%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071414+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071414+01'00') /Title (Your Britain: Media and the Making of the Labour Party) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4134 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Your Britain: Media and the Making of the Labour Party)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understanding the rise of the Labour Party, from its foundation in 1900 as the humble Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Representation Committee to its landslide general election victory in 1945, is one of the most significant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most taxing, challenges for historians of 20th-century Britain. A variety of different explanations have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been offered in what has become a very extensive literature on the subject: the emergence of class politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectacular decline and fall of the Liberal party, the impact of the world wars, the local activism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour movement. In this stimulating and very readable book, Laura Beers offers a fruitful new line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry: the party?s use of the mass media. Labour would not have been able to build an election-winning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition of voters, Beers argues, without shrewdly employing the technologies of mass communication ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, national newspapers, BBC radio, and cinema newsreels ? to construct an appealing image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party. ?The party?s ability to compete successfully in the new arena of mass media politics? she concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?played a crucial role? in sustaining it after the catastrophic split in 1931 and enabling it to win power after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler was defeated \(p. 202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This interpretation might initially seem surprising, even counter-intuitive, to many readers. The media has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely featured prominently in explanations of Labour?s rise for the simple reason that historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that the hostility of the media was one of the greatest obstacles facing the party. It is well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the popular newspaper market in the opening decades of the century was dominated by staunchly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1046)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Beers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674050020)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Bingham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8262 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and imperialistic titles such as the )] TJ ET BT 262.988 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily)] TJ ET BT 292.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail)] TJ ET BT 315.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 338.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mirror)] TJ ET BT 401.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 442.976 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 510.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the period frequently offer examples of the vehemently anti-socialistic journalism of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers. The most notorious anti-Labour stunt was the )] TJ ET BT 292.988 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail)] TJ ET BT 345.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s exploitation of the 'Zinoviev letter? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(run-up to the 1924 election. This forged letter, purporting to be from Comintern chief Grigory Zinoviev, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered financial backing for revolutionary activity by the Communist Party of Great Britain; the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald?s Labour Government had not taken any action to counter this unwelcome foreign intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated, in the )] TJ ET BT 114.008 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail)] TJ ET BT 136.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s eyes, that Labour were beholden to the Communists. This dramatic revelation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culmination of weeks of stories attempting to associate Labour with extremism, has often been regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making a significant contribution to the Conservative party?s crushing victory in the election; the heated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political atmosphere generated by the claims certainly led to the highest voter turnout of the inter-war period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only popular paper that could be relied upon to support the Labour Party was the )] TJ ET BT 445.952 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 509.612 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have tended to downplay its importance; here scholars have perhaps been overly influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the )] TJ ET BT 120.332 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET BT 154.328 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s decline in the post-war period, and its eventual reincarnation as the stridently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing )] TJ ET BT 87.680 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sun)] TJ ET BT 105.680 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, under the ownership of Rupert Murdoch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it was not just the press that appeared to be working against the Labour Party. Many on the left felt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the BBC, despite its duty of impartiality, enshrined the views of the conservative elites and, by steering clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?controversy?, offered few chances for speakers to challenge the status quo. These suspicions seemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be confirmed in the organisation?s coverage of the General Strike in 1926, another well-rehearsed episode in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of the period. For John Reith, the Director-General, there could be little doubt about the BBC?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the strike: ??Assuming the BBC is for the people, and that the Government is for the people, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows that the BBC must be for the Government in this crisis?? \(p. 111\). Following this simple logic, pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government speakers were given easy access to the airwaves, while Labour leader Ramsay MacDonald was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused permission to broadcast; the Archbishop of Canterbury was not even allowed a slot to outline a joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposal from church leaders encouraging a resumption of negotiations. The BBC?s stance was one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major reasons why the government won the propaganda battle against the TUC, and maintained widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support among the middle classes during the industrial action. The Conservatives, in short, seemed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant structural advantages in the media arena, as well as having superior financial resources with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to pay for advertising and election propaganda. Several historians have argued that the party exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this position to the full, noting, for example, the skill with which Baldwin mastered radio broadcasting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to use it to convey a vision of Englishness and national stability that proved attractive to many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beers does not seek to minimise or disguise the advantages enjoyed by the Conservatives, and she gives due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight to the despair and disillusionment of many Labour leaders about the ?poison gas press? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplicitous BBC. Indeed, she explains how the left?s visceral dislike of the media was given intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance by a wide range of contemporary thinkers, from Upton Sinclair and Hilaire Belloc to Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lippman and Norman Angell. These writers all argued, in their different ways, that a profit-seeking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising-funded press in a modern capitalist system was always likely to offer its readers a combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of human interest and conservative politics \(interpretations which still find much favour in journalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies today\). What Beers demonstrates so persuasively, however, is that there were many other influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour politicians, such as Herbert Morrison, Sidney Webb and Ellen Wilkinson, who were determined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to use the media to Labour?s advantage. )] TJ ET BT 246.308 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Your Britain)] TJ ET BT 306.656 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells the story of how this wing of the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually became ascendant over the sceptics, so that by the 1930s Labour had developed a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media strategy that was starting to make a real impact with the electorate. By concentrating so much on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties that Labour faced with the media, Beers suggests, historians have missed many of the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes, and have likewise failed to appreciate the contribution that shrewd political communication made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the 1945 election victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After an introductory chapter outlining the rise of a national media culture in the early 20th century, the core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book develops a broadly chronological narrative documenting the shifting dynamics of Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with the media. Voices within the Labour movement had called for a newspaper since the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860s; only in 1912 were these dreams realized when not one but two Labour-supporting publications were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded. The union-backed )] TJ ET BT 169.316 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Citizen)] TJ ET BT 232.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lasted only three years; the more radical )] TJ ET BT 430.940 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 494.600 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christian socialist George Lansbury, would prove far more durable, although it only survived the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War by becoming a weekly. Beers covers these early experiments briskly, placing them alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to articulate the Labour brand through election posters \(Gerald Spencer Pryse?s ?Forward! The Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Breaking!? from 1910 being the most notable pre-war effort\). The main focus of the study, however, is on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two decades from 1918. The most distinctive feature of these early sections is the author?s argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virulent anti-socialism of the mid-1920s had not fully taken root in the conservative press in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath of the war. Labour?s creation of a Press and Publicity department in 1917, and a News Service the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following year, quickly paid dividends. Only the )] TJ ET BT 270.332 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 337.988 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the Lloyd-George supporting )] TJ ET BT 504.296 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 82.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ?unequivocally hostile? to Labour during the 1918 election \(p. 41\); Lord Northcliffe?s )] TJ ET BT 528.932 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail)] TJ ET BT 56.684 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while continuing to expound its usual conservative position, actually donated space to Labour for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily column in the eight days before polling day. The party used this platform to make a series of stratified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeals designed to reach a broad national audience ? foreshadowing the strategy that would be pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more forcefully in the 1930s and beyond. Nor was the press coverage of the unions, trying to maintain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of their members amid demobilization and economic dislocation, as uniformly negative as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have suggested. In a detailed study of the 1919 rail strike, Beers demonstrates that several papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more sympathetic to the National Union of Railwaymen as the strike went on: ?Through skilful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicizing of their case?, she concludes, ?the railwaymen managed to win a relatively fair hearing from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press? \(p. 49\). If the Labour movement generated little enthusiasm outside the pages of the )] TJ ET BT 472.940 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 536.600 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither did it face unwavering opposition and rejection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The media?s ?anti-Labour turn? during the 1920s was, according to this account, a historically contingent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the party?s growing political prominence and the apparent radicalisation of its policies rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a simple reflection of an entrenched and unchanging hostility to the left. During the 1920s, the rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the popular press, and especially the )] TJ ET BT 223.976 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail)] TJ ET BT 276.308 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, became increasingly inflammatory. Labour threatens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?every man?s house and furniture, and every woman?s clothes and jewellery?, declared the )] TJ ET BT 474.884 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail )] TJ ET BT 500.552 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1922, ?... If the Labour Bolshevists once get control we shall all be irrevocably dragged along the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Road to Ruin? \(p. 52\). The Zinoviev scandal of 1924 was just one episode in a wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalistic campaign to present the party as a front for sinister anti-social and anti-British interests. During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period, moreover, those figures within the Labour party who questioned the attempts to ?permeate? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist press or to work with the BBC became increasingly influential within the party. The refusal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the media was most dramatically, and disastrously, demonstrated during the General Strike. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling out the printers in the first wave of strikers, the TUC ensured that newspapers would not be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publish as normal, and this made it difficult for the unions to communicate their justification of the strike to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public. The government was prepared for this eventuality and launched its own news sheet, the )] TJ ET BT 510.596 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gazette)] TJ ET BT 70.676 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as a channel of information to the public; the unions? news sheet, the )] TJ ET BT 411.296 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Worker)] TJ ET BT 482.960 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, did not appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the second day of the strike. The BBC, as we have seen, was always likely to be sympathetic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s position, but by failing to make any serious attempt to get any messages broadcast, the TUC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missed another opportunity to attract some public support. The unions, in short, ?were slow to recognize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of publicity and public opinion to the course of the conflict? \(p. 106\), and this ?helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine any hopes for a more advantageous outcome to the dispute? \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The General Strike provides the key turning-point in Beers? narrative. After the failure of the strike, several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential Labour figures became convinced of the need to use the media to reach out beyond the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core support of male industrial male workers. The second half of the book details the increasingly committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sophisticated efforts to work with the mass media and ?sell? the party. In the late 1920s the Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and TUC press offices both stepped up their efforts to improve Labour and industrial coverage in the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press. There was also an acceptance that the hostility to the BBC should not stop Labour politicians seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use broadcasting as a platform to reach potential voters. Beers suggests that this shift in approach was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting to have an impact by the end of the decade and may have contributed to Labour?s impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing in the 1929 general election \(a significant argument given historians? difficulties in satisfactorily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining this result\). Perhaps the clearest sign of the party?s changed media policy, however, was the sale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 51 per cent of the shares in the )] TJ ET BT 196.976 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 260.636 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the commercial publisher Odhams Press, and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent relaunch of the paper in March 1930. The new )] TJ ET BT 316.280 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET BT 350.276 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( maintained its commitment to Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics while imitating the populist techniques of rivals such as the )] TJ ET BT 360.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Express)] TJ ET BT 398.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 439.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail)] TJ ET BT 461.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the relaunch was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendously successful, and in 1933 the paper became the first daily in Britain to reach the coveted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation of two million. Often unfairly dismissed as preaching to the converted, Beers makes a strong case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the )] TJ ET BT 72.680 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET BT 106.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an important means of disseminating the Labour message to a broad and diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience of readers throughout the 1930s. At the same time the party exhibited a new determination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploit broadcasting opportunities, with figures such Herbert Morrison and Stafford Cripps demonstrating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular facility with the microphone. There was also an innovative use of posters and pamphlets: Beers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights a 16-page illustrated party brochure, )] TJ ET BT 262.316 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Your Britain)] TJ ET BT 322.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(from which the book takes its title\) as a having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a significant impact on voters in the municipal elections of 1937. In combination, these initiatives amounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a coherent and dynamic media strategy which enabled the party to recover its support after the electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster of 1931, and provided a platform for victory in 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a scrupulously researched and carefully argued book which offers an important new perspective on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political culture of the period. Some will inevitably view with scepticism Beers? bolder claims about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of Labour?s media and propaganda activities ? it is, of course, very difficult to uncover precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence about the direct effects on voters of newspaper articles, radio broadcasts, posters and pamphlets ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, for this reader at least, the thrust of the argument is highly plausible. In places the narrative is perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little too neat and tidy, with a well-defined ?anti-Labour turn? and subsequent ?rapprochement? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s; more room could have been given to critical voices within the movement in the 1930s and 1940s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as those whose dissatisfaction with the state of the newspaper market led to the establishment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Commission on the Press in 1947. The reinvention and journey leftwards of the )] TJ ET BT 450.320 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mirror)] TJ ET BT 513.320 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-1930s also deserves more attention, for there is a strong case that it played a significant role in helping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to attract young, non-unionized voters to the party. Overall, though, this is an impressive work of scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that will force historians to think afresh about Labour?s relationship with the media, and to reconsider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional interpretations of the party?s dramatic rise to power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 370.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 353.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 353.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1046)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 351.657 m 328.316 351.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5339)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 351.9715 328.3157 363.8515 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1046) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004825 00000 n 0000004934 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000005153 00000 n 0000008714 00000 n 0000008842 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000017306 00000 n 0000017371 00000 n 0000026156 00000 n 0000026240 00000 n 0000031394 00000 n 0000031522 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31618 %%EOF