%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R 50 0 R 80 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140915072601+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140915072601+01'00') /Title (The Tide of Democracy: Shipyard Workers and Social Relations in Britain 1870-1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4018 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Tide of Democracy: Shipyard Workers and Social Relations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain 1870-1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I was looking forward to reading this book very much, mainly because the study of the shipbuilding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, on Tyneside in particular, has been a personal interest for ten years, providing the subject for a PhD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis as well as other works. Furthermore, I was brought up in a shipbuilding community and lived there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of my life, with family and friends being involved in many different trades in the industry, so it is topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly close to my heart. When I began to read it, I certainly was not disappointed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book begins with a wonderful historical review and detailed examination of shipyard workers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social relations in Britain, the major focus being between the years of 1870 and 1950. Although its major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area is labour history, it spans other disciplines such as industrial sociology, human geography, industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations the sociology of work and politics. It is also written in such a style as to be open to anyone, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solely academics, which is also a positive aspect of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first six chapters are totally dedicated to the organisation of craft production and are an excellent read. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Important explanations are made very early on, for instance in terms of pluralism versus Marxism or of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various interpretations of a ?united working class movement? in necessary opposition to capitalism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectional interests. However, I do feel that there is an overreliance on Clegg )] TJ ET BT 400.928 56.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 421.928 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in this section and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1049)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alastair Reid)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719081033)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jo McBride)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7290 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of pluralism tends to disappear later in the book. Nonetheless, it does demonstrate very early in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book how the industry?s work relationship is inherently sectional. It then continues to describe and explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how and why this is of significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of the book concentrates on the development of modern economies surrounding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry accompanied by an increase in the division of labour and increasing use of machinery and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these did not necessarily lead to reductions in the level of skill required from the industry?s workforce. Reid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores why this is the case and begins by breaking down the definition of ?skill? in the industry. He finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the machinery that was introduced )] TJ ET BT 223.316 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 238.652 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( produce anxieties in the workforce, which would be expected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, most of the machinery that was introduced needed semiskilled or even skilled labour, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author states that, ?We ought to be cautious in assuming that the introduction of new machinery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automatically produces low levels of skill on the part of its operators, and instead make more careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations of each specific case? \(p. 111\), which he certainly does in this section. He concludes from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation that, ?? it would seem that, contrary to deeply rooted assumptions, the application of machinery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the development of labour did not reduce the skills workers in the British shipbuilding industry in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period and , if anything had a tendency to increase them? \(p. 114\). He then makes the very significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement that, ?Given this account of the organisation of the shipbuilding industry in Britain in this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is clear that the occupational organisation of its key workers to protect their job territories remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly appropriate response to changing conditions? \(p. 114\). Indeed, although this book only covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period up to 1950, this still remains the situation today on Tyneside in the sense of the protection of the job )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through occupational organisation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.996 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.996 512.211 m 214.988 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.988 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, the first part of this book is indeed a very interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the activities of different groups of workers and the strength of shipyard workers? self )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation which gave them a major influence and control over their work. Yet there were a few issues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did raise some queries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, this section of the book tends to mix accounts of the Clyde and the Tyne and does not take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account the very different work cultures that existed, and still exist, in these different areas. Even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North East yards alone, Teesside, Tyneside and Sunderland have very different work cultures )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.576 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.576 414.675 m 499.568 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.568 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and I feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is important to differentiate or at least mention these. I was also uncomfortable with the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?restrictive practices? on p. 41. I felt that this concept was not thoroughly explained, and that workers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to appear unnecessarily militant and as though they disliked one another. A final small query of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section might be made where it is suggested that there were ?? rather passive attitudes towards the gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influx of new trades in most localities? \(p. 48\). I am aware this refers to technical workers, but would stress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is certainly untrue that this was the attitude of the whole workforce, particularly on the Tyne where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were massive demarcation disputes regarding the introduction of new trades as the following quotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Within the space of thirty five months ... there were no fewer than thirty five weeks in which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(one or other of the four most important sections of skilled men on Tyneside were idle because )] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(work to which they laid claim was being done by others?)] TJ ET BT 337.340 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?On one occasion, indeed, a great shipbuilder on the Tyne, finding his whole establishment laid )] TJ ET BT 64.016 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idle by such a quarrel, and utterly unable to bring the men to reason, finally took off his coat )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and did the disputed work with his own hands?)] TJ ET BT 290.036 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.036 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.036 152.835 m 307.028 152.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, these small issues aside, the following chapter on ?Skills and trade unions? is an inspiring one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It follows the development of the skills in the yards, the unique control the workers had over the production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process and how this was not necessarily favoured by Marxist activists who preferred the notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?homogenous united working class?. However, the shipyard workers? divisions in their skills/trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly gave them power within the employment relationship. This chapter \(chapter three\) is a very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.9957 512.5255 214.9877 524.4055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.5757 414.9895 499.5677 426.8695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.0357 153.1495 307.0277 165.0295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7975 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough analysis of these issues and is a real pleasure to read as is the following chapter \(four\) on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of machinery on the hull-builders, which discusses the introduction of technological advancements to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sector. These technological changes led to new distinct phases, from design to fitting out, all of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required a wider range of skills, new working methods, new machinery, new trades and new trade unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a huge impact on the industry. Chapter five relates to the impact of machinery and the outfitters. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are much more detailed than any other piece of literature I have read in terms of the precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machines that were introduced to the outfitters. My only personal comments would again focus on the lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attention paid to the different cultures in the different yards/regions. For example, the author neglects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences, not only between trades in one yard, but also between regional industries. For example, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland, Teesside and Tyneside, management had an agreement with the workers through their shop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stewards )] TJ ET BT 79.004 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 94.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to employ any workers from other areas until their local labour supply is exhausted. When they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are mixed, there tend to be industrial relations issues, usually around how the work is done in that particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yard, or sectionalism issues. It is also a pity that the book neglects other perspectives and wider social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the community. Even small points can be instructive, for instance, the riveters were cursed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily by the Tyneside communities, especially those living on the quayside, due to the clamour they made in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their work. It would also have been interesting to explore how much the workers were involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, for instance through their charitable work with local voluntary institutions. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing to see only a brief mention of women entering the industry during the war years on pages 86 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 88. I might have liked to read more about women?s input and experiences of this work as this was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important period, especially in terms of the beginning of the current distinctions between ?men?s work? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?women?s work?. There is a lot of material relating to this in AEEU \(now Unite\)?s archives. For instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what would be interesting to note is the importance the male workers attached to their ?skilled trade?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to the preparedness of many women to multi-skill, for instance in conducting dirty work such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being lowered into the sewerage section of ships to clean, work which the male skilled workers would more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than likely have refused. However, in all fairness, this is not actually addressed by many authors writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about this industry, but is something one might have expected to come across in this book as it is so detailed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, unless one was a particular student of this subject in its entirety one would not notice these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns, or indeed even care, as this book is so well written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these minor personal grumbles, I did really enjoy this section. It separates and explains the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the impact of the machinery on the crafts, the introduction of different trades and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of, and relationship with, their trade unions. Even the painters get four pages dedicated to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they are usually quite neglected in other literature. There are some very thorough explanations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems faced by the engineers and the AEU membership in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of material that is written in such a way it is accessible to everyone and really makes this part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book very special.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following section and next couple of chapters focus on the leadership of the Boilermakers? Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(BS\). They concentrate on the effectiveness of the craft unions in the industry and argue that, and explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how, we should not assume that this outcome was inevitable. It then gives an in-depth account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of the BS, possibly due to it being the largest of the unions in the industry. My initial reaction was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was refreshing to see a full account of Robert Knight?s leadership of the BS and Reid dedicates a lot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this section to his leadership and strategies. Reid suggests that Knight?s achievements during these years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be fully appreciated \(p. 136\). He argues that the Webbs? view of Robert Knight is more positive than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is usually thought and that they approved of his policies and saw him as a pioneer. Indeed, they described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him as ?... a man of remarkable ability and strength of character? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.932 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.932 158.067 m 362.924 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.924 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Mortimer claims that he was ?... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the most distinguished unionists ... in the history of the British Trade Union Movement?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.676 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.676 143.811 m 507.668 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reid takes a very sympathetic stance towards Robert Knight and his strategies and policies. In terms of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to the workers \(in relation to his refusals to finance local strike action or his stern attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unskilled workers\), Reid argues that ??a strong case can be made that this was a necessary restraint given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difficult industrial and financial condition of these years? \(p. 129\). Indeed, it could be argued that Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight?s style and strategy is very reminiscent of some union leaders today which it could be argued shows )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.9317 158.3815 362.9237 170.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.6757 144.1255 507.6677 156.0055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how progressive he was, although I can fully appreciate why he received hostility from the union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership, especially on Tyneside.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One reason was due to his caution with regard to the holding of shop meetings, which inevitably led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unofficial disputes, and the warning that members would be fined if precipitated strike action when work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was plentiful. A further source of hostility was an instance when Knight accused shop stewards of exceeding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their power by bargaining for fixed piecework rates.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.612 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.612 711.795 m 298.604 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.604 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The membership resented these accusations by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight as it threatened their local autonomy, together with ?... his undoubted tendency towards personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorial control.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.672 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.672 683.283 m 136.664 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reid tends to neglect these more negative aspects of Robert Knight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to argue that Robert Knight does not deserve attention for other reasons. Firstly, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because many of his policies reflect those of modern day trade unionism, in particular, in his attitude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperative relations with employers. His main policy was one of conciliation towards shipbuilding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers and he deplored strikes. Not surprisingly, he received the approval of the shipbuilding employers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although many of the membership were becoming uncomfortable with Knight's attitude and many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other trade unions resented Knight. Indeed, Knight?s policies led to long heated debates with ?Many trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists ? greatly resenting their loss of local autonomy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.324 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.324 571.491 m 328.316 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.316 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However he did pioneer some very successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joint trade union schemes. For instance, he drew together the majority of trade unions involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering and shipbuilding to form the 'Federation of Engineering and Shipbuilding Trades of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom' which was a great achievement, though any potential success for the trade unions in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective bargaining for a whole industry, was hampered due to the ASE?s refusal to take part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federation. Nonetheless, another perceived important consequence of Knight's policies was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a new negotiating procedure agreement between the Trade Union Federation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Employers Federation. This agreement was signed in 1898.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The agreement outlined a procedure for dispute settlement which stated that work should proceed pending a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement even though the North East organiser of the ASE was in 'open revolt' to the agreement. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, the Webbs claimed that the agreement ?fulfilled a useful function in settling disputes between different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 74.348 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 74.348 402.675 m 88.340 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.340 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Robert Knight was also very successful in establishing new agreements between employers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, holding the view that there was sufficient common interest between unions and employers to reach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new agreements much like the ?new unionism social partnership' strategy of the present day. However, Reid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it clear that Robert Knight was not in any sense a 'new unionist' as the term was used in this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Knight was a major figure amongst the 'older' generation of craft union leaders who were opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'new unionists' who included many prominent socialists of the time such as Kier Hardie and Tom Mann. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight claimed that ?Collectivism ... could never take the place of individualism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.644 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.644 317.139 m 449.636 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 449.636 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the bitter debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounded the exclusion of the unskilled labourers into the larger unions composed mainly of craftsmen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, despite vast criticisms of Knight, Reid also subtly notes that he WAS continually re-elected unopposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until he retired in 1899 \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine focuses on John Hill and the Clyde shipbuilding industry and I found this absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating. It is a wonderful chapter that gives an in depth description of the unrest on the Clyde and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics surrounding, is extremely well researched and it is very well written. Unfortunately what follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was less appreciated. Part three is a move to the theory and practice of craft politics and follows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of the political theory of two key craft union leaders, Knight and Hill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter moves the focus away from directly studying the shipyards and shipyard workers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections taken from Knight?s annual report quotations to highlight his politics. It also includes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of religion and Knight?s politics. I did not enjoy this chapter as much as previous ones and felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it did not fit as well. I thought it could have been more of an examination of the politics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers/crafts and/or trades rather than another sole focus on Knight. Then again, the following chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(twelve\) also focuses predominantly on Robert Knight. This makes me wonder whether this book should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have actually been two separate manuscripts. It is, after all, entitled ?shipyard workers and social relations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain? ? yet there is so much dedicated to chapters focusing solely on Robert Knight and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life/contribution to trade unionism. This is not to say that these chapters are uninteresting but if a book states )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.6117 712.1095 298.6037 723.9895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6717 683.5975 136.6637 695.4775 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.3237 571.8055 328.3157 583.6855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 74.3477 402.9895 88.3397 414.8695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.6437 317.4535 449.6357 329.3335 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 8361 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is about a certain topic I would expect it to be committed to that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter thirteen takes us back to the politics and it is refreshing to read the accounts of Lawson and Clynes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixing the realities of the harsh work in the mines/mills with their leadership roles in trade unions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. As might be evident, this section of the book is again focused on leaders of trade unions and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement with politics. It also explores the relationship between liberalism and socialism and it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where, from my perspective, it goes in another unwelcome direction. There is too much coverage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, in particular Knight and Hill, in the book as a whole. Reid argues that a full account of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour at key moments is vital for a proper understanding of the development of the early Labour Party. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It could be argued that the leadership?s social relations were important in terms of influencing the direction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the establishment of the Labour Representation Committee \(LRC\) in 1900, and that this increased their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(votes on contentious issues and enabled them to cover a range of generations, geographical regions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations \(p. 332\). However, I feel that this should have been two separate books as the latter sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from chapter six concentrated overly on just two leaders of trade unions and their politics and role in politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On a final note, I was very shocked to turn a page to find out that there was no more, which was very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing. I might have expected some kind of warning such as a conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, despite this, I thoroughly enjoyed the earlier sections of this book, and it was a wonderful read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up until the excessive coverage of Knight and Hill detracted from what its title promised would be its key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 452.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. McBride, ?Can sectionalism be good for solidarity? Some evidence from the maritime construction )] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry on Tyneside?, )] TJ ET BT 176.672 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic and Industrial Democracy)] TJ ET BT 354.308 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published online 6 January 2011 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eid.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/10/26/0143831X10377807.abstract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 422.691 m 439.664 422.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.664 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 456.656 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>; J. McBride, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Persistence of Power? Trade Union Workplace Union Organisation and Industrial Relations in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Tyneside Maritime Construction Industry)] TJ ET BT 280.676 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, PhD thesis \(University of Northumbria, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.992 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.992 394.179 m 550.988 394.179 l S BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 379.923 m 78.008 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 117.344 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Craft, Class and Control: The Sociology of a Shipbuilding Community)] TJ ET BT 456.044 367.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 463.040 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 351.411 m 118.004 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. And B. Webb, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Democracy)] TJ ET BT 254.660 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1920\), pp. 510, 513.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.984 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.984 337.155 m 455.972 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 322.899 m 170.336 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. E. Mortimer, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Boilermakers? Society. Volume I 1834-1906)] TJ ET BT 421.976 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.300 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.300 308.643 m 557.288 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid; J. F. Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 151.016 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour Relations in Engineering and Shipbuilding on the North East Coast in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Second Half of the 19th Century)] TJ ET BT 219.008 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, MA Thesis, \(University of Newcastle. 1966\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.304 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.304 280.131 m 496.292 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortimer, p. 168.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.012 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.012 265.875 m 203.000 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. F. Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Building Ships on the North East Coast. Part 1. c1640?1914, A Labour of Love, Risk and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pain)] TJ ET BT 86.684 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Middlesbrough, 1997\) p. 330.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.008 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.008 237.363 m 290.996 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Webb, p. 132.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.672 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.672 223.107 m 185.660 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortimer, p. 125.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.012 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.012 208.851 m 209.000 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Launch of ?The Tide of Democracy, shipyard 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