%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141222012713+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141222012713+00'00') /Title (The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, and Indian Allies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4081 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rebels, and Indian Allies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812 has the unfortunate fate of being wedged between two of the most greatly studied events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world history, the American Revolution and Civil War. Indeed, the looming bicentennial of the 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict promises to be overshadowed by year two of the Civil War sesquicentennial. Yet one can hope that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Taylor?s remarkably researched and cogently argued book will ignite scholarly and even public interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this conflict. Taylor?s superb study promises to reshape not only our understanding of the second and last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American conflict, but also the broader story concerning the new political structures that emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the British imperial crisis of the late 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of Taylor?s richly detailed study is what he calls the ?northern borderland? that stretches from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Detroit in the west to Montreal in the east. This strategic zone was the site of a post-revolutionary 'cold war' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the newly independent United States and its former colonial master \(p. 28\). Neither the Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor the British were content with the 1783 settlement that concluded the American War of Independence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American statesmen of the Jeffersonian persuasion viewed Canada as a menacing outpost of monarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism that was paradoxically populated by proto-republicans who yearned to be liberated; British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialists, such as Upper Canada's Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, sought to consolidate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('counterrevolutionary regime in Canada? that eventually would become strong enough to rollback American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1055)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Taylor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781400042654)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.62)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(640pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred A. Knopf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Sexton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism \(p. 5\). Simcoe is one of many long neglected figures who emerge as an important actor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War of 1812)] TJ ET BT 141.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor shows how the competition for hearts and minds in the borderlands fueled imperial innovation on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides of the porous northern border. The American 1787 Northwest Ordinance, which promised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican government and political equality to settlers in that region, and the de-centralized Constitution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same year are well known to American historians. Less recognized is Britain?s rejoinder. The Canada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional Act of 1791, which divided Quebec into the new provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created ?a mixed constitution meant to attract American settlers while minimizing their political activity? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to maintain British control \(pp. 42?3\). Simcoe's 1792 proclamation further enticed some 30,000 'late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalists' from America to the newly created Upper Canada by granting each immigrant family 200 acres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land and the promise of low taxes, a lesson learnt from 1776. In return, settlers had to take an oath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance to the King and Parliament. By 1812 these ?Late Loyalists? from America comprised 60 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the population of Upper Canada. If the American mantra in the borderlands was political equality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican liberty, that of Britain was economic opportunity premised upon law, order, and colonial stability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the ideological divisions of this post-revolutionary ?cold war,? relative tranquility prevailed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderland in the decades after 1783 \(at least between white settlers\). The inhabitants of this area were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly small farmers whose chief ambition was to own land and profit from its exploitation. Taylor argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that most individual settlers, particularly those on the Canadian side of the border, simply wanted peace and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be left alone to tend to their personal affairs. But the perceived insecurity of both sides in an era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geopolitical instability undermined this tentative truce. Americans feared that Indians remained the pawns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British, who maintained control of several forts within American territory until the late 1790s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the escalation of partisan conflict of the First Party System led many Jeffersonian Republicans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conclude that the Federalists were the lackeys of the British enemy. Rooting out the ?counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries? in Canada, in this formulation, became necessary to prevent their ascendency within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic itself. British Canadians, on the other hand, feared the infiltration of republican ideas, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a pressing concern in light of the high number of British troops who deserted southward across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor makes clear that the American desire to annex Canada was not the sole, or even primary, motive for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US declaration of war in 1812. After all, the vote on Madison?s war message is best explained by party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affiliation, rather than region or expansionist intentions. Taylor contends that the US declaration of war must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be understood in light of ?the )] TJ ET BT 178.004 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(synergy)] TJ ET BT 215.324 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of multiple grievances in producing an explosive combination of fear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and loathing by Republicans of Britons and Indians? \(p. 135\). He further argues that the various causes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict ? impressment, the Orders in Council, contestation in the northern borderlands, and the fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Americans ? all ?pivoted on the contentious boundary between the king?s subject and the republic?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s portrayal of the northern borderland during the 1812 conflict is one of great complexity, justifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the over-arching framework of ?civil war?: brother fought brother on the contested Niagara front and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties were in a constant state of flux; Irish immigrants to America brought with them their hatred of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and took the fight against the British Empire to Canada \(that being said, many Irishmen also fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the British\); Indians also fought for both sides, though most allied with Britain in hopes of containing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansionist republic that most coveted their lands; within the United States, partisan conflict threatened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American union itself, not least in the borderlands where Federalists undermined the war effort through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smuggling and political dissent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s rich and detailed analysis exposes the crudeness of prevailing interpretations of the conflict that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premised upon monolithic national categories. Yet )] TJ ET BT 279.656 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 389.996 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how the very messiness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict paradoxically hardened the borderline between Canada and the United States. The bloody and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructive nature of the conflict itself is of great importance in this regard. Before the conflict, Taylor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the new settlers in Upper Canada were largely apolitical and interested mostly in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic fortunes. But many turned toward the British during the conflict. This was in part a result of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American failure to persuade Canadians that they would be better off in the United States. Statesmen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington never outlined their vision for Canada, nor offered annexation on the terms of political equality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor American military strategy also undermined the American invasion. In an interesting section, Taylor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that the United States focused its limited resources and manpower on the peripheral Detroit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niagara fronts instead of the more important St. Lawrence Valley due to the need to satisfy wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American David Parish who loaned money to the US government on the condition that the conflict would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not endanger his landholdings in the valley. But it was the many American depredations in the region during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war that most turned the settlers of Upper Canada toward the British ? the burning of the Canadian towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of York and Newark; widespread looting and confiscation of private property; particularly savage conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with native peoples. ?To woo Upper Canadians,? Taylor writes, ?the American generals posed as liberators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but their men behaved too much like the ruthless plunderers described by British propaganda? \(p. 12\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the failure of the American invasions of Canada, Taylor contends that the United States ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged as the victors of the civil war of 1812. The conflict consolidated America?s grip on its 1783 borders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and established its hegemony over native peoples in both the Northwest and the Southwest. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statesmen never again would challenge the territorial integrity of the United States. In a brief but compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Andrew Jackson and the Southwest, Taylor rebukes the old notion that the US victory at New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orleans was of little consequence given that it occurred after the signing \(though not ratification\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace treaty. The American triumph in New Orleans made clear to British statesmen the costs of warring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the United States, as well as helped to foster a powerful, patriotic nationalism in a union that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to dissolve from within during the New England Federalist convention in Hartford, Connecticut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1814. The American nationalism unleashed by the conflict found a counterpart north of the border. In both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places, imagined nationalist memories of the war justified the post-war suppression of internal political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissent. ?The ultimate legacy of the war was that the empire and the republic would share the continent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along a more clearly defined border more generous to the Americans and more confining to the British ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most ominous to the Indians? \(p. 439\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contributions of Taylor?s work to our understanding of early American history are many. It shall further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompt historians to view America?s struggle for independence as an ongoing and multifaceted process that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasted well into the nineteenth century. The book makes clear that the War of 1812 was a continuation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Revolution: it entailed geopolitical and citizenship issues that the 1783 peace treaty left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unresolved, as well as fueled the anti-colonial nationalism \(and colonial nationalism in the case of Canada\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that filled the vacuum created by the partial dissolution of British authority in North America. This book also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheds fresh light on long-neglected questions of social history. In a particularly illuminating chapter, Taylor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how independent-minded American citizens struggled to adapt to the regimentation and discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required of military service. Furthermore, the book introduces a new cast of characters whose lives should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further explored. Though the book succeeds in wedding high politics with the messy story on the ground, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless makes clear that the stories of the borderlands and imperial expansion are ones in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan actors had very limited control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 144.356 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also sheds new light on what Taylor calls ?a new ?Canadian? nationality? \(p. 171\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American aggression and looting helped solidify loyalism, which received an added boost by British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration patterns in the post-1815 period. But Taylor also suggests that this British/Canadian nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rooted in the decades before the 1812 war and was defined in largely negative terms: ?Britons defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Upper Canada as a set of absences: as free from the social and political pathologies attributed to the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States? \(p. 71\). America thus played a role in the emergence of Canadian identity not unlike that which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain played in the emergence of early American nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s conclusion emphasizes the rigidity of the border after 1815. Britain?s grip on Canada was never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously challenged again in the 19th century, either from within or without. Both sides consolidated their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions on their respective side of the border. British leaders rejected Simcoe?s old strategy of attracting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American settlers to Canada and instituted a rigid naturalization process to guard against republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infiltration. This reviewer had a couple of questions on this point. First, to what extent did the ?hardening? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the border shut down the economic connections of the earlier period, which of course persisted during the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4617 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict via smuggling and lived on in a later \(if ephemeral\) period of reciprocal trade in the mid 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? Second, in what ways did the hardening of the border in the Detroit/Niagara region extend to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas that did not witness the same carnage during 1812?4? What of the St. Lawrence Valley, which saw less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting and where smuggling was rampant during the conflict, as well places further afield such as Maine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, later, the Northwest? In other words, Taylor?s study should prompt future scholars to examine how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and divisions established before and during the 1812 conflict expanded across the emerging US-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian border.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The division of the continent in the first decades of the 19th century into British and American zones \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as Mexican\) is of undeniable importance. Yet a sub-theme in Taylor?s work concerns the convergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the racial attitudes and policy towards native peoples on either side of the border. Though white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and Canadians developed no small amount of animus toward one another during the 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, this paled in comparison to their shared fear of the native peoples they deemed to be uncivilized. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor makes clear that the hardening of the border undermined the position of native peoples on both sides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freed from the need to defend a border that both sides now accepted, American and Britons repudiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime Indian alliances and initiated policies that aimed to dispossess the Indians of their land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform their way of life. The convergences between the old enemies might be taken further. The gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of ?responsible government,? or ?home rule,? kept Canada in the British Empire, yet it echoed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American model of granting autonomy to settlers on the periphery as called for in the Northwest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordinance. In this regard, Taylor?s wonderful book is not only epilogue to the American Revolution, but is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also prologue to the 19th century story of Anglo-American rapprochement and imperial reciprocity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada's History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.canadashistory.ca/Books/Book-Reviews/Reviews/The-Civil-War-of-1812--American-Citizens,-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 457.443 m 552.272 457.443 l S BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British-.aspx)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 443.187 m 95.684 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.684 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opemlettersmonthly)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/there-can-only-be-one/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 414.675 m 321.308 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.308 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 411.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 393.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 393.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1055)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 392.169 m 328.316 392.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5374)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.canadashistory.ca/Books/Book-Reviews/Reviews/The-Civil-War-of-1812--American-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Citizens,-British-.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/there-can-only-be-one/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 457.7575 552.2717 469.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.canadashistory.ca/Books/Book-Reviews/Reviews/The-Civil-War-of-1812--American-Citizens,-British-.aspx) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 443.5015 95.6837 455.3815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.canadashistory.ca/Books/Book-Reviews/Reviews/The-Civil-War-of-1812--American-Citizens,-British-.aspx) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 414.9895 321.3077 426.8695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/there-can-only-be-one/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 392.4835 328.3157 404.3635 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1055) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000005137 00000 n 0000008698 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008910 00000 n 0000008975 00000 n 0000016400 00000 n 0000016465 00000 n 0000024018 00000 n 0000024123 00000 n 0000028793 00000 n 0000028920 00000 n 0000029083 00000 n 0000029209 00000 n 0000029372 00000 n 0000029499 00000 n 0000029607 00000 n 0000029735 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29831 %%EOF