%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819000923+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819000923+01'00') /Title (Projections of Power: The United States and Europe in Colonial Southeast Asia, 1919-1941) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4442 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Projections of Power: The United States and Europe in Colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia, 1919-1941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the autumn of 1942, as Britain and the United States delicately negotiated the roles each would play in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South and Southeast Asian theatres of war against Japan, British colonial officials in London prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter the American anti-colonial rhetoric which had already accompanied the first Americans dispatched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to India in early 1942. The India Office consulted with the Foreign Office about American policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippines, specifically regarding any emergency power or authority the United States had retained when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had framed the self-governing Philippine Commonwealth in the 1930s, and whether any American official, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including MacArthur, had used these powers from December 1941 onward. Given American pressure for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain to bring about a ?fully self-governing? India immediately, one British official noted, any indications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the United States had itself relied on such colonial prerogatives ?would be worth while [sic] having on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record here.? Unfortunately for the India Office, however, the former British consul in Manila advised that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Americans had not exercised any such emergency powers before or after 1941, and that MacArthur had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically left the imposition of any wartime measures to the Filipino government itself, so as to ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filipinos? full cooperation in the war effort. Faced with this report, the India Office adviser noted ruefully: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I?m afraid we shall have to give this up?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.972 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.972 107.985 m 250.964 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To understand fully the context and the multiple levels of meaning for this brief episode, one can now turn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Foster?s new study of American and European actions and interactions in pre-war Southeast Asia. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, this moment illuminates in microcosm one of the major themes she articulates in this book: how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1052)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Foster)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duke University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Muldoon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.9717 108.2995 250.9637 120.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7425 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American rhetoric and action could simultaneously confound, enrage and encourage other European colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers in this region. The India Office sought to undermine American support for Indian autonomy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that the United States had acted as a traditional colonial power in the recent past as well. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this effort foundered for lack of evidence that the Americans, who appeared to be colonial rulers, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperious MacArthur, had behaved as such. A dearth of information, the realization that American actions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Philippines might actually encourage Indian nationalists, and the knowledge that the United States was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful enough both to save the British position in Asia and undermine it simultaneously ? all of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the context for the India Office?s activities of late 1942.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on British, French, Dutch and American sources, Foster argues for an internationalized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated understanding of colonial Southeast Asia between the world wars, but also towards the conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?that the presence of the United States as a colonial power was instrumental in creating the type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism which existed during the period 1919?1941? \(p. ix\). She sees an interplay among the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers in the region, but emphasizes particularly the powerful, yet at times ambiguous, role played by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, a ?colonial? power to be sure, but not one cut from the same cloth as the European colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes in Asia. Apart from the Philippines, it was the pursuit of strategic and economic interests, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory or sovereignty, which propelled American policies and decisions in Asia. And even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippines, by the 1930s, direct political control was being phased out, in keeping with the evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American belief that ?formal colonial rule was outmoded, requiring new forms ? for knitting dependent parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world to more powerful parts of the world? \(p. 5\). Indeed, one might argue, as Foster seems to here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?colonialism? for Americans meant the successful pursuit of American interests more than anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(else, certainly with support for the more formal colonial regimes in the region, though only insofar as these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes aided and abetted the American project. Herein lay the roots of European frustration and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exasperation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The likelihood that the United States might remain involved in a colonial system, yet not necessarily be of it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was apparent early in the inter-war period. While Washington refused to be drawn into binding agreements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the future of the Asian colonies, and pressed for a continued ?Open Door? for commerce and finance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the region, the Americans did act to maintain the colonial status quo ?often enough? to allay some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European concerns, without at the same time supporting explicit repression that might limit American room )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maneuver in the future \(p. 16\). Foster emphasizes the ways in which American and European authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted in concert to thwart indigenous communism, sharing information and cooperating, in one case, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return forcibly the Indonesian communist Tan Malaka from the Philippines to the Dutch Indies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American economic and cultural activities in the 1920s also left something of a mixed message. Foster notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that American officials worked diligently to preserve the country?s economic interests in the region, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided voicing any ?commitment to uphold a particular political constellation? there \(p. 69\). European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial officials heard an American desire to maintain stability in the region, but also believed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States had a ?strange way of promoting stability? \(p. 70\). In particular, American firms and officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked to undermine existing systems by which colonial powers controlled access to natural resources like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oil and rubber. By 1928 American pressure, exercised though the nation?s ability to consume and by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouragement of native or indigenous producers, had broken British efforts to keep rubber production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrained and prices artificially high. The American government also used its control of domestic oil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to negotiate for a place for a Standard Oil subsidiary in the Indies, denying access to American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oilfields to Royal Dutch-Shell until Americans could gain a foothold in Indonesia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The spread of American culture in myriad ways was perhaps of even greater concern to Europeans charged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with preserving their nations? long-term fortunes in Asia. In her cogently argued and integrated chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three, Foster relates the various forms such ?culture? took and the pathways on which it moved through all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial Southeast Asia. She also argues for a recognition of the ambiguous politics of these cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffusions, claiming that Americans viewed cultural transmissions, the encouragement of consumption and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spread of capitalist ideas as helping move Asians towards ?modernity? and eventual self-government, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also as ways of ensuring the continued importance of the United States as an imperial force of some kind in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the region for the long-term as well. American consumer goods, from automobiles to films, flooded into )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia in the 1920s, as did American missionaries and industrialists who saw themselves as introducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning, democratic responsibility and scientific efficiency, all of which contrasted not only with indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, but also with outmoded colonial thinking. Indirectly, American actions in the Philippines garnered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close attention from Europeans and Asians alike. It also may have confounded both groups, as noted above, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for she stresses that the fairly conservatively structured Philippine Commonwealth represented neither ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger to the colonial order ? nor the path to quick independence? \(p. 86\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic and political catastrophes of the 1930s seemed to bring about a change in American attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards colonial regimes in Asia, but Foster warns against seeing too dramatic a shift, as American interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still continued to drive policy-making, with support for empire remaining contingent on its benefits for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. With the global economy in collapse, American businesses and politicians abandoned their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to free trade and embraced a more traditional approach to resource extraction in Asia, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which privileged colonial exporters at the expense of indigenous producers. The International Rubber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regulation Committee, which set colonial export quotas to preserve the existence of these colonial states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, received qualified, but consistent, American support. Regulation did not necessarily harm the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the United States anyways, for American manufacturers appreciated the price stability, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States preserved good relationships with the European colonial powers, who were seen as eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers again, but also useful allies against what many saw as the greatest threat to Asian stability: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of imperial Japan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political and military developments in the 1930s brought Europeans and Americans closer as well, albeit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively unsystematic or informal ways. American officials observed French and British reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolts in Vietnam and Burma respectively and were happy to accept these powers? conclusions that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former uprising was the work of Communists, and the latter an atavistic effort to restore a Burmese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy. Communism remained a scourge, and indigenous politics resolutely pre-modern, in American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds, so there was little criticism of the violent and comprehensive European repressions which followed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of Japanese expansion throughout the decade, a feeling of European confusion over American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions continued, though it was now exacerbated, Foster senses, by the fact that only the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all the powers with interests in Asia, possessed the ?latent military power? to stand up to Japan \(p. 157\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discerning American priorities became a major task for Britain especially, but the signs were not at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassuring. Much discussion centered on the future of the Philippines, where the British saw only negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes: an American-led declaration of the islands? neutrality would provide a tripwire for an American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to Japanese action there, but would also mean the near-total removal of American fortifications and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military establishments in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, a grant of Filipino independence without this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutralization established would mean the U.S. would have absolutely no binding obligations to this part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world. Given the trajectory of American rule in the Philippines, these were the only options going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward, and it is little wonder that the British Foreign Secretary, Eden, could only counsel ?inaction? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain on the issue \(p. 164\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concluding her assessment, Foster argues that despite the complicated and at times contradictory actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken and relationships established by the Americans in Southeast Asia between the world wars, this subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires more than simply \(and very valuably\) providing a description of the complexities of this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the colonial world. She notes the importance of this period for the emergence of the notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined and delineated Southeast Asia, predating the formalization of this idea in such structures as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia Command \(SEAC\) in the 1940s. \(That SEAC became known to some American soldiers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Save England?s Asian Colonies? speaks again to an existing American ambivalence about empire.\) How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the framing of this region corresponded to other regional identities ? like the British ?Great Crescent? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated by Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper ? is one of the excellent pointers towards further research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book provides. She also makes a convincing case that America?s vision of itself as an anti-colonial force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the region is not entirely uncomplicated, as her overall investigation has revealed that the United States, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in its short-term thinking, tended to uphold and support the existing colonial order in Asia in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue American interests, while simultaneously publicizing ideas and practices deleterious to colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states? survival in the region in the longer term. This leads Foster to a final judgment that the history of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American foreign policy in Asia, and perhaps generally, ought to reconsider the notion that United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy after 1945 represented a sharp break with that before the war. Rather, as this book has demonstrated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about communism certainly influenced American support for colonial states against insurgencies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inter-war period. Moreover, the contrast between American rhetoric and American action regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism and post-colonial development in Asia particularly after 1945 seems an intensification of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had come before, not a something wholly new to Americans and Asians alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster?s writing is forthright and her conclusions precise. Some questions inevitably remain, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the scale and scope of her project. One concerns not policies, but people. Foster notes near the end that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one significant difference between the United States and other colonial powers in Asia was the lack of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American version of Britain?s Colonial Office. American diplomats, officials and military officers came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from divergent backgrounds and bureaucracies, all of which featured different training regimes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assignments. What role did this sort of set-up play not only in the development of coherent American ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Asia?s relationship to the United States, but also in the ways in which European officials struggled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find some consistency in American policy-making or some indication that there was an identifiable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?American voice? in Asia? Were there continuities in personnel or generational cohorts who provided a sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?steel frame? for the pursuit of American interests? After all, these were America?s elites as well, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated exclusively. Did some find themselves drawn to their similarly-privileged European counterparts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of Asian politics and society, and could that explain the often convoluted messages the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to send to the colonial world?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One other aspect of American involvement in colonial Southeast Asia might merit further attention as well. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this book has demonstrated, there is certainly cause to argue for some continuities between pre- and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War American approaches to the region. There is also the question, however, of continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between pre-war interactions in Asia and the ways in which the United States and the European colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers struggled at times to work cohesively against Japan in the war. British concerns about the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States? use of the war as a means of getting a commercial foothold in India, for example, should be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the economic jousting between the two in the 1920s. The problem of distinguishing between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Americans said about India, Gandhi and independence and what they might actually do regarding India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in practice was a further vexation to the India Office, and even Churchill. The sight of well-fed and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied American troops in India, testament to the ?latent? strength Foster references in her work, further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated the British effort to demonstrate imperial prestige to Britons and Indians alike. Friction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstanding between the powers was nothing new in the 1940s, though the presence of Joseph Stilwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The existence of these questions does not detract from Foster?s work at all. Instead, they demonstrate how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructively she has raised, and answered, some illuminating questions about the American role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia, and how her vision of these interactions in the inter-war years may point the way to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiries about continuities in American foreign policy and about the American relationship to the idea and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of empire as well. Readable, engaging and contentious, this book will be welcomed by teachers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of American foreign policy, Asian studies and modern imperialism alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See correspondence of October-November 1942 in India Office Records, L/I/1/820, especially A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morley to F.C. Evans \(Foreign Office\), 21 October 1942, and Evans to Morley, 18 November 1942.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 137.571 m 118.004 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 93.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 75.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 75.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1052)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 74.553 m 328.316 74.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 137.8855 118.0037 149.7655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 74.8675 328.3157 86.7475 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1052) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5362)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000005290 00000 n 0000005400 00000 n 0000005509 00000 n 0000009070 00000 n 0000009198 00000 n 0000009282 00000 n 0000009311 00000 n 0000009439 00000 n 0000009475 00000 n 0000009540 00000 n 0000017018 00000 n 0000017083 00000 n 0000024572 00000 n 0000024663 00000 n 0000031313 00000 n 0000031440 00000 n 0000031495 00000 n 0000031621 00000 n 0000031717 00000 n 0000031782 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32068 %%EOF