%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721141640+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721141640+01'00') /Title (Disorderly Liberty. The Political Culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4083 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Disorderly Liberty. The Political Culture of the Polish-Lithuanian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems that politicians and politics have never been regarded with greater contempt across the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. The expenses scandal in the United Kingdom, the lacerating negative rhetoric of American election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns, and, in an age of economic crisis, the growing disjuncture between the promises made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians to win elections and their actions while in government, have helped create a corrosive cynicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among voters about the motives and actions of those they elect to lead them. In the United States, the growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Tea Party movement has demonstrated a curious mixture of devoted admiration for the founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers and the constitution they gave the nation in 1789, and a withering contempt for those who attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operate it in very different circumstances two centuries later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a good time to publish a study of the last 100 years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second-largest state in 1750, which was partitioned out of existence between 1772 and 1795. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth possessed by 1700 one of the most radically consensual political systems ever devised and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Jerzy Lukowski amply demonstrates in this book, in its decay its political culture displayed very similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptoms to the modern West: blistering contempt for politicians, deep cynicism about the motives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims of those in government, ludicrously overblown rhetoric about political opponents, and a debilitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment to a venerated political constitution established in a supposedly more virtuous past. For all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1044)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerzy Lukowski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441148124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert I Frost)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7943 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of the executive, presided over by an elected monarch stripped of most of the prerogatives enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his European counterparts, the Commonwealth?s noble citizens were as suspicious of Warsaw and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinations of government ministers as any devotee of Sarah Palin is of Washington?s porkbarrel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians. Yet even if these noble citizens were aware of the Commonwealth?s problems, they regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political system as the most perfect known to mankind, since, from the 16th century, it had enshrined at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its core the liberty of the citizen, while establishing an increasingly elaborate system of control over the king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the disasters which befell the Commonwealth after 1648, when a debilitating cycle of wars fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost entirely on its own territory ruined its economy, depleted its treasury, and left it after 1717 effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a Russian protectorate, its citizens praised their system as the best conceivable, and trusted that it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive because it was indispensible to the international system. Their world was, as Lukowski shows with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic relish, marked by bizarre efflorescences of utopian fantasy, and wishful thinking on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympian scale, not least in the dogged attachment to the principle of the )] TJ ET BT 388.640 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(liberum veto)] TJ ET BT 448.964 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objection of one citizen at his local sejmik \(dietine\), or one envoy from a sejmik to the central Sejm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(parliament\) was sufficient not merely to block legislation, but to break up the assembly without achieving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything: in the reign of Augustus III \(1733?63\), only one Sejm passed any laws at all; since taxation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on Sejm approval, it was a recipe for domestic anarchy and international oblivion. By the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century the old joke that ?)] TJ ET BT 158.996 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Polska nierz)] TJ ET BT 218.660 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?dem stoi)] TJ ET BT 264.992 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? [Poland stands by anarchy; literally ?by lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government? or ?lack of order?] was cheerfully believed by many to be an established principle of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, while the veto was seen as embodying the citizen?s individual liberty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski?s book is the fruit of a lifetime?s research into 18th-century Polish political culture. It covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from the disastrous Great Northern War \(1700?21\) to the momentous Four Year Sejm \(1788?92\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which broke the political deadlock and introduced major reforms that might have restored the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth as a functional member of the European states system had its neighbours not stepped in to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that if Poland stood by lack of government, it fell through government?s reintroduction. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book not only provides the best available guide in English to 18th-century Polish political culture, it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a genuine and substantial contribution to scholarship in any language on the Commonwealth. For, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski points out, Polish coverage of the 18th century is patchy at best; most scholars concentrate on one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or other end of the century, dealing either with the Saxon period \(1697?1763\), or with the reign of Stanis?aw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August Poniatowski \(1764?95\), but not with both. Large areas of both periods remain uninvestigated, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the connections and disjunctures between them are often simply ignored. There is no work in Polish that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers 18th-century political culture in such detail, and Lukowski adds much to the work of such scholars as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Grze?kowiak-Krwawicz, Zofia Zieli?ska, Emanuel Rostworowski, and Jerzy Michalski.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski draws extensively on the secondary literature, but the foundation of this study is his close reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political treatises, pamphlet literature, and the instructions prepared by sejmiks for their envoys to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sejm, drawn from an impressive range of archives across Poland, and from the substantial collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lithuanian material in Vilnius. He concentrates not just on the highlights, such as Stanis?aw Konarski?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Means to Successful Counsels)] TJ ET BT 213.668 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1761?63\), or )] TJ ET BT 284.984 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Free Voice Freedom Securing)] TJ ET BT 440.276 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1743?\), traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to Stanis?aw Leszczy?ski, but has ploughed his way through the mind-numbing effervescences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such minor authors as the Franciscan Florian Jaroszewicz, whose )] TJ ET BT 349.952 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poland, Mother of Saints )] TJ ET BT 473.624 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1767\) Lukowski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruefully describes as ?interminable?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus he is not interested, as some Polish scholars have been, in selecting highlights of Polish political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that might stand up in a general European context: he presents Polish political culture in all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richness and ? for he is a highly critical reader ? its poverty. It begins with a survey of Polish political culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1700, before moving through 18th-century developments roughly chronologically, with important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excursions into the role of Catholic religious and political thought, and a careful, judicious chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique problems posed for 18th-century Polish-Lithuanian political culture by the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth was home to over half the world?s Jews: nowhere was the general Enlightement question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship of Jews to the wider political community so complex. Of particular value are his chapters on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment influence on Polish political thought, and on the impact of foreign views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, where his careful reading of Montesquieu, Mably, and, in particular, Rousseau, will be of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7881 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great interest to scholars of the Enlightenment: he uses to excellent effect his expert knowledge of the Polish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lithuanian political system to give a properly critical account of these works, and he provides a genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original assessment of their impact within the Commonwealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski provides a detailed and absorbing account of Poniatowski?s reign, demonstrating how, in contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reign of Augustus III, the veto effectively went into abeyance, Sejms reached their term, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing body of legislation was passed. This may have been due, as Lukowski argues, to Catherine II?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realisation that this was the best way to secure Russian objectives in Poland-Lithuania ? the First Partition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1772 was famously approved by the Sejm in the face of abortive attempts to lodge a veto ? but it ?habituated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([a generation] to parliaments doing things, no matter how much it disapproved of them? \(p. 96\). The climax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is an account of the reforms of the Four Year Sejm, embodied in the Constitution of 3 May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1791, and a raft of legislation passed while Russia was distracted by wars against the Ottoman Empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweden. When the opportunity arose, therefore, the Sejm was capable of acting decisively. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable resistance among the )] TJ ET BT 201.308 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 240.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(nobility\) to the idea that burghers should be admitted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and representation in the Sejm, a new law on towns was passed that, while not conferring upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burghers the political rights enjoyed by the )] TJ ET BT 242.996 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 282.332 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, did declare royal towns and their citizens to be free, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to them certain rights?such as )] TJ ET BT 225.980 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neminem captivabimus)] TJ ET BT 336.296 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Polish equivalent of )] TJ ET BT 458.960 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(habeas corpus)] TJ ET BT 528.620 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also abolished the private noble and ecclesiastical enclaves within towns that had caused considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for town governments. Yet as Lukowski shows, the Law on Towns brought considerable benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the nobility by officialy opening up to them full participation in many urban trades and professions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had previously been debarred to them by the threat of derogation, even if, as with most laws in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, such bans were widely ignored. The formal recognition of this merging of urban and noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities was indicative of a coming together in practice of the urban and noble elites, and to an extent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers circumvented the general prejudice against extending full citizenship rights to burghers through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively redefining citizenship. By introducing a property qualification for the enjoyment of full political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, the Sejm deprived some 300,000 impoverished nobles of their citizenship. Meanwhile, a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of wealthy burghers were simply admitted to citizenship through large-scale ennoblements that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a radical departure from the policy of previous Sejms, which had closely controlled entry to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all that many of these reforms were, in the context of what had gone before, truly radical, Lukowski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pours cold water over the wilder claims about their significance. He argues that, far from being an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of a new democratic spirit, the Constitution of 3 May ? an English translation of which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included as an appendix ? was not so much a new beginning as a recasting of the old order: the Constitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the mass of supplementary legislation that followed it to define how it would work in pratice: ?aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so much to create a modernised effective state ? although that was undoubtedly one of the aims of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who framed these laws ? as to provide an alternative, modernised vision of the noble Utopia? \(p. 249\). It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this reason, he suggests, that the sejmiks, which had reacted overwhelmingly negatively to the proposals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reform presented to them in 1790, now overwhelmingly endorsed the Constitution and the supplementary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation, ?which sought to preserve much that was traditional and deemed of value, while balancing it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the new? \(p. 248\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski?s final verdict is therefore a sober one, and his conclusions represent a significant reassessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Commonwealth in its last days. Ultimately, he argues, the ?enormous amount of intellectual energy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to shaking the )] TJ ET BT 145.340 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 184.676 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( out of its ?mental cul-de-sac? had failed, and the )] TJ ET BT 423.620 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 462.956 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( itself had failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?spectacularly? to create a viable political system. The fact that they were only prepared ?to refurbish their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old Commonwealth, not construct a dynamic new one? doomed their state to extinction. With the veto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced by an impeccably enlightened ? but in practice highly complex ? system of checks and balances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Rousseau?s concept of the general will enthusiastically coopted to provide a theoretical justification for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing close control of the executive by citizen assemblies, the reformed Commonwealth was in no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to resist the partitioning powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much in Lukowski?s assessment that convinces, and his sober realism is a bracing antidote to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistic portrayals of these developments: he is clearly sceptical of the revisionist scholarship that in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8836 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years has attempted to rehabilitate the Saxon monarchs, and he politely points out that much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data presented by the late Jzef Gierowski, the distinguished historian of the Saxon period, in his English-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language )] TJ ET BT 80.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century. From Anarchy to the Well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordered State)] TJ ET BT 101.672 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contradicts the book?s subtitle. Yet for all the cogency of Lukowski?s arguments and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive depth of evidence he adduces in support of them, his account is perhaps a little too negative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungenerous, not so much to the political writers who advocated reform and the politicians who finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved it ? to whom he pays due tribute ? as to the )] TJ ET BT 288.308 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 327.644 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( citizenry in general. Given the strength of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment to the political principles underlying their system, of liberty, of equality ? at least for citizens ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a suspicion of central government, it is hardly surprising that the )] TJ ET BT 366.980 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 406.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sought to retain the essence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that system. Yet even if the reforms of the Four Year Sejm did preserve much of the old system, it did create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wholly new political framework that, had it been allowed to operate by the Commonwealth?s neighbours, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would undoubtedly have functioned differently. As Robert Peel pointed out in the debates over the 1832 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform Act, the Whig advocates of reform were fooling themselves if they thought that the bill they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting would preserve the old system that they ? and Peel ? admired so much. It was Peel who, once the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act had been passed, adapted his party most rapidly to the new system that he recognised now existed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the intention of the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 253.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 292.352 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may well have been, as Lukowski argues, to preserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much of the old system as possible, but that might not have been the result of the reforms they endorsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so enthusiastically in 1792: as Lukowski admits, the tide of change, once it was unleashed, swept all before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, and much was improvised in response to what was a radically altered political landscape, in which so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the pillars of the old system had been swept away: not just the veto, but also the elective monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, since 1572, had been regarded as the fundamental basis of Polish liberty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet was the )] TJ ET BT 93.668 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 133.004 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( really of one mind? The problem about utilising )] TJ ET BT 369.320 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmik)] TJ ET BT 399.980 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( instructions as a window into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 73.352 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( attitudes is precisely that they represented the consensus that was possible at meetings of the )] TJ ET BT 523.292 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiki)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and they disguise the deep divisions that often existed: debates were notoriously tempestuous. Alas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of )] TJ ET BT 92.000 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmik)] TJ ET BT 122.660 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( debates are rare; only in Royal Prussia were detailed protocols taken. Lukowski cites one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary of the 1790 Minsk )] TJ ET BT 153.008 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmik)] TJ ET BT 183.668 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but otherwise is dependent on the instructions. Moreover, as he points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are very few monographs on 18th-century Sejms, in contrast to the plethora of accounts of 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century parliamentary assemblies. Thus, while he devotes close attention to the Four Year Sejm ? which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well served by the secondary literature ? he has not used Sejm diaries, the most extensive of which are in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local state archive in Gda?sk, to any great extent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a pity, for it is often in the detailed debates of the Sejm that much is revealed about szlachta political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. For just as the vapourings of right-wing shock jocks on American radio are not necessarily a direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(window into the soul of ordinary American voters, so the often rancid pamphlet literature in a system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without effective censorship do not necessarily indicate what members of the crucial middling nobility ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the 15th century the bedrock of the political system ? were thinking. And if there were undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, indeed probably a majority, whose political views and attachments in general to the old pieties were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as Lukowski portrays them, when it came to practical politics, there are hints in his own material that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a significant minority of the )] TJ ET BT 219.656 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 258.992 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who thought differently and were willing to contemplate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. Thus in 1790, over the key issue of the introduction of the hereditary monarchy, Lukowski writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?only? nine out of 55 )] TJ ET BT 160.004 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 195.332 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ready to accept it. Yet for just over 16 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 481.916 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 517.244 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorse hereditary monarchy is, in the context of the conviction embedded in )] TJ ET BT 408.284 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 447.620 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( consciousness since at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least the 1660s that elective monarchy was the bedrock of liberty, actually rather remarkable: only 14 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks \(25 per cent\) ruled out hereditary monarchy entirely. Moreover, it is here that the reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructions may disguise the extent of support for change: in the one surviving )] TJ ET BT 416.984 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmik)] TJ ET BT 447.644 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( vote on the issue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Sandomierz, the vote in favour of retaining elective monarchy was won by the relatively narrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(margin of 206 to 192.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus there may well have been a substantial minority who were less enamoured of the status quo than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukowski suggests, and this may help explain how, when events began to move rapidly, and the reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally came together to agree a concrete package of measures in 1791, the tipping-point was reached, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 87.008 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rushed to endorse change in 1792. For all the cogency of Lukowski?s account, ultimately, it is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to see how the benighted, conservative, reactionary political culture of the Saxon period that he so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainingly depicts, and of which he is so critical, could ever have endorsed reforms that were ? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish context at least ? so substantial. Moreover, as in Britain in 1832, as Peel was so acutely aware, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more the fact that reform had been achieved that was important than the details of that reform. Perhaps, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contemporary West, the ordinary citizen in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was rather more level-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headed than the vapourings of the pamphlet literature might suggest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the reality, this book is a major achievement, and should stimulate more research on the issues it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises. It captures well the raucous, combative tone of Polish-Lithuanian politics, and poses a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and important questions. There is very little to criticise. While due attention is given to Lithuania, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is largely a Polish view of the Commonwealth and Lukowski has not used the considerable collections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival materials for the )] TJ ET BT 157.316 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 192.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Ruthenian areas of the Grand Duchy held in Minsk, or for Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia, held in Toru? and Gda?sk. More attention might have been given to the Ukrainian palatinates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Polish political culture had met its greatest challenge after 1648. Micha? Pac, who was just as corrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and venal as Lukowski suggests, was Grand Hetman of Lithuania from 1667 to 1682, not during the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern War. These, however, are minor quibbles. This is an excellent book, and should provoke thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the dangers of the gap between the idealised justifications that sustain consensual political systems and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grubby deal-making necessary for their survival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1044)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 328.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5329)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 328.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1044) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000000697 00000 n 0000004832 00000 n 0000004941 00000 n 0000005051 00000 n 0000005160 00000 n 0000008721 00000 n 0000008849 00000 n 0000008933 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000016994 00000 n 0000017059 00000 n 0000024993 00000 n 0000025058 00000 n 0000033947 00000 n 0000034031 00000 n 0000037388 00000 n 0000037516 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37612 %%EOF