%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150630120953+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150630120953+01'00') /Title (King Stephen) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4626 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(King Stephen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of the unhappy reign of Stephen \(1135?54\) is as old as professional history in England, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed the problem of Stephen was one of the early concerns of William Stubbs, the midwife of the Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Schools and founder of the constitutionalist approach to English history. The reign of Stephen makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a substantial section of the first volume of his )] TJ ET BT 270.668 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional History of England )] TJ ET BT 437.360 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1874\) and it was Stubbs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who inspired \(but did not use\) the much-debated term for the civil war, the ?Anarchy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.596 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.596 229.161 m 464.588 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.588 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is no surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then to look back and find that Professor King?s is the 8th monograph dedicated to the reign \(which is not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention two substantial collections of essays on the same subject\). This makes Stephen arguably the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written-about medieval king of England, with the exception of John. Why the interest in such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessful king? The reason lies in the very lack of success. In the constitutional approach to English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval history, Stephen?s reign was a problematical blip between two giants: Henry I \(1100?35\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architect of the Exchequer and justiciarship, and his grandson, Henry II \(1154?89\), the jurist-king, founder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the common law of England. It was incumbent on constitutionalists to explain how it was that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable progress of England towards constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, its chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to world culture, briefly faltered and yet recovered. Later generations of historian found other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons to fixate on the problems of this mild and pious monarch. Historians who embraced the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to medieval history pioneered by Frederic William Maitland at Cambridge were deeply interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the origins of property law and legal writs. Might it not be, some wondered, that the violence of Stephen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1038)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund King)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300112238)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Crouch)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.5957 229.4755 464.5877 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign was not a constitutional crisis triggered by savage, secessionist barons? Might it in fact be the birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pangs of property law, as barons struggled to establish their rights to succeed to estates withheld from them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by capricious kings, and so they made a victim of poor Stephen? This apparent anomaly still draws historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. The recent study by Thomas Bisson on European medieval society devotes a large amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space to Stephen?s reign, attracted by the anomalous violence of the reign, a violence Bisson sees ? like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montesquieu ? as characteristic of a sort of medieval lordship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.624 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.624 723.795 m 346.616 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any historian shouldering the reign of Stephen therefore takes on a crippling burden of historiography as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a large and \(amazingly\) still expanding body of primary sources. Some historians \(such as Bisson\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have their own tale to tell and ignore the context. Others grapple with the problem directly, which does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps always make for readable prose or a strong narrative. Professor King is one who prefers to tell his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale and block his ears to the distracting interference on his frequency from the 19th century. Whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is doing us a favour by that is a moot point and one to which I will return. The only indication that it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious strategy on his part comes as he opens his stall with the brief announcement that, ?this book is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of King Stephen not a ?life and times?? \(p. xi\). Since in fact he has a great deal to tell us about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in which Stephen lived, I must assume that Professor King?s gnomic utterance is intended to account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the lack of much reference in his book to the massive and deeply-rooted historiography on what precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went wrong with Stephen?s rule of England. He would thus appear to have cleared his decks to present the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative history of the life and lack of achievement of an unfortunate king, yet he cannot escape so easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the past. He must himself present arguments as to why Stephen failed in the royal duty of preserving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peace of his realm and in doing this he must align with one school of thought or other. But at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the book contains no reference whatsoever to an ?Anarchy? of Stephen?s reign or its ?tenurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis? indicates that he believes those historical phantoms have been laid to rest once and for all. For that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic silence I for one am sincerely grateful. It does indeed make for a more readable book on the reign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than most.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor King?s own contribution to the bibliography of the reign has already been considerable. While in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974 the ?tenurial crisis? was still being touted and debated as the dominant theory in studies of the reign, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dared to suggest otherwise in a brief but telling article, which explained the behaviour of the barons in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made familiar by the late medieval school of McFarlane: the barons were looking for ?good lordship? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their king. Disorder was not therefore inevitable and socially determined, it was down to the incompetence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a vacillating monarch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.992 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.992 357.651 m 167.984 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.984 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Then in 1980, in what I believe to be one of the most dazzling displays of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical detection ever published, he laid bare through a rigorous analysis of charters and settlements a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private baronial war between the earls of Chester and Leicester in the 12th century ignored by historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.016 314.883 m 90.008 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.008 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was a precious insight as to what was going on in mid 12th-century England at the local level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it mightily terrified me as a graduate student as to the level of expertise which would be demanded of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me by the academic world.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.6237 724.1095 346.6157 735.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.9917 357.9655 167.9837 369.8455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.0157 315.1975 90.0077 327.0775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7810 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ability to surprise the reader is still much in evidence in this book. Professor King is the first to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything of the fact that the order for the second coronation of King Richard in 1194 apparently employed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an order used for Stephen?s re-coronation at Canterbury at Christmas 1141, thus giving us a credible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of the state liturgy of a solemn crown wearing of the Norman period \(pp. 176?7\). Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King also produces new evidence that the powerful Warenne earldom was already promised to the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger son, William, before the departure of the third Earl William on Crusade in 1146. Before he went, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earl betrothed his only daughter and heir to the king?s son. Since the earl was killed in Cappadocia on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way to Jerusalem, this provision became a major coup for Stephen, making his younger son one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great landowners of England at no expense to him \(pp. 238?9\). This son did not however, become Earl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William IV de Warenne, as Professor King suggests. Stephen?s son took no surname, and the charters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewes priory reveal that it was Earl William son of Earl Hamelin \(died 1240\) who took that ordinal in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own acts. Professor King also makes the curious assumption that the Warennes took their comital title from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Norman village of their surname \(p. 130\). But they enjoyed the English earldom of Surrey from 1088, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title they often used for all that \(like the Giffard earls of Buckingham\) they usually linked their Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surname to their title.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor King?s strength has always been in the close reading of texts he uses. He deploys his knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contemporary authors to great effect, time and again making arresting observations about their individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives and links to events, which adds to the freshness and liveliness of his treatment. Some authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are less well served than others. He passes by the vexed question of the authorship of the )] TJ ET BT 463.268 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Stephani)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, even if it was not written by Bishop Robert of Bath, as R. H. C. Davis maintained, it is a productive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that it derived from his household. The nature of the important Canterbury source that lies behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gervase?s earlier passages is given equivocal treatment. At one point \(p. 304\) it is assumed to be a first hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account. But on p. 43 it is a ?late but local source?. We are diffidently offered one suggested new source, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifesto or newsletter supposedly issued by Stephen?s council to the political community of England in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1135 to justify his assumption of the throne. It is seen as lying behind a later 12th-century Ely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source describing Henry I?s death. Though it is not unlikely that such bulletins were issued \(they may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been a feature of Henry I?s circle\) I would not have thought the suggestion rated more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnote. As it is the novel notion displaces due consideration of the known justification for Stephen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizure of the crown preserved in Pope Innocent II?s 1136 confirmation of Stephen?s kingship, a much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling source \(pp. 48?51\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end this book needs to be assessed as the narrative that the author tells us he intends it to be. If it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography then we must expect it to set forward a compelling reconstruction of the personality of the king. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We have had several earlier Stephens. Famously he was to R. H. C. Davis a weak, treacherous man, whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no one trusted. To J. H. Round, labouring under an unaccustomed fit of charity, Stephen was a good king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and brave soldier at the mercy of events no man could really have mastered. To me, Stephen was a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex person. His successful career at Henry I?s court more than hinted at an accomplished courtier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading on a naturally affable disposition. There is abundant evidence also of a profoundly religious side to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. He embraced the confessional and penitential regime which was very much the fashion at his uncle?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court, even to point of accepting discipline for sins which could not be otherwise expiated. His fault was his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition, which to be fair to him he pursued as much for his family?s as his own sake. But he was not a man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ability to manipulate and rally the political community of his realm. He had no political vision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards which to lead his people. He had little grasp of the geopolitics of his day. He had a fatal weakness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for trusting the judgement of men he found impressive, which is the dark side of the otherwise attractive trait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of personal modesty. His personal bravery, strong affections and doggedness nonetheless ought to command )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some respect for Stephen as a human being, for all that he was not a king for troubled times)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is Edmund King?s Stephen? Due weight is given to the religious Stephen. He observes that the epithet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of most pious \()] TJ ET BT 106.352 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(piissimus)] TJ ET BT 151.028 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was the one most often applied to him by commentators on the reign. In medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms, that was a very positive legacy to leave behind him. But Professor King goes further, along the lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued in his unsatisfactory 1984 study ?The anarchy of Stephen?s reign?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.284 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.284 62.787 m 410.276 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.276 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stephen appears as clergy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridden, and the bishops as a proactive and aggressive group in society, none more so than the king?s younger )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.2837 63.1015 410.2757 74.9815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother, Bishop Henry of Winchester. That Henry was important in orchestrating Stephen?s accession and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advising him in his first 18 months as king seems to me a sustainable view. Bishop Roger of Salisbury?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in those months is also clear. The collapse of their influence thereafter is equally evident. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book ecclesiastical events and personalities dominate the account of 1138?9 \(p. 94ff\). As with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s treatment of the defence of his rights by Bishop Hilary of Chichester later in the reign, there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to take the importance that clerical writers give clerical issues at its face value. But they were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major players of the day. They were auxiliaries not principals, their importance being their occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to irritate the political community by offering it a moral dialectic it did not want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate. The result is to underplay the significance of Stephen?s all-important relations with the lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnates. Absent here entirely is R. H. C. Davis?s considerable contribution to the historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign in his detection of aristocratic interest groups at work, notably that focussed on the flamboyant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressive magnate, Count Waleran II of Meulan, a man so important to the new king that he married him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his daughter Matilda within months of coming to the throne. The fact that Matilda was only two years old at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time raised the eyebrows of the commentator, Orderic Vitalis. To me it seems evident that the Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign of 1137 inaugurated an ascendancy at court of the Meulan group which dominated the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reign till the battle of Lincoln, and I agree with Davis that the ascendancy accounts most satisfactorily for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alienation of the rival group headed by Earl Robert of Gloucester in 1138. Noted but barely commented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on is Waleran?s part in the ruin of Bishop Roger of Salisbury in 1139. Evidence for the personal animus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waleran and Robert of Gloucester is ignored and Waleran?s highly significant departure from England after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln in 1141 is barely noticed. Similarly passed over is the evidence for Stephen?s subsequent reliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an aggressive group of curial officers, the men who incited him to catastrophic and self-destructive feuds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Geoffrey de Mandeville and Ranulf of Chester.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor King has his story to tell, and even the most recent historiography on the reign is ignored if it gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the way of it. Though the ideas mentioned above are very relevant to his professed aim to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Stephen, they are not discussed. The result for anyone who knows the academic background is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore an evasive book, which, if it is not going to intimidate the tender reader by dense references to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impenetrable mass of past publications, is perforce going to portray its view as the only one in the field. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might sadly reflect that there is just too much historiography in the particular case of this much-studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign, and that a return )] TJ ET BT 145.988 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad fontes)] TJ ET BT 189.656 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a valid strategy. But such historiographical Protestantism robs the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of depth and authority. Undergraduate students will value the book less because of its solipsism. The process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history is supposed to be a debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The end result for me is a jejune treatment of Stephen the man, who becomes a cipher: ?nothing? without his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother, Henry of Winchester, relying for his strength on his loyal and enterprising queen. Professor King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credits her curiously as being responsible for Stephen?s signal achievement in collecting around himself a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very capable retinue of household officers and justices some of whom, such as Richard de Lucy, Henry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex and Richard de Canville, were to continue their careers under his successor, Henry II. As Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King himself says \(p. 305\), too much can be made of apparent links between characters. Men close to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king were likely to forge links also with the queen, as in the telling example of the sheriff, Gilbert of Surrey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the previous reign. To sum up Stephen as simply weak is not enough of a conclusion to this biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weak characters are not attractive, but Stephen patently was an attractive man. He had personal courage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dignity and was not without sense. What he lacked was the sort of intellect which understood human systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and could formulate plans, so he relied on those who apparently could. In one of those contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels of which Professor King is so fond: Stephen was an ambitious middle manager promoted beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ability. But to say he was merely ?acting a part? \(p. 339\) is a harsh conclusion on Stephen the king, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all that the author does his best to be fair to Stephen the man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first capitalised use of Anarchy in this context occurs in J. H. Round, ?Danegeld and the finance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Domesday?, in )] TJ ET BT 152.000 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domesday Studies)] TJ ET BT 240.320 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. E. Dove \(2 vols, London, 1888?91\) pp. i, 112.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.636 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.636 64.035 m 551.624 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. N. Bisson, )] TJ ET BT 130.688 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of the Twelfth Century: Power, Lordship, and the Origins of European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.6357 64.3495 551.6237 76.2295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 2483 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 795.075 m 224.324 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. King, ?King Stephen and the Anglo-Norman aristocracy?, )] TJ ET BT 359.624 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 395.624 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 59 \(1974\), 180?94.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.944 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.944 780.819 m 546.932 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. King, ?Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen?s reign?, )] TJ ET BT 370.316 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Huntington Library Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 514.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1980\), 1?10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.336 752.307 m 182.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. King, ?The anarchy of Stephen?s reign,? )] TJ ET BT 275.960 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Royal Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 488.960 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5th series, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34 \(1984\), 133?54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 723.795 m 209.324 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund King does not wish to comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 635.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1038)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 634.521 m 328.316 634.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 609.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5305)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 795.3895 224.3237 807.2695 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.9437 781.1335 546.9317 793.0135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3357 752.6215 182.3237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3357 724.1095 209.3237 735.9895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 634.8355 328.3157 646.7155 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1038) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000522 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000005289 00000 n 0000005398 00000 n 0000005508 00000 n 0000005617 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000009306 00000 n 0000009390 00000 n 0000009419 00000 n 0000009547 00000 n 0000009583 00000 n 0000009681 00000 n 0000015472 00000 n 0000015502 00000 n 0000015630 00000 n 0000015666 00000 n 0000015696 00000 n 0000015824 00000 n 0000015860 00000 n 0000015890 00000 n 0000016016 00000 n 0000016052 00000 n 0000016136 00000 n 0000023999 00000 n 0000024029 00000 n 0000024155 00000 n 0000024191 00000 n 0000024275 00000 n 0000032074 00000 n 0000032200 00000 n 0000032255 00000 n 0000032367 00000 n 0000034903 00000 n 0000035031 00000 n 0000035086 00000 n 0000035214 00000 n 0000035250 00000 n 0000035378 00000 n 0000035433 00000 n 0000035561 00000 n 0000035616 00000 n 0000035744 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35840 %%EOF