%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150630162536+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150630162536+01'00') /Title (Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland in the Twentieth Century: What Difference did the Vote Make?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland in the Twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century: What Difference did the Vote Make?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esther Breitenbach and Pat Thane?s edited collection, )] TJ ET BT 295.964 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 123.020 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a timely and very useful addition to the historiography. In 13 carefully-crafted chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by eminent scholars from the fields of modern history and political science, this volume traces the struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced by women for enfranchisement, how women?s position in public life has improved, and how this has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted on women?s citizenship. The publication of this work is the culmination of many years research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discussion funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. Many of the authors have already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made significant contributions to the historiography concerning women and the vote, or women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in British politics more generally. Thane has already written extensively on the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s enfranchisement, and amongst many of her publications is her article ?What difference did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote make? Women in public and private life in Britain since 1918? ? the topic of her inaugural lecture at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Historical Research, and later published in the Institute?s journal, )] TJ ET BT 406.304 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 502.628 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.628 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.628 107.985 m 519.620 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 519.620 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume takes these findings further, and explores the inextricable link between citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchisement for women in 20th-century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contribution of this volume to the study of women will undoubtedly be significant for many reasons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1037)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Thane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esther Breitenbach)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780826437495)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Crowley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6277 108.2995 519.6197 120.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7805 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although its biggest strengths lie in how it manages to fill two significant gaps in the historiography. Firstly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it debunks many previous assumptions about women?s lack of interest in politics post-1960 by showing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women actually became more involved, and more vociferous in their campaigns for equality after this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Secondly, it challenges the previously widely-held assumption of a decline in interest in the feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and women?s activism post-1980, showing that in fact, the feminist movement did not decline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in some areas strengthened, even though the premiership of Mrs. Thatcher did little to enhance \(and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases arrested\) the development of women?s rights and status in public life. Whilst the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women and the vote is not barren, with the numerous works of June Purvis on the Pankhursts, and Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pugh?s studies of the Women?s Movement being two notable examples, this volume breaks new ground in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of women and political participation. Although some of the issues raised in this volume have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been examined in the historiography, the authors carefully avoid the two overarching extremes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often emerge in previous analyses of women?s status in British history and society - namely the pessimistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments of those such as Harold L. Smith \(especially in his studies of pay and the political participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women\), or what could be argued as the overly-optimistic assessments of those such as Arthur Marwick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who boldly argued that women were ?emancipated? in the post-Second World War period. Instead, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to offer an assessment that lies in the middle-ground, with most concluding that women?s status has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily improved since 1900 and that this improvement was continuous \(although, as Mary E. Daly argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it now seems to have stagnated in Ireland\), yet securing equality in fact and principle has remained elusive in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thane?s chapter clearly shows that women have always played a part in British politics in the 20th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although their influence in the early stages were confined to the richer, aristocratic women ? a position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened by the refusal of successive governments at the turn of the 20th century to grant universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage for women. Nevertheless, she shows that women?s groups were active, despite their fluctuating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership in the early years of the century, with the Conservative Primrose League and the Women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour League being influential. Women were even involved in issues such as the improvement in family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and property law, and seeking better education opportunities for all. Many issues were mixed-sex issues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although women?s involvement was clear from the outset. Furthermore, she challenges the long-held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that women favoured the Conservative party in their voting behaviour, citing the election results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the inter-war years as an indication of women favouring the Labour and Liberal parties. Additionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thane argues that the male-dominated House of Commons valued the contribution of its female members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite their low numbers, although as we know from contemporary works by female MPs such as Ellen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkinson and Eleanor Rathbone, securing the respect of male members proved difficult for women in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male-dominated House. Women?s role and influence in both party and non-party politics increased, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of women?s groups during the 1930s and beyond attests to their greater contribution, and if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing else, greater participation in public life. Although the achievements of women?s groups were greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhibited by the effects of the two world wars, it is clear, especially during the Second World War, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing strength and importance of women acted as a means to force government to improve women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in Britain?s social, political and public life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most impressive chapters in this book is Lowri Newman?s analysis of Labour Women?s Sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in South Wales in the interwar years. The paucity of the historiography on this period, and the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh women?s history only became a matter for scholarly debate from the mid-1980s, a debate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified after the publication of Deirdre Beddoe?s )] TJ ET BT 289.628 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of the Shadows )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.300 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.300 186.579 m 400.292 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.292 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( showed that the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Welsh women was probably the least-developed of all the British nations. However, Newman gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majestic account of the Labour Party women?s group, and how women played a significant part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving not only the lives of fellow women, but also men. It shows how women became an important part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the larger Labour Party framework on a local level, navigating through the dominant patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values, and ensuring that they balanced work and family commitments in the performance of their duties. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although some elements of their contribution were still clearly influenced by gender \(such as the expectation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women to organise refreshments at political meetings\) their contribution, and possibly most significantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realisation of the male members that whilst some issues needed to be fought on gender lines, many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues could be fought more effectively if women were accepted and encouraged into the political process. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.2997 186.8935 400.2917 198.7735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newman stresses that the role of women on a local level was highly influential, and although she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer to the contribution of women to the unemployment clubs in the South Wales valleys established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the unemployment created by the 1926 General Strike \(which began with the work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Quaker, Emma Noble and her husband William, later supported by local Labour groups, and largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained by many valleys women\), she elucidates many of the issues hitherto only touched upon by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handful of historians, of which Dot Jones and Neil Evans are the most prominent, and offers new evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this period that will undoubtedly prove fruitful in furthering the debate about the importance of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this area of Welsh \(and indeed British\) public life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catriona Burness?s chapter on women in Scottish politics reveals that the biggest challenge for the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to get more women involved in politics, although the concerted efforts of the nationalists and the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party ensured that despite Scotland?s traditionally low return of female MPs to Westminster, women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in politics could be maintained. Indeed, women?s platform proved to be the political rallies, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were specifically asked to speak in order to attract larger crowds, although those who made it into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political arena struggled to balance their family commitments with their professional role. Burness cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the election of mother-of-five Jean Mann at the age of 56 as an example typifying the belief that women with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young children would struggle to perform effectively as public figures if they needed to contend with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses and strains of raising a young family. Many of the themes identified by Burness are elucidated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breitenbach?s chapter on Scottish Women?s Organisations, which highlights their importance and role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish society, the difficulties they encountered, but most importantly the fact that feminist politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained an issue throughout the interwar years and beyond. This has recently been argued by Valerie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright in her unpublished PhD thesis on the women?s movement in Scotland in the inter-war years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breitenbach contributes to this debate by showing that women were active in several spheres of Scottish life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in politics, religious and philanthropic groups. The inextricable link between the aforementioned spheres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and citizenship is demonstrated by Breitenbach, who argues that women?s desire to improve their position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish society emanated from their will to take positive action through the formation of women?s societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or working within the prevailing male-dominated framework to facilitate change. This chapter, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its analysis of women in Scottish local government, draws heavily on primary sources owing to the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous historical analysis of this facet of Scottish political life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary E. Daly offers a more sobering assessment of women in Irish politics, highlighting the fact that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have, and continue to be, underrepresented in national politics. Furthermore, she suggests that this shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little sign of changing, especially in the near future, when general election results have continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return few female candidates. Despite their low representation, this cannot be correlated with the previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived notion that women were not interested in politics. Indeed, the history of the Irish women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and feminism had long roots, going back to the latter half of the 19th century. Daly argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politicisation of Ireland in this period was burgeoned by Ireland?s membership of the United Kingdom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with the arrival in politics of the widows of war veterans, who were returned to Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unopposed. The advent of second wave feminism in the 1970s increased women?s presence in Irish politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Daly argues that its impact was inhibited by the fact that the major parties, namely Fianna Fail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fine Gael, had a limited understanding of feminism and the feminist movement. Daly claims that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underrepresentation of women was attributable to the presence of these two main political parties with very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few ideological differences, and a proportional representation electoral system representing multi-seat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies. Although evidence has suggested that proportional representation favours women, this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normally only true for the list system \(as seen in the Welsh Assembly\) in which more women are selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for office. Despite these difficulties, it would appear that these problems provided a vacuum within which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong and active women?s movement could develop in Ireland. This is analysed in more detail by Lindsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earner-Byrne, who describes how religion provided a platform for women to gather support in Ireland, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist activists calling for unity among Irish women in response to the moral threats created by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the 1918 Representation of the People Act. Through the development of suffrage groups, Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women lobbied effectively for change, and raised awareness of their issues. Earner-Byrne claims that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of women could not purely be measured by votes, and that their presence and activism on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary level was a good measure of women?s political consciousness and impact on wider society. She )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that despite the complexity of the Irish women?s movement, and the desire of historians to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in an international context, the Irish women?s movement can be regarded as a unifying force, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though different groups campaigned on different issues. This chapter complements Daly?s work, showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that although women?s political representation in Parliament has been low, this does not overshadow their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness and importance on a local and voluntary level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myrtle Hill and Margaret Ward highlight the complexities faced by Northern Ireland women in their struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the vote and for political recognition. The problems brought about by religious divides and tensions are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlined in detail, demonstrating that these, in addition to the prevailing dominance of men in Northern Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics were another complicating factor affecting the ability of women?s voices being heard. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between Northern Ireland and the central government in London has continued to arrest not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the position of women in Northern Irish public life, but also the development of the region itself. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within this context that women have had to operate in Northern Ireland ? a difficult and restricting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework that suggests women?s position in public life will develop at a slower pace than in other nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the United Kingdom. Although this is somewhat pessimistic, it is possible to see why Hill and Ward come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this conclusion. Even in post-devolution Northern Ireland, where the Labour government gave the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more autonomy over their political administration, the Northern Ireland Assembly has experienced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled existence, and while it appears to be functioning better now, the problems of religious and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences always mean that its foundations are not as solid as the devolved institutions in Scotland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales. One could argue that women?s position in Northern Irish public life could not be fully addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the religious and political divides of Northern Ireland are fully resolved, which will undoubtedly take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some considerable time, especially owing to the slow pace and progress of the various peace proposals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered by successive governments to the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosie Campbell and Sarah Childs demonstrate how significant attitudinal changes within the major political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties have influenced the participation and growth of women at the elite level of British politics. Citing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image problems of the Conservative Party in the pre-Cameron era, they show how Cameron, after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election as party leader, actively sought to attract more women into the party, and indeed promoted many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Conservative women MPs to senior positions. Nevertheless, this, as the authors show, was not a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, especially since Tony Blair, upon taking office in 1997, included a high number of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his first Cabinet \(who were later termed by the media as the ?Blair Babes?\). Their findings agree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier works by David Denver which show that women?s partisan alignment is significantly less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men?s, and that predicting their voting behaviour at elections is much more difficult. Although Campbell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Childs conclude that women?s position in British political life is still influenced by gendered factors, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clear that their position is improving, and that the once all-inhibiting factor of gender is now becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less marked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later chapters examine the role and development of women in the devolved institutions of Wales and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland. Scholars including David Denver, James Mitchell, Laura McCallister, Richard Wyn Jones, Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scully, Duncan Tanner and Dafydd Trystan have made significant contributions to the study of the devolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, but their references to women, and their increasing status in the devolved assemblies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliaments have frequently been contextualised within the wider studies of voting behaviour, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions? evolving powers, tensions between the centre and the periphery, together with the troubles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition politics. The works in this volume by Esther Breitenbach, Fiona Mackay, Paul Cheney, Nickie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles and Meryl Kenny offer a detailed analysis of women?s position in post-devolution Wales and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland which was hitherto absent in the historiography, and show that women?s participation in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions ensured that their concerns are addressed, and that women?s contribution to the debate and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy agenda is significant. Brian Harrison?s seminal article on the contribution of female Members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament from 1919?45 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.668 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.668 117.555 m 173.660 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 173.660 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that women, primarily owing to their lower numbers but also, arguably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of their lower status in society, had their contribution to the policy agenda inhibited in this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The much more visible and vocal contribution of women in the political arena today could reflect not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an improvement in their social status, but an increased confidence and belief in their ability to effect change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contribute to public life. Although these changes, and the increased participation of women, especially )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.6677 117.8695 173.6597 129.7495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Wales \(as Paul Cheney shows\) came as a result of significant disagreement and a struggle for public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance, the Welsh Assembly is now one of the most representative institutions in the Western world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to the percentage of female members. This, in itself, could be regarded as a triumph for modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy and the position of women within it. However, as Breitenbach and Mackay identify, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of multi-level governance in the UK has also brought about its problems for female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation, much of which has been complicated by the absence of a clear definition and ideology of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-existing feminist groups of their aims and objectives. Whilst Cheney shows that this has not been such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem in Wales, it would appear that these tensions exist in Scotland, which explains why the path of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to power there has not been so easy. Nevertheless, as Mackay and Kenny show[where? Isn?t a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference needed? Or does he mean Mackay and Breitenbach?], the significant numbers of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish politics today could be considered as an achievement of devolution, although the foundations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these achievements remain shaky. It is difficult to ascertain whether this was coincidental or intended. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most influential figures in pushing the devolution debate, the late Labour leader John Smith, was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit about his vision of the position of women in a devolved Scotland, and Mark Stuart?s highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaimed biography of Smith does not shed any further light on this issue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.656 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.656 595.491 m 407.648 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.648 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While current research does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not reveal whether it was clearly the intention of devolution to improve the representation of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish public life, the important fact, as Mackay and Kenny show is that the situation for women is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving in Scotland, although it is unclear whether this improvement could be sustained. The story is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat different for Wales, as Cheney shows. The women?s movement in Wales was much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed \(as demonstrated in Newman?s earlier chapter\) which gives the impression that the improvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in women?s status in Wales acts as a stark contrast to other devolved nations. However, as Cheney notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the factors affecting this included the presence of the proportional representation system. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, as Richard Wyn Jones and Roger Scully have previously argued, voters turned away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour in the 1999 Assembly elections and switched allegiances to Plaid Cymru, who had many women on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their regional and constituency lists, thus boosting female representation. In 2003, when many voters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to Labour, they too now saw the benefits and advantages of promoting more female candidates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though this proposal \(which infamously became known as ?twinning?\) remains highly controversial in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some quarters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.000 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.000 410.163 m 117.992 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nickie Charles writes persuasively about the policy divergence in Wales concerning domestic violence. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how the debate pertaining to domestic violence in Wales has now been moved to gender-neutral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory, which has had both positive and negative effects. It has opened the door for men who have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abused by their wives to obtain help through refuge groups, but conversely, this has reduced the provision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women ? the people who have traditionally suffered from this abuse. She shows how the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly have differed in their interpretation of domestic violence, and how this has changed the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which this phenomenon has been treated in Wales. Furthermore, she highlights that the first refuge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was not established in Wales until 1975, which indicates the struggle faced by women for public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of their ill-treatment. While there have been improvements for women in this area, it is still clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that much work remains to be done to ensure that women can be protected, even though many in the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly, especially Jane Hutt AM, have done considerable work in this area to facilitate greater resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and protection for women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection makes a significant contribution to the historiography, but as Breitenbach and Thane state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their introduction the problems that continue to surround the availability of archival material in this area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that this volume, despite its ambitious aims, cannot provide a definitive account of this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in their discussion of issues concerning equality, the authors deliver a well-balanced approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which deviates from the conclusions offered in most of the prevailing historiography, and their findings will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly provide the basis for further debate and discussion on these issues. The reader will certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand significantly more about the struggle for female suffrage and its consequent impact after reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.539 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6557 595.8055 407.6477 607.6855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 103.9997 410.4775 117.9917 422.3575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 3216 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Thane, ?What difference did the vote make? Women in public and private life in Britain since )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918?, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 195.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Historical Research 76, 192 \(2003\), 268?85.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.296 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.296 780.819 m 468.284 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deirdre Beddoe, )] TJ ET BT 146.324 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of the Shadows: A History of Women in Twentieth-Century Wales)] TJ ET BT 482.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cardiff, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 118.004 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Harrison, ?Women in a men's house: the women M.P.s, 1919?1945?)] TJ ET BT 422.132 739.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 428.132 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 538.136 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29, 3 \(September 1986\), 623?54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.660 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.660 723.795 m 275.648 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Stuart, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Smith: A Life )] TJ ET BT 220.340 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.664 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.664 709.539 m 352.652 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Wyn Jones and Roger Scully, ?Coming home to Labour? The 2003 Welsh Assembly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections?, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regional and Federal Studies)] TJ ET BT 260.996 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2003\),125?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.316 681.027 m 394.304 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 637.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 619.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 619.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1037)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 618.009 m 328.316 618.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 593.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5301)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.2957 781.1335 468.2837 793.0135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 752.6215 118.0037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.6597 724.1095 275.6477 735.9895 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.6637 709.8535 352.6517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3157 681.3415 394.3037 693.2215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 618.3235 328.3157 630.2035 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1037) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000000711 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000005244 00000 n 0000005354 00000 n 0000005463 00000 n 0000009024 00000 n 0000009152 00000 n 0000009236 00000 n 0000009265 00000 n 0000009393 00000 n 0000009429 00000 n 0000009513 00000 n 0000017371 00000 n 0000017401 00000 n 0000017529 00000 n 0000017565 00000 n 0000017630 00000 n 0000025337 00000 n 0000025421 00000 n 0000033070 00000 n 0000033100 00000 n 0000033228 00000 n 0000033264 00000 n 0000033355 00000 n 0000040751 00000 n 0000040781 00000 n 0000040909 00000 n 0000040945 00000 n 0000040975 00000 n 0000041103 00000 n 0000041139 00000 n 0000041258 00000 n 0000044527 00000 n 0000044655 00000 n 0000044710 00000 n 0000044837 00000 n 0000044892 00000 n 0000045020 00000 n 0000045075 00000 n 0000045203 00000 n 0000045258 00000 n 0000045386 00000 n 0000045441 00000 n 0000045569 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45665 %%EOF