?doubts? about fascism. It is not mere pedantry to say that if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-fascism is to mean anything it must surely mean more than an occasional doubt \(generally expressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private\) about the historical brilliance of Mosley, Mussolini and Hitler, by writers who spent far more time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifying fascism before the public than they did opposing it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, any reader will find much in this collection to enjoy, from Philip Williamson?s spirited \(if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implausible\) defence of the Conservative Party?s record as inter-war Britain?s most successful and sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-fascist force; to Gottlieb?s careful dissection of the differing parts played by different feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns \(the most militant, she shows, were often the most coherently pacifist and the most sustainedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to Versailles, and were not the best equipped to deal with the rise of Hitler\) and Olechnowicz?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to show that there were in Britain in Laski and A. D. Lindsay anti-fascist theorists of an equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calibre to such Continental names as Gramsci, Thalheimer and Trotsky \(in truth, Laski and Lindsay were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists of a minor rank; but it is still for the good that they have been noticed\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books have pushed back the historical boundary. Yet I suspect that it is )] TJ ET BT 404.312 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Anti-Fascism )] TJ ET BT 529.976 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than )] TJ ET BT 57.680 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oswald Mosley and the New Party )] TJ ET BT 227.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will be read most in future years. For having been eclipsed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s and 1970s by other British fascists, including G. K. Chesterton?s nephew A. K. \(the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chairman of the National Front\) Oswald Mosley?s tradition began to wither and die. The British fascists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present, and therefore of the future, have different heroes, plebeian rather than aristocratic. They owe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to Mosley?s world. Non-Mosley fascism is a force in present day British politics, as \(inevitably\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to such fascism. While I do criticise some of the positions taken by the authors of )] TJ ET BT 481.316 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Fascism)] TJ ET BT 98.012 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I do not criticise for a second the purpose of their book, which is to open up to scrutiny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical anti-fascism in all its various forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There will be more histories of anti-fascism in future. For the historians who write them, )] TJ ET BT 462.296 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fascism )] TJ ET BT 77.012 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be an important reference point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Macklin, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fascism After 1945)] TJ ET BT 158.012 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\); David Baker, )] TJ ET BT 309.656 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology of Obsession: A. K. Chesterton and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Fascism)] TJ ET BT 139.688 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.012 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.012 237.363 m 275.000 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Copsey, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Fascism in Britain)] TJ ET BT 249.020 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\); David Renton, )] TJ ET BT 406.676 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fascism, Anti-Fascism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the 1940s)] TJ ET BT 159.692 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.016 208.851 m 295.004 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Fascism, the Labour Movement and the State)] TJ ET BT 317.336 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Nigel Copsey and David Renton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 180.339 m 217.664 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 136.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 118.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 118.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1035)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 117.321 m 328.316 117.321 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.0117 237.6775 274.9997 249.5575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.0157 209.1655 295.0037 221.0455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6757 180.6535 217.6637 192.5335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 117.6355 328.3157 129.5155 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1035) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 397 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5290)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5291)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000003619 00000 n 0000003728 00000 n 0000003838 00000 n 0000003947 00000 n 0000007508 00000 n 0000007636 00000 n 0000007720 00000 n 0000007811 00000 n 0000015387 00000 n 0000015417 00000 n 0000015545 00000 n 0000015581 00000 n 0000015611 00000 n 0000015739 00000 n 0000015775 00000 n 0000015859 00000 n 0000023019 00000 n 0000023049 00000 n 0000023177 00000 n 0000023213 00000 n 0000023318 00000 n 0000030612 00000 n 0000030740 00000 n 0000030795 00000 n 0000030923 00000 n 0000030978 00000 n 0000031106 00000 n 0000031161 00000 n 0000031289 00000 n 0000031385 00000 n 0000031450 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31899 %%EOF