%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 34 0 R 60 0 R 86 0 R 133 0 R 203 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418074757+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418074757+01'00') /Title (Combat Resilience in the First World War ? a Historiographical Review) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4361 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Combat Resilience in the First World War ? a Historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The First World War was a terrible experience that most soldiers were shocked by once they became active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants. How were soldiers? able to cope with the grim realities of this war? How were they able to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going in spite of losing close friends and comrades in one battle after another? How were they able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function as a soldier, much less a human being, in conditions that defy explanation? Trench warfare was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien world that sapped a man?s strength and wits with each passing day. In such conditions, how did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers? keep sharp and carry out their duties? These questions, and many others, are the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Watson?s study titled )] TJ ET BT 193.328 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enduring the Great War: Combat, Morale and Collapse in the German and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Armies, 1914-1918)] TJ ET BT 161.684 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. ?The question of what constitutes ?morale?, the common shorthand for military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilience and combat motivation, lies not only at the heart of this book but also at the centre of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on battlefield performance? \(p. 140\). Watson delves into the soldiers? experience in the Great War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and chronicles their story and how they came to ?endure? the war. A central theme Watson continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places in front of the reader is the ?resilience? of the soldier that spanned an interminable period of four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. A soldier had to be resilient in order to ?endure? the Great War. If he did not possess those innate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities, then he would quickly become a casualty or he would be rendered combat-ineffective. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes were detrimental to the war effort. Resilience was a common attribute shared by many soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was intimately connected to morale and endurance. They are all variables that, when taken together, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1039)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Watson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521881012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Berg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8635 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translate into success. But this was no ordinary war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A picture of the living quarters of the soldiers? or of their battlefields would convey more meaning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power than any word known in the English language. A great deal has been inferred from the young soldier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gracing the cover of Paul Fussell?s )] TJ ET BT 204.656 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War and Modern Memory)] TJ ET BT 382.292 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with different individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extracting different meanings and truths. But what pictures could not illuminate were the psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrors and fears that deeply afflicted them. This war was unique. Due to these challenges, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable to see why morale was of great concern. It worried every officer, from Field Marshal Haig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to the platoon subaltern fresh out of Sandhurst. It was considered the main ingredient for success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though how to manufacture morale in wartime in such appalling conditions was less certain. The nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the battlefields and of the trenches themselves was enough to crack the strongest man. Not having control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over your own fate or those of your fellow soldiers was tough to accept. ?The notion of uncontrollability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than discomfort or the objective danger of the trenches, was the primary cause of stress ...? \(p. 34\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knowing that the enemy lurked somewhere in the distance invisible to the naked eye heightened fears. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of intense fears, fatigue, and the knowledge that the war may go on indefinitely, soldiers were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight and fight well. Watson argues that these soldiers were more resilient than previously suggested because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they fought for their homeland, their loved ones, the future, and were confident that they would achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory \(pp. 53, 82?3\). That, in Watson?s opinion, was the crux. Soldiers believed they would ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanquish their opponent and would then be able to return to their former lives \(p. 183\). Belief in a future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s own choosing was a powerful incentive to carry on until that dream was realized.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his most recent article, a continuation of the research undertaken for his book, Alexander Watson and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleague Patrick Porter, of King?s College London, investigate the role of sacrificial ideology and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on combat performance and morale.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.296 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.296 471.699 m 257.288 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.288 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Historians have paid little attention to the subject and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?significance ... remains underestimated?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.968 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.968 457.443 m 248.960 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.960 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Watson and Porter argue that sacrificial ideology was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonplace in the trenches because officers and other ranks had been deeply ingrained since boyhood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the culture and values of Victorian Britain. Personal letters and diaries reveal colorful language indicative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice. Evocative words like ?valour', 'sacrifice', ?honour', and 'just' are examples of ?high diction? used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by soldiers in communicating the discharging of their duties.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.664 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.664 400.419 m 339.656 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.656 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These young men were keenly aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's illustrious past, her place in the world and her Empire. They possessed a profound consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and saw themselves as the guarantors of its preservation. This personal identification with Britain?s heralded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and its relevance to young men in the present was a direct result of youth organizations like the Boy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scouts who placed great emphasis upon patriotism. Sam Pryke explores the pivotal role the Boy Scouts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played in extolling virtue and character into Britain?s youth while kindling an appreciation for Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lauded history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.344 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.344 314.883 m 119.336 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.336 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They were undoubtedly influential in encouraging British youth from every class to join )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and develop a healthy appreciation for the outdoors, adventure, and cultivate a sense of identity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s heroic past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of the success enjoyed by youth organizations like the Boy Scouts, sacrificial ideology ?reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself most clearly and personally? in the letters of soldiers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.312 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.312 245.859 m 331.304 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.304 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If they had not been successful, sacrificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology would be conspicuously absent from these letters and may have adversely affected men?s morale. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some historians, however, argue that the other ranks were not likely to exhibit ?high diction? and in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point they may be partially correct. But they did have a real sense of patriotism and devotion to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homeland and the evidence says as much. ?Such sentiments were by no means as rare among the rank-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(file as is normally assumed; indeed, censorship reports compiled from the letters of tens of thousands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers remarked explicitly on the continued, widespread evidence of idealistic beliefs and sacrificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness among other ranks ...?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.332 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.332 146.067 m 212.324 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.324 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sacrificial ideology is a logical extension of Watson?s earlier work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complements his thesis that morale and sacrificial willingness were inextricably linked to the outcome of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A complementary consideration of morale is worth discussing because morale is multi-dimensional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves a wide-angle lens approach to appreciate its many intricacies. S. P. MacKenzie looks at morale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a different, though complementary, angle from Watson. He draws due attention to the widening gulf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the senior staff and the front-line officer and other ranks as a factor in morale undulating throughout )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.2957 472.0135 257.2877 483.8935 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.9677 457.7575 248.9597 469.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6637 400.7335 339.6557 412.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3437 315.1975 119.3357 327.0775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.3117 246.1735 331.3037 258.0535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.3317 146.3815 212.3237 158.2615 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8911 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.668 795.075 m 86.660 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Critical of their luxurious accommodations far-removed from the battlefield, MacKenzie sees the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper echelons of the British Expeditionary Force?s senior officers as out-of-touch with the conditions at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front. A change of leadership, however, led to some concrete changes that had a positive effect upon morale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the course of the war. Haig was not the creative genius behind these initiatives, but nonetheless was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open-minded to new ideas that could potentially help his men. Recognizing his men had ?undergone almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superhuman exertion ...? and were exhausted and fatigued, Haig was receptive to programs that would help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain his men?s morale.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.340 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.340 709.539 m 171.332 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 171.332 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Morale was important but so was the soldiers? welfare and mental well-being. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education programs that discussed peace and the future were helpful palliatives to the constant stress of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfront. It helped to ?shape soldiers? thinking? and keep them focused and alert rather than absent-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or complacent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.332 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.332 666.771 m 119.324 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.324 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Success was correlated, however, to how amenable such programs were to the company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CO. With his encouragement, men could freely participate knowing they had their CO?s blessing. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting piece of evidence that proves a reliable barometer for men?s uncensored feelings is the testimony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Third Army?s Censor Captain Hardie. After the battle of the Somme, he reported that the men were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally speaking in high spirits and commended their ?unfailing readiness? and ?dogged determination? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep going and fight on.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.004 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.004 595.491 m 170.996 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.996 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Watson?s firmly-held conviction that the soldiers? were men of resilience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance is corroborated by Captain Hardie?s years spent as a Censor for the Third Army.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anticipating the extreme strain war would exact upon a man, prudent measures were taken to support men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field and lift their spirits. Thousands of chaplains were dispatched to the front to stiffen morale and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide comfort and solace. But a directive issued at the beginning of the war kept chaplains from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administering the ailing men at the front. Though the directive was rescinded in 1915, notes MacKenzie, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers? distanced themselves from the chaplains.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.644 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.644 497.955 m 296.636 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.636 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was an opportunity that was squandered; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were in desperate need of the chaplains but were deprived of them in their darkest hour. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they were allowed access, the chaplains brought propaganda rather than spiritual guidance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort. That was what they wanted most. If the chaplains were allowed to console and provide a listening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ear to the soldiers?, morale could have risen exponentially. MacKenzie, aware of the harsh criticism laid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Haig, sought to redress some of the balance by commending Haig?s actions and fast implementation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of educational programs. Contrary to the picture painted by Paul Fussell of Haig as an incompetent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander lacking personality and humor, MacKenzie portrays Haig as a man perceptive enough to see his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were flagging and sought eagerly for a remedy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.948 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.948 383.907 m 304.940 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.940 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Haig was not as aloof from his men or their state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind as Fussell insinuates but acted decisively when apprised of their condition. MacKenzie has made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small contribution in rehabilitating Haig?s memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A soldier?s performance in the field could be dictated by circumstances beyond his control. In a hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, a soldier could encounter various trials at a moment?s notice and would need to draw upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inner reserves? of strength to safely navigate an impasse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.944 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.944 300.627 m 332.936 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.936 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oxford historian Hew Strachan alludes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three general modes of instilling morale in the troops. These methods are the primary group, ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indoctrination, and punishment. They all have their merits, in Strachan?s opinion, but they fail to prepare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men for the realities of war. Training, however, can alleviate a great deal of uncertainty and allow men to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition to a war environment more effectively, secure in the knowledge of past experience. But, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, it mentally prepares the soldier for the unknown variables of war. ?The value of training is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore in large part psychological: it is an enabling process, a form of empowerment, which creates self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.988 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.988 200.835 m 114.980 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simulations have great value in conditioning soldiers? to the sound of live machine gun fire, spontaneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced marches, privation and exposure, night offensives, and the like. This training is invaluable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing soldiers? for service in combat zones. Their lives may very well depend on this training and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to mimic veritable battlefield conditions. There is no substitute, in Strachan?s mind, for strenuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training. The more hardened a man becomes through training, the more likely he will not only be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective soldier but will be confident in his own abilities. Confidence is closely linked with morale. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Training insures that men have the proper skill-sets to not only stay alive but carry out their duty in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional manner. When men go through training regimens, whether basic training or anything else, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come out of that experience better men and are brimming with self-confidence in their own abilities and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.6677 795.3895 86.6597 807.2695 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3397 709.8535 171.3317 721.7335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3317 667.0855 119.3237 678.9655 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.0037 595.8055 170.9957 607.6855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.6437 498.2695 296.6357 510.1495 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.9477 384.2215 304.9397 396.1015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9437 300.9415 332.9357 312.8215 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.9877 201.1495 114.9797 213.0295 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R 78 0 R 81 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 8904 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of their team. Watson and Strachan are well aware that men have their limits and no amount of training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will prepare them for years of grueling fighting. Men have a ?finite stock of courage? according to Strachan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the best way to insure combat-readiness and prevent collapse is to prepare thoroughly in advance for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges ahead.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.652 752.307 m 138.644 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.644 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If the shock of combat can be minimized, morale will not suffer because the men will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be familiar drawing upon their ?inner reserves? to sustain them when their minds? and bodies? are shaken. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without training, men would be unprepared for the cruelty of war and victory would be more costly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Successful generals took advantage of every opportunity to train their men ? even at the front. Strachan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses due attention on Lieutenant-General William Slim and his transformation of the troops under his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command in Burma during the Second World War. Slim?s training regimen turned the tide of the war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia as evidenced in Tarak Barkawi?s research.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.268 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.268 654.771 m 333.260 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.260 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Motivation to keep fighting in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depressing conditions against an enemy that seemed invincible is difficult to explain. Barkawi concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was not loyalty to the Empire or any other national tie or ideology but the )] TJ ET BT 399.992 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(basic training)] TJ ET BT 467.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( inherent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western way of war that built a bond like no other among men of different races and backgrounds. Drill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as a form of rehabilitation for soldiers who had suffered a traumatic trial in the jungle and helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these soldiers to reintegrate into a combat-ready unit. Discipline, precise movements and coordination with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow soldiers were deeply ingrained in the psyche of Indian soldiers. This training regimen, Barkawi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes, made most Indian and colonial soldiers impervious to the Japanese and the legends of their martial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prowess.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A potential threat that could undermine morale and have deleterious effects upon manpower were shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock victims. A revealing article by Edgar Jones, a clinical psychologist and historian, sheds light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of shell shock and how it was treated both at the front and at home.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.288 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.288 485.955 m 409.280 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.280 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Jones concludes that effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment was conducted at the front where medical officers could effectively treat it. Furthermore, treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more therapeutic along the front because medical officers were not disassociated from the traumas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered by these men. They, too, were subject to it and could genuinely understand their plight and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best-situated to treat them. Jones? colleague Simon Wessely, professor of Psychiatry at King?s College, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and Director of the King?s Centre for Military Health Research, concurs with Jones? assessment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rehabilitation conducted near the front probably consisted of ?a couple of days rest, food, clean clothing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sleep?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.332 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.332 386.163 m 107.324 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sending men back to Britain to convalesce was a mistake according to Wessely and Jones. Statistics show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that men who undertook psychiatric care back home were less likely to return to active duty. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, men who underwent treatment along the front, known as ?forward psychiatry?, were more likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return to duty and not suffer to the extent of those who were sent back home.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.280 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.280 317.139 m 423.272 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.272 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether it was their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proximity to the battlefield or the type of treatment they received by medical officers seasoned by war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proficient in its remedy is hard to ascertain but the evidence shows that there is something to be said for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid recovery soldiers experienced when treated at the front. If more treatment centers were available and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Army had been more open to suggestions to treat, rather than ignore, shell shock, soldiers would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt more confident that they would be taken care of rather than ostracized by the establishment. This only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated soldiers who were overcome by conditions they were inadequately prepared for. Wessely disagrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Watson arguing men fight not out of sentimentalism or ideology, but because of their buddies. ?Men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight not because of ideology, but because of their membership in the tight-knit, self-sustaining and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting unit whose creation is the principal ambition of infantry training? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.984 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.984 188.835 m 424.976 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.976 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The ?primary group? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory coupled with training are factors Strachan believes are integral to morale; dismissing the key role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology can play in sustaining morale, however, as Wessely has done is a commitment Strachan is reticent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make. But Wessely makes a candid admission that should give us pause to consider: ?There is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal explanation why men fight, or why they break down in battle?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.964 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.964 131.811 m 402.956 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more comprehensive understanding of the many nuanced shades of morale would be incomplete without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing women?s contribution to morale and the war effort. In a thoughtful article investigating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive role women played in France, Susan Grayzel demonstrates French women fulfilled the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers at home and confidantes and lovers near the front.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.956 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.956 62.787 m 335.948 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.948 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In spite of being a focused consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French troops and French women, Grayzel?s research suggests that ?Women, seen both as a guarantee of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 62 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.6517 752.6215 138.6437 764.5015 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.2677 655.0855 333.2597 666.9655 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.2877 486.2695 409.2797 498.1495 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.3317 386.4775 107.3237 398.3575 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.2797 317.4535 423.2717 329.3335 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9837 189.1495 424.9757 201.0295 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9637 132.1255 402.9557 144.0055 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 83 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.9557 63.1015 335.9477 74.9815 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R 98 0 R 101 0 R 104 0 R 107 0 R 110 0 R 113 0 R 116 0 R 119 0 R 122 0 R 125 0 R 128 0 R 131 0 R ] /Contents 87 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Length 10509 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as a potential threat to conventional morality in the social order, were recognized to be the key to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping up morale?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.660 780.819 m 151.652 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 151.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But there was always tension present in the relationships between women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen as well as ?platonic? relationships initiated between soldiers? who had no family and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoptive Marraines or ?godmothers.? The very institution that could stabilize morale was also its greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat. ?Women, who might sustain morale, might also undermine it?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.656 738.051 m 389.648 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Knowing fully the danger that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women posed to the war effort in general was overruled by the basic human needs of the soldier. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal connections gave meaning to why men fought. ?The relationship between unknown men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women gave women a role to play and men a personal reason to fight on?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.944 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.944 695.283 m 410.936 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.936 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Long-distance relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated by men and women who had never met were a powerful lift to morale. They instilled hope that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better life was waiting for them back home. It was these deeply personal relationships that kept men fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and believing. Combat motivation and morale were greatly enhanced by women?s active involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing relationships with men at the front. It was not uncommon to find romances blossoming in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midst of war-torn France though many soldiers, and women, casually tossed their morals aside in favor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure and passion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second comparative study would be useful in comparing the dalliances of French women and men to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that frequented the diaries and letters of British troops. An insightful study full of amusing anecdotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence illuminates the sexual role of women in contact with the British Expeditionary Force in France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.344 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.344 540.723 m 98.336 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.336 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gibson persuasively argues two points that challenge orthodoxy in viewing sex during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War. First, non-combatant troops did not ?monopolize? women at the front. Second, homo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotic or homosexual relationships were exceptional and ?over-emphasized? by scholars like Fussell and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson, while ignoring the abundant literature recording heterosexual relationships.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.952 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.952 497.955 m 492.944 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 492.944 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gibson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishes to redress the balance by refuting the pervasive trend propagated by Fussell and others. He tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fussell?s contention squarely: ?Despite the claim that officers reveled in a tightly knit, masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community and that the comradeship of the trenches was an extension of the homoeroticism of the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school, most of them were as interested in the local women as their men were?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.608 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.608 440.931 m 434.600 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.600 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But there were serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time-constraints that left little leisure time to enjoy women. ?Troops coming out of the line needed sleep, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food, and women, in that order?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.652 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.652 412.419 m 210.644 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 210.644 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Niall Ferguson notes in )] TJ ET BT 345.308 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 421.640 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it was a semblance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home-life that soldiers longed to recreate in this hellhole.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.312 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.312 398.163 m 328.304 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.304 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These sentiments are evident in a Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Private?s reminiscences which juxtaposed sex and home-baked goods as treats to be enjoyed. It was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary milk but ?a big bowl of warm cow?s milk.? Not just a piece of bread but ?freshly baked brick-oven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bread?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 68.996 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 68.996 355.395 m 88.988 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.988 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This soldier savored every essence that reflected a deep appreciation of creature-comforts like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those taken for granted back home. At the front, anything that reminded a soldier of home and normality was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seized upon. Sex features prominently in studies of combat performance and its constituent parts, discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and morale, for instance in Kaushik Roy?s recent article seeking to explain the dramatic turn-around of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial armies in Southeast Asia after suffering horrendous losses during the Second World War.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.944 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.944 298.371 m 527.936 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 527.936 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurgence in scholarly literature encompassing both World Wars gives special attention to sex as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate but overlooked factor that impacted morale. More studies following Roy?s example would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome in Europe and the Pacific.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British soldiers were viewed by many as an occupying force little better than the Germans. Because France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembled a ?demographic no man?s land?, women were drawn to British soldiers because they were either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short of money or they craved companionship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.648 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.648 200.835 m 277.640 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.640 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was a relationship of convenience for both parties who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were denied a human connection. Soldiers? knew that women offered their services for one of three reasons: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, they were in need of cash; two, they desired sex and were not finicky about who their partner was; third, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some women freely gave themselves as a reward for fighting.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.276 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.276 158.067 m 349.268 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.268 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trouble was never far away and sex was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by ?looting, drunkenness, resisting arrest, and general indiscipline?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.948 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.948 143.811 m 445.940 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.940 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of even greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern to the High Command was the spread of venereal disease. Treatment typically lasted two months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and threatened to compromise Britain?s most precious commodity ? officers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.964 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.964 115.299 m 423.956 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.956 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Conspicuously absent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from studies concerned with explaining how the troops ?kept going? is a balanced examination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intersection between civilians and servicemen.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.636 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.636 86.787 m 277.628 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.628 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sadly, most relationships ended with the closing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war and even more bizarre is that most locals were glad to see them leave. These women were courageous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bold in their actions. They did their bit to give men a taste of their former lives and brought relief and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 88 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.6597 781.1335 151.6517 793.0135 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.6557 738.3655 389.6477 750.2455 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.9437 695.5975 410.9357 707.4775 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 97 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.3437 541.0375 98.3357 552.9175 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.9517 498.2695 492.9437 510.1495 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6077 441.2455 434.5997 453.1255 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.6517 412.7335 210.6437 424.6135 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 109 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.3117 398.4775 328.3037 410.3575 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 112 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 114 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 68.9957 355.7095 88.9877 367.5895 ] >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 115 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 117 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.9437 298.6855 527.9357 310.5655 ] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 118 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 120 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6477 201.1495 277.6397 213.0295 ] >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 121 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 123 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.2757 158.3815 349.2677 170.2615 ] >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 124 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 125 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 126 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9477 144.1255 445.9397 156.0055 ] >> endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 127 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 128 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 129 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.9637 115.6135 423.9557 127.4935 ] >> endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 130 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 131 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 132 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6357 87.1015 277.6277 98.9815 ] >> endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 135 0 R 137 0 R 139 0 R 141 0 R 143 0 R 145 0 R 147 0 R 149 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R 159 0 R 161 0 R 163 0 R 165 0 R 167 0 R 169 0 R 171 0 R 173 0 R 175 0 R 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 183 0 R 185 0 R 187 0 R 189 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R 199 0 R 201 0 R ] /Contents 134 0 R >> endobj 134 0 obj << /Length 12716 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relaxation in a way that no other palliative could. Indeed, for some historians they were the unsung heroes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Watson and Patrick Porter, ?Bereaved and aggrieved: combat motivation and the ideology )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sacrifice in the First World War?, )] TJ ET BT 241.304 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 337.628 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 83 \(February 2010\), 146?64.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.268 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.268 701.043 m 535.256 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 147.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 686.787 m 164.336 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 148.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 672.531 m 164.336 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sam Pryke, ?The popularity of nationalism in the early British Boy Scout movement?, )] TJ ET BT 481.664 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 550.664 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23 \(October 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.660 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.660 644.019 m 209.648 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watson and Porter, 153.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.332 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.332 629.763 m 234.320 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 157.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 615.507 m 164.336 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. P. MacKenzie, ?Morale and the cause. The campaign to shape the outlook of soldiers in the British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Expeditionary Force, 1914?1918?, )] TJ ET BT 232.988 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian Journal of History)] TJ ET BT 371.996 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 25 \(August 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.656 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.656 586.995 m 519.644 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 224.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 572.739 m 164.336 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 228.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 558.483 m 164.336 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 219.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 544.227 m 170.336 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 231.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 529.971 m 170.336 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Fussell, )] TJ ET BT 128.360 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War and Modern Memory)] TJ ET BT 305.996 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1975\) p. 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.644 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.644 515.715 m 471.632 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hew Strachan, ?Training, Morale, and Modern War?, )] TJ ET BT 324.272 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 485.936 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41 \(April )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\), 222.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.012 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.012 487.203 m 179.000 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 472.947 m 170.336 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 223.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 458.691 m 170.336 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarak Barkawi, ?Peoples, homelands, and wars? Ethnicity, the military, and battle among British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial forces in the War against Japan?, )] TJ ET BT 269.288 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comparative Studies in Society and History)] TJ ET BT 479.612 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(January )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\); Tarak Barkawi, ?Culture and combat in the colonies: the Indian army in the Second World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War?,)] TJ ET BT 92.996 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 257.660 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41 \(April 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.984 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.984 401.667 m 401.972 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edgar Jones, ?The psychology of killing: the combat experience of British soldiers during the First )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War?, )] TJ ET BT 129.656 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 291.320 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 2 \(April 2006\) 229?246.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.972 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.972 373.155 m 491.960 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Wessely, ?Twentieth-century theories on combat motivation and breakdown?, )] TJ ET BT 476.288 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 173.012 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 179.012 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41 \(April 2006\), 273.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.336 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.336 344.643 m 341.324 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 273.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 330.387 m 170.336 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 283.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 316.131 m 170.336 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 286.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 301.875 m 170.336 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Grayzel, ?Mothers, Marraines, and prostitutes: morale and morality in the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France?, )] TJ ET BT 107.996 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The International History Review)] TJ ET BT 268.988 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 274.988 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19 \(February 1997\), 66?82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.628 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.628 273.363 m 466.616 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.348 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.348 259.107 m 164.336 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.348 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.348 244.851 m 164.336 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.348 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.348 230.595 m 164.336 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Craig Gibson, ?Sex and soldiering in France and Flanders: the British Expeditionary Force along )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Western Front, 1914?1918?, )] TJ ET BT 221.324 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The International History Review)] TJ ET BT 382.316 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(September 2001\), 535?79.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 187.827 m 124.004 187.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 174.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 536.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(127\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 173.571 m 176.336 173.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 160.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 541.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 159.315 m 170.336 159.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 146.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 546.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 145.059 m 170.336 145.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 132.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pity of War: Explaining World War I)] TJ ET BT 341.336 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.644 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.644 130.803 m 495.632 130.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 117.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibson, 546.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.684 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.684 116.547 m 185.672 116.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 103.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaushik Roy, ?Discipline and morale of African, British and Indian Army units in Burma and India )] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during World War II: July 1943 to August 1945?, )] TJ ET BT 305.324 89.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 411.320 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 \(April 2010\), 1255.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.644 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.644 88.035 m 553.304 88.035 l S BT 64.016 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 73.779 m 96.344 73.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 60.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 552?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.676 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.676 59.523 m 181.664 59.523 l S endstream endobj 135 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 136 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.2677 701.3575 535.2557 713.2375 ] >> endobj 136 0 obj 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