%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818073448+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818073448+01'00') /Title (Gentile Tales: the Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3623 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gentile Tales: the Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visitors to the Chapel of the Holy Blood \(consecrated 1396\) in Pulkau, Lower Austria, may view a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnificent winged altarpiece with carved scenes of the crucifixion. The wing panels contain paintings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high standard, attributed to a master of the Danube School, Nicholas Breu, who painted them around 1520. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These panels are no longer available for public viewing, perhaps because of their content: they depict a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desecration of the sacramental wafer, the host, by a group of Jews. The alleged sacrile ge, dating to 1338, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had disastrous consequences for the Jews. According to the chronicler John of Viktring, the Jews were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despoiled of their treasures, drowned, burnt, beheaded, eviscerated. Whole families were destroyed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including children in their cribs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This latter motif is repeated in a magnificent series of paintings executed by Paolo Uccello \(1465 X 8\) on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(predella)] TJ ET BT 74.012 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the altarpiece of the Communion of the Apostles in the Ducal Palace in Urbino. In one scene, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish family stands transfixed as a Christian mob batters down the door to their house, alerted to a host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desecration by the miraculous flow of blood through the walls of the house. One of the two Jewish children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeps in terror, while a younger sibling clings to the mother 's skirts. A subsequent panel shows the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, bound together at the stake, as the flames consume them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(105)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miri Rubin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(279pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Klier)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7808 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miri Rubin's extraordinary book contains a multitude of such images, on altarpieces, stained glass, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminated manuscripts and woodcuts. Many of them depict the horrendous punishments inflicted upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish miscreants \(when they were not simple massacred )] TJ ET BT 313.292 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(en masse)] TJ ET BT 356.948 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by vengeful crowds\). The punishments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were so public and horrific that one wonders what lethal curiosity drove Jews to steal hosts in order to stab, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucify, boil, burn and defile them, when they knew the penalties which awaited the discovery of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misdeeds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer, of course, is that Jews did )] TJ ET BT 222.644 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 237.980 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( steal the sacramental bread, despite the confessions which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often extracted from them by investigators. \(R. Po-Chia Hsia's analysis of the investigation of the alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderers of Simon of Trent in the celebrated ritual murder case demonstrates how Jews could be made, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to confess, but to provide the required detail and evidence which was expected of them, )] TJ ET BT 481.928 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trent 1475. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stories of a Ritual Murder Trial)] TJ ET BT 187.700 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [New Haven, 1992], 34-50.\) In point of fact, Jews were only too aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the danger which the accusation carried, as Rubin demonstrates in a particularly useful chapter drawn from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Jewish sources. As the title of this book reminds us, the host desecration myth is not about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("real" Jews at all, but rather a projection of the fears and obsessions of their Christian neighbours: "Gentile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tales.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gavin Langmuir has already posited that the host desecration myth grew out of Christian insecurities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the elaboration of the Christian doctrine of transubstantiation, whereby the body and blood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ is truly, physically present in the guise of the consecrated sacramental bread and wine. \(Gavin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langmuir, )] TJ ET BT 87.344 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History, Religion and Antisemitism)] TJ ET BT 256.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [London and New York, 1990], 300-1, and at greater length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his )] TJ ET BT 63.356 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toward a Definition of Antisemitism)] TJ ET BT 238.712 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1990]\) . Christian theologians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grappled with some of the obvious biological problems which attended this belief, such as the implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of digestion and excrement. \(It is striking how often Jews were alleged to have disposed of the desecrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wafer on a dung-hill or in a latrine.\) The ceremony and ritual which attended the consecration, the respect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which the consecrated bread was treated, created an aura of magic which was seemingly at odds with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the common-sense physical evidence available to on-lo okers. Thus arose another common ingredient of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale: it is a Christian who first steals the host and then offers it to the Jew. The growing centrality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preciousness of the host, as Rubin also notes, led to a growing sense of unease about the Jew's proximity to it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Christian space. This was a specific example of the Church's general regret that Jews at this time were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so closely integrated, at least by physical location, into the Christian community. The tale represents part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cultural dri ve which sought to expel Jews to the very periphery of Christian society, if not to be rid of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them entirely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubin is not satisfied with generalities alone. She also seeks to demonstrate that representations, visual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verbal, can only be understood if we see how they are embedded within the contexts which accredited them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gave them meaning. Indeed, a special strength of Rubin's study is that it goes beyond psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation to demonstrate specifically how the tale evolved and spread, locating it securely within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of time and place. In addition, she examines episodes where the narrative "failed," and did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoke either violence or the communal self-justification which invariably followed it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ur)] TJ ET BT 66.344 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-tale upon which the mythic construction began was the Tale of the Jewish Boy. It relates how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish boy accidentally received communion, and was thrown into a fiery oven by his indignant father. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Retrieved unhurt by Christians, the boy relates how he has been preserved by the beautiful woman whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image he had seen in church \(i.e. the Virgin Mary\). The story ends with the conversion of the boy and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother, and the relegation of the obdurate father to the flames. Rubin identifies the narrative potentialities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tale: it is conversion tale which also depicts the Jews, threateningly, at close quarters with the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysteries, as well as a piece of incipient Mariology. The link of Mary the Mother of God introduced the mot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if of the Christ Child in proximity to the host, a linkage which proved extremely fertile. In the accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Rubin, it was always the infant Christ who appeared in the host. \(Rubin notes that the host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desecration tale and the ritual murder motif were originally quite separate, but proved susceptible to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful process of convergence. The Tale of the Jewish Boy proved very popular, and gained a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider audience through its inclusion in collections of )] TJ ET BT 291.992 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exempla)] TJ ET BT 331.976 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Widely circulat ed, narrators added local )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5097 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features to make the tale their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first fully documented version of a host desecration was the case of Paris in 1290. In its completeness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and satisfactory resolution--the host saved after miraculously revealing itself, the female Christian accessory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punished, the Jew's family converted, and the Jewish malefactor himself burned at the stake--it proved an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent narrative model. Artistic fall-out was also an important element of the case. The Jew's house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the site for a chapel which housed some of the relics of the aff air. The case inspired numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists across Europe: the Urbino paintings noted above purport to illustrate the Paris case. Whether under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the direct influence of Paris, or a case of parallel development, further incidents soon emerged in Franconia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading, in 1298, to a series of bloody incidents known as the Rintfleisch massacres. These popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbances displayed affinities to the massacre of Jewish communities during the First Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubin seeks to go beyond a mere chronicle of the most notorious host desecration episodes. She excels at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putting events in the context of the wider societies and the specific societies. On one level, she shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tale was gendered: the perpetrator was always a male Jew, his accomplice was normally a female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian and, as a further demonstration of female inconstancy, the Jew's wife was unsupportive and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converted in the aftermath of events. Innocent children, both Christian and Jewish, often served as a source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reliable information and the identifiers of miraculous events. \(Their youth, again as noted above, did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve some Jewish children from collective punishment meted out to families and communities alike.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local and regional peculiarities coloured the narrative. Anti-clerical sentiment was voiced through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personae of sceptical priests or corruptible sextons. Regions under weak princely authority might produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions which portrayed the royal authority in a po or light. This was also a reflection of the reluctance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers to allow local authorities to destroy "their" Jews, a source of royal income.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubin explores how the narrative was communicated through art and literature and made to "work." As she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes, the myth produced works of great artistic merit, but it was very much a "cruel beauty." The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Reformation put paid to the myth in much of Germany, undermining both the sacramental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrity of the tale, as well as the artistic celebration linked to it. The display of miraculous hosts, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimages to chapels and shrines, fell into desuetude. Metaphorically, the winged altar screens were closed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miri Rubin's work is a major contribution to the study of the history of pre-modern Antisemitism and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Jewish-Christian relations in the late Middle Ages. It is handsomely illustrated, in a perverse way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing the observer to look beyond the surface beauty of works of great skill and creativity, to the grim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human tragedy which lies close to the surface.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 289.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 272.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 272.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/105)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 270.633 m 322.316 270.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 245.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/673)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 270.9475 322.3157 282.8275 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/105) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004311 00000 n 0000004420 00000 n 0000004530 00000 n 0000004639 00000 n 0000008200 00000 n 0000008328 00000 n 0000008412 00000 n 0000008477 00000 n 0000016338 00000 n 0000016422 00000 n 0000021572 00000 n 0000021700 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21795 %%EOF