%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730132418+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730132418+01'00') /Title (Politics and Justice in Late Medieval Bologna) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4212 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Politics and Justice in Late Medieval Bologna)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Italian cities have frequently been the focus of international historical research. The particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities of the elites that emerged here were notably stressed by Marino Berengo in his classic book on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of European towns.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.000 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.000 257.673 m 177.992 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice, Florence, Genoa and Milan above all have been examined, and some of their issues have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of perennial debate. Other towns, even if important, have to a certain extent been overlooked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bologna is one of these, and this is one of the reasons this new volume is welcome. Furthermore, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on the issue of the People, whose nature has been subject of an historical feud for some time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(this debate issummarized by Blashei in her introduction\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Rubin Blanshei, best known for a book on the Commune of Peruse in the 13th and 14th centuries )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.972 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.972 148.137 m 547.964 148.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 547.964 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to work on Bologna, publishing articles between 1981 and 1983, but her work then took her in another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction. Since then she has continued where possible to work on the same subject and period for Bologna. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She has successfully made connections between political problems and the practice of criminal justice, using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large database of over 18,000 communal officeholders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This important book concentrates on the mid-13th century, when the Bolognese People began to play an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important role in the city, up to 1327, when, exhausted from internal factions, Bologna surrendered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1042)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Blanshei)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789004182851)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(672pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mario Ascheri)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.9997 257.9875 177.9917 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.9717 148.4515 547.9637 160.3315 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6013 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal Bertrand del Poggetto, pontifical legate. By that time the city was already in decline, with its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and demographic crisis dating from the 1280s. At that time the city?s population peaked at around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60,000, while at the end of the period it had declined by around a third.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bologna lacks the statutory books of the People, but over 700 judges? registers have been preserved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blanshei has based her work on these archival sources, among others, and has been able to confirm and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improve the data hitherto produced by Bologna historians. Following in the footsteps of pioneers Alfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessel and Gina Fasoli , these have become more numerous in the last few decades, with the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonio Ivan Pini, Francesca Bocchi, Giorgio Tamba, Massimo Vallerani and Giuliano Milani tackling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar Bologna-based topics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blanshei?s very patient analytical work on the leading families of the town and the surrounding countryside, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which looks through the rich preserved papers of the councils and the judicial courts \(these are listed in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix, pp. 529?639\), has made a vital contribution to Bolognese history. It also offers a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to more general discussions on communal history. Mostly in comparison with Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('popular' developments, Blanshei's book proves how potentially wrong generalisations on this subect can be. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each case has its own special features ? which can be seen, for example, in by own work on the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the judiciary in Siena.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.340 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.340 557.235 m 153.332 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the distinctive aspects of the book, I would stress the following:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bankers, merchants and notaries \( more than jurists, though these also played a role\) were the most active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eminent social and political groups during the entire period of the Commune. But this was the case even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier, from the years around 1230. This idea of continuity is also supported by the fact that many leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the 'populars' during the 1270s were of ancient origin and yet )] TJ ET BT 366.284 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 381.620 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( considered as 'magnates'. When a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family lost pre-eminence in its traditional guild, its members spread out in many different guilds to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading positions. Different outcomes of powerful families ? for example, Pepoli and Gozzadini ? can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained through their different levels of political flexibility in alliances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem of )] TJ ET BT 111.668 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contado )] TJ ET BT 153.332 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(countryside\) nobles was never solved by Bolognese Commune and remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant one from 1256?7, when the Commune enacted the famous )] TJ ET BT 360.296 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber)] TJ ET BT 389.300 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paradisus)] TJ ET BT 437.972 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to give serfs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contado)] TJ ET BT 72.680 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( their freedom. The feud intensified again around 1300 with the Este war and later with the presence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Ghibellines, a faction backed by the Holy Roman Emperors. Every problem was bound up with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question the civic finances, although they were based on sophisticated system of tax-raising \(beginning with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well developed )] TJ ET BT 127.664 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(catasto)] TJ ET BT 162.332 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to the case in other cities of the time, in Bologna to be a 'magnate' was not the same of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('noble', as has already been pointed out by Gina Fasoli. It was a )] TJ ET BT 341.288 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(temporary)] TJ ET BT 391.280 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( status, bestowed from time to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time according to specific political needs and which allowed certain powers in law. Laws in Bologna were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently rewritten, and this created a legal incertitude and areas of judicial conflictwithin the ruling group.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Factions were )] TJ ET BT 104.000 227.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 119.336 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a new feature of the 14th century, and nor was violence. Both aspects were already well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenched in daily life. The turn from the 13th to the 14th century didn?t produce significant changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic attidudes.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3397 557.5495 153.3317 569.4295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difference between the accusatory and inquisitorial systems in criminal courts in Bologna was never as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neat as has been traditionally suggested. It was possible in the latter for the judge to ask for external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance \()] TJ ET BT 89.000 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(promotor)] TJ ET BT 134.336 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coadiunctor)] TJ ET BT 198.332 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \); moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 281.312 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ordo)] TJ ET BT 306.980 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iudiciarius )] TJ ET BT 361.988 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the Anglo-American due process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law\) was generally protected by the judges, even when )] TJ ET BT 299.948 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(banniti)] TJ ET BT 333.956 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or infamous persons were prosecuted, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were formally authorized to make use of judicial torture and summary procedure. Petitions first and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later )] TJ ET BT 58.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(querelae)] TJ ET BT 100.328 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could be used to order a new examination of the legal aspects of the case that judges normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not consider. Generally the Council of the People, the main political assembly, was able to influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sentence, giving )] TJ ET BT 135.668 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(arbitrium)] TJ ET BT 181.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the podest and his judges to continue, or committing the case for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandatory )] TJ ET BT 88.340 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(compromissum/laudum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justice, above all the criminal justice considered here, was very contradictory and there was little help from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that the jurisdictions of Chaptain of the People and )] TJ ET BT 319.652 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Podest)] TJ ET BT 358.316 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not overlap, as was often the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. It was balanced in some aspects but affected by politics in others. The )] TJ ET BT 426.596 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Podest)] TJ ET BT 465.260 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a foreigner, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as the majority of his judges and notaries, administered the ordinary justice in a straight way, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making reference to the )] TJ ET BT 150.644 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consilia)] TJ ET BT 191.648 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sapientum)] TJ ET BT 240.980 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(consisting of learned jurists\). He always had to anticipate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible condemnations during the )] TJ ET BT 204.008 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sindicatus)] TJ ET BT 252.680 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( procedure at the term of his \(short\) office. The Chaptain, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 51.020 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vicarius)] TJ ET BT 89.684 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( judge, was very close to the Council of the People, the highest political and legislative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution, and examined ? among other duties ? the questions of membership of the guilds and the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies. These were very delicate judgments, since belonging to these was necessary in order to enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political rights in Bologna. During this period membership of these societies and the other \(legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified\) groups was made hereditary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To have clarified this complex process is probably the main achievement of this book. She deals not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the technicalities of the laws, but the consciousness the people had of these and makes intelligent use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the witness statements that have been preserved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is therefore very useful in terms of the political and social history of Bologna \(with useful insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the more general history of communes\) and for introducing the technical details of judicial history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that time, going well beyond the achievements of Hermann Kantorowicz's classic book on Albertus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gandinus and the criminal law of the 'Scolastik' \(university\) doctrine \(I-II, 1907-26\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.600 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.600 376.419 m 454.592 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.592 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline the utility of her findings on )] TJ ET BT 220.340 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consilia)] TJ ET BT 261.344 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sapientum)] TJ ET BT 310.676 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, false contracts and witnesses and accusations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is probably more astonishing for students of other communal experiences is the growing system in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bologna of privileges and procedural immunities from as early a date as 1251, well before the well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and celebrated )] TJ ET BT 106.652 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordinamenta)] TJ ET BT 173.648 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacra)] TJ ET BT 201.644 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 224.972 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacratissima)] TJ ET BT 286.976 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the people against the )] TJ ET BT 410.288 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnates)] TJ ET BT 456.284 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. By end of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period almost half of the population were affected by these. This introduced strong contradictions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals and practice of the 'popular' government. Their nexus with the economic and financial problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains the crisis which led to the proto-)] TJ ET BT 232.328 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 272.336 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Pepoli and then to the true )] TJ ET BT 417.656 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 457.664 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of del Poggetto.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The existence of a large privileged and hereditary body of citizens was clearly against the )] TJ ET BT 466.904 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aequalitas )] TJ ET BT 519.908 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of the People: here are the roots of the future aristocracy of Renaissance Bologna. It was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of class struggle or of a pure factionalism. It was a question of a group who excluded all others in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to obtain an identity and monopolize resources. In Bologna as elsewhere the principle ?the winner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes it all? became true. It was an exclusionary process which is well documented by Blanshei. She does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not isolate that process from other contemporary conflicts which led to 'lateral' exclusions: of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies \(Lambertazzi\), of the non-noble inhabitants of the )] TJ ET BT 318.956 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contado)] TJ ET BT 357.620 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of foreigners and of the more humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tiers of the civic society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Blanshei's work every argument is supported by rich and well-reasoned documentation. The gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and practice is also demonstrated, most notably in the supposed triumph of the \('popular'\) )] TJ ET BT 502.616 99.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pacifici)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(agni)] TJ ET BT 55.352 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the )] TJ ET BT 113.012 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lupi)] TJ ET BT 134.684 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rapaces)] TJ ET BT 172.676 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the too much powerful persons thought dangerous to the city\). This triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hid, unfortunately, the conquest, step by step, of institutions and a related hardening of groups. This process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred while Bologna was \(apparently\) increasing political participation. A council of 4,000 people )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.5997 376.7335 454.5917 388.6135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6331 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected citizens for public officies, of which there were almost 2,000! But this did not stop the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Blanshei, as well as many other historians, calls 'oligarchy'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I should prefer more cautiousness about the use of this term )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.636 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.636 754.563 m 337.628 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.628 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as the book also indicates how difficult was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build an oligarchy in Bologna!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book looks at the People )] TJ ET BT 176.672 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 192.008 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( during its efforts to enter and conquer institutions ? a less documented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Instead it shows the )] TJ ET BT 159.344 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(winning)] TJ ET BT 198.020 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( People, when its power was already institutionalized, and its subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline. Blanshei herself remarkss that ?stability was the quality most lacking in communal society \(p. 311\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bologna had various interacting and interdependent elites at the same time, and there were continous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in the nature of the elites, whose stability was often broken by variations and oscillations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oligarchy as a concept thus gives an idea of a stability which was never reached by the different Bolognese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes of this period as the )] TJ ET BT 172.664 617.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(histoire)] TJ ET BT 212.336 617.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vnmentielle)] TJ ET BT 283.640 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the city shows? Resolving political feuds took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endless effort. This shows the absence of a steady political plan on the part of the elites we refer to when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak of oligarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same judicial history well described by Blanshei shows how strong a goal was the rule of law. Belief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the judiciary is shown for instance by the anonymous denunciations which were presented, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined even when against members of the regime! Exceptions from the due process could be created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political power, of course, but the judiciary had its own space to resist this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political power at that time felt itself 'sovereign' even if it did not use that word. It was considered to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the full right \(and duty\) to enter judicial life to ensure justice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately it eventually began to use its prerogatives simply to preserve itself!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 'town of the law', a city which harboured 2,000 students from all over Europe at that time, there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise as to the extent of the rich documentary sources produced by the law. The well-studied crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading groups by Blanshei contributed to the People?s demise; elsewhere it happened even earlier \(Veneto, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lombardy\), while in other places it was later \(Tuscany\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyway the ultimate decline cannot obscure its earlier successes. Bologna flourished again later and enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large political participation in its local government. This shows that genuine 'popular' practice continued in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subsequent period of civic culture. During early modern history Bologna lived under a large civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy, even if this was under papal supervision.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.296 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.296 314.163 m 302.288 314.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly with the end of the 13th century a new period, with true economic and financial difficulties, started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everywhere in Italy. New instruments of government were to be invented, like the bonds of the public debt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as )] TJ ET BT 83.672 260.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(catastos )] TJ ET BT 126.008 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more pragmatism was appiled to the use of political ideas and terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda )] TJ ET BT 97.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a new reality, strong as never before. Elites found it useful to use the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation, of the 'people', to face and govern the new difficult situation. Society had been accustomed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that language for a long time. The true openess was more difficult to ensure and preserve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We should distinguish the cultural level from the practice of government and particularly from its criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression. Us moderns, for example, give it and its guarantees more importance than our ancestors were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wont to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary history teaches that at the same time we can find in the same context contradictory and very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different levels of civilisation, and that is why it is possible to feel so close to our medieval history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.6357 754.8775 337.6277 766.7575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.2957 314.4775 302.2877 326.3575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 3691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marino Berengo, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L' Europa delle citt. Il volto della societ urbana europea tra Medioevo ed et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(moderna)] TJ ET BT 106.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Turin, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.332 780.819 m 231.320 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Rubin Blashei, )] TJ ET BT 168.680 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perugia, 1260?1340: Conflict and Change in a Medieval Italian Urban Society)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Philadephia, PA, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.008 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.008 752.307 m 236.996 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Ascheri and C. Papi, )] TJ ET BT 182.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il Costituto del Comune di Siena in volgare \(1309-1310\): un episodio di )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(storia della giustizia?)] TJ ET BT 168.704 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Florence 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.684 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.684 723.795 m 305.672 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hermann Kantorowicz, )] TJ ET BT 179.648 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albertus Gandinus Und Das Strafrecht Der Scholastik)] TJ ET BT 440.972 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1926\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.964 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.964 709.539 m 532.952 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ee M. Ascheri, )] TJ ET BT 137.660 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le citt-Stato. Radici del municipalismo e del repubblicanesimo italiani)] TJ ET BT 486.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bologna )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 681.027 m 149.000 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela De Benedictis, )] TJ ET BT 175.328 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diritti in memoria, carit di patria. 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