%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722051839+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722051839+01'00') /Title (Wisdom and Chivalry: Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Medieval Political Theory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4097 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wisdom and Chivalry: Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Political Theory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many years ago this reviewer attended a meeting of the Cambridge interdisciplinary medievalists? group at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Terry Jones, who had recently published his debunking book on Chaucer?s knight, bravely crossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swords with Derek Brewer, then the foremost Chaucerian scholar, in front of an audience which included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of the university?s teachers of medieval English literature. Once this audience started chipping in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the discussion became more general, the historians grew increasingly restive and their unease was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally expressed by the then Professor of Medieval History, J. C. Holt, who said with characteristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bluntness, ?It seems to me that the problem with this entire discussion is that no-one has tried to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irony?. And that really summed up the frustration experienced by many historians when reading studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval literature: that there is little or no attempt to retrieve the mindset of those who wrote it or for whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was written and that too much is refracted through the modern prejudices and assumptions of the critic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, irony itself is central both to Jones?s reassessment of how we are to view Chaucer?s knight and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaucerian studies more generally. As Rigby points out, the belief that great art is differentiated from lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works by being subversive, sceptical, ironic has been applied with particular force to Chaucer by a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of critical schools. That this includes the New Historicists, who purport to place literary works within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their historical contexts, is one of the abiding mysteries of modern literary criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1057)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. H. Rigby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789004176249)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(101.60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(329pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Carpenter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8399 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer?s )] TJ ET BT 86.996 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 175.676 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, even more than the pen-portrait of the teller, has been subjected to contrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations. What Rigby sets out to do is to bring a historian?s trained eye or, as he puts it, quoting an art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, ?a period eye? \(p. 10\) to his analysis by using writings with which Chaucer would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly or indirectly familiar. This is in fact what a historian would have hoped that a literary historicist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would do but in practice seldom does. The medieval writer whose ideas have most preoccupied literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics? work on )] TJ ET BT 114.332 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 203.012 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been Boethius because Boethian ideas are a significant addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by Chaucer to his original source, Boccaccio?s )] TJ ET BT 290.960 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Teseida)] TJ ET BT 328.292 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rigby argues, however, that Boethian ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not confined to philosophers but absorbed into more general beliefs on how men should live. And, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the man at the centre of )] TJ ET BT 190.964 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 279.644 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a ruler, Rigby takes as his main source Giles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome?s )] TJ ET BT 75.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Regimine Principum)] TJ ET BT 191.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a product of the Aristotelian revival of the late 13th century and one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most influential works of political theory in late medieval Europe. His exposition of Giles is supplemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a dazzling amount of reading in medieval thought and literature. By this means, although Giles is central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his analysis almost throughout, Rigby is able to show that Giles?s ideas were part of the common pool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought for educated men at this time \(and some women: one of his writers is of course Christine de Pisan\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, although Rigby admits the uncertainty as to whether Chaucer had read Giles, whether he did or not is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immaterial because Giles? ideas and those of the writers who influenced him so permeated European thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and literature in this period. Indeed one of the pleasures of this book is not just the exhibition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchange between Chaucer and the ideological tradition with which he grew up but also of the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary works across much of Europe, whether in English, French, Italian or Latin, in the period up to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Chaucer, refracted and reflected this tradition, sometimes passing it between themselves. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the number of copies of Giles known to have been in circulation in England at this time, it is highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that Chaucer did read it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rigby?s starting point is that it has been generally agreed that, through the focal point of )] TJ ET BT 461.636 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 550.316 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theseus, duke of Athens, ?the tale presents the duke to us ?as part of a literary structure embodying ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain view of life?? \(p.1: Rigby quoting the literary critic A. C. Spearing\). The disagreement is over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the ?view of life?. The interpretations are many and various, encompassing amongst other things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theseus? conquest of and relations with Hippolyta, his war on Creon, his delight in hunting, his treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heroes and rivals Palamon and Arcite and of Hippolyta?s sister, Emily, with whom both fall in love. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale has even been read in reductionist fashion as an allegory of politics in England in Chaucer?s time, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in itself problematic since there is no certainty about when he wrote the version we have now. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions concerning the work are summed up in three main interpretations: that Theseus is wise, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom reflecting the knight?s; that Theseus is ?cruel and ignoble?, even ?Machiavellian or ? tyrannical? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6\), so Chaucer?s commendation of his actions is ironic, just like the description of the knight; that we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invited to take a ?dialogic? view of his actions, choosing our own perspective. Then, using a sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exegesis of Giles?s work as his analytical tool, Rigby shows how )] TJ ET BT 349.988 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 438.668 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be absorbed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moral framework deployed by Giles but also commonplace in thought at this time: the rule of the self, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the household and of the kingdom and the desirability that ?the good rule of the self and of society should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modelled on the rightful order of the natural world as a whole? \(p. 24\). The great merit of this approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the interpretation ceases to be merely in the eye of the beholder and subject to some modern political or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary theory but is firmly grounded in the understanding that Chaucer himself is likely to have had. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore as objective as it is possible to be. Inevitably, as with any historical endeavour, there will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objections to Rigby?s interpretation and use of his evidence but they should be made on his own grounds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not for ideological reasons or on grounds of literary theory. He has laid down a challenge to literary critics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period to be less ahistorical and more sensitive to the meaning of the words they study which they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do well to take up. His analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 218.000 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tale)] TJ ET BT 239.336 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a tour de force.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last frontier and the one hardest to cross is where we started: irony. It might be possible to agree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything Rigby tells us but still to argue that this is Chaucer the ironist. Rigby presents us with a )] TJ ET BT 509.348 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knight?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tale)] TJ ET BT 55.352 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a Duke Theseus which endorse the political and personal morality propounded by Giles and others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which, for example, a war waged violently and to us repugnantly may still be just and Theseus may act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harshly but still not be a tyrant. Anyone with any historical sensitivity will be persuaded of this after reading )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book but must we also accept Rigby?s opinion that Chaucer means us to accept these as, so-to-speak, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only views in town? The morality espoused by the knight is, as all agree, only one among several different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices and moral views that we meet along the road to Canterbury but maybe this is one point where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument for irony in Chaucer is worth considering. What if, within the Canterbury Tales as a whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer is keeping his tongue in his cheek, not so much inviting us to choose a moral standpoint as refusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to let us know where he himself stands? The trouble with great literary geniuses, especially those with a gift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for comedy and for enjoying human frailty, is that, however much we succeed in placing their works in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts of their time, we can rarely be quite sure that they haven?t decided on occasion to cock a bit of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snook. This is not to suggest for a moment that Chaucer was capable of anticipating feminism or any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern ?ism? but he might be capable of making fun with generally accepted platitudes. Perhaps Rigby is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too ready to accept that the alternative views implied by other tales ? the miller?s for example, which shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kind of ?dysfunctional household? \(p. 278\) which Giles and )] TJ ET BT 342.308 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knight?s Tale)] TJ ET BT 430.988 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would condemn ? are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate contrasts to endorse proper rule rather than a sly hint that Theseus should not necessarily have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last word. Rigby is absolutely right in saying that late 14th-century literature need not reflect the political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, social and religious divisions of the time but maybe he is too willing to recruit Chaucer as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerleader for an elite that sought to restore a sense of order in a world where many things were out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We do already have an alternative Chaucer who is not the product of anachronistic analysis: a ?sport? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the jocular and the genetic sense but who remains embedded within his own time. There is the Chaucer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom Jill Mann atomises in much the same way as Rigby does, by studying his work within the conventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thought of his own time. Thus, in her )] TJ ET BT 235.676 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.992 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.992 497.955 m 431.984 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.984 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, she shows how he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own, often rather cheeky, thing with this literary tradition. Equally, there is the Chaucer suggested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scattergood?s essay, ?Literary Culture at the Court of Richard II? in )] TJ ET BT 364.616 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Court Culture in the Later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 94.340 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.340 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.340 455.187 m 111.332 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.332 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( According to this view, he is not a court poet, for the court of his time enjoys French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin works: the French ones of a rather old-fashioned kind. Chaucer on the other hand is seen as part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly literate and literary coterie, of ?career diplomats, civil servants, officials and administrators who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attached to the court and the government? \(p. 39\): men like John Gower, who may have been a lawyer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Hoccleve, writer and privy seal clerk, and Ralph Strode, London lawyer and official. For Chaucer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Gower, writing in English is, as Scattergood puts it, an avant garde exercise, while both writers are au )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fait with the latest trends from France, as practised by Machaut and Deschamps. Presumably their friends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who one way or another also lived by the written word, were equally well up in the latest French literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashions. How did the members of this group interact? As Rigby notes, the habit of attributing unorthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas to great writers like Chaucer is accompanied by assuming that lesser figures must be conservative. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does conjure up rather splendid images of Chaucer inveighing against the evils of the hegemonic class while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gower, the Kentish enemy of the peasants ? the original ?Disgusted of Tunbridge Wells? in fact ? reads his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph, smokes his pipe and grunts his revulsion at his friend?s revolutionary tendencies. It is much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that, when this group of men were in each other?s company, they fed, perhaps outrageously at times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off each other?s wit and that the wittiest and most outrageous of them all was Geoffrey Chaucer. So perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we can see, without resorting to anachronism, that he is putting forward alternative ways of seeing, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sometimes playing games and refusing to endorse one specific way, even if he did believe in one. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be less a matter of asserting that great writers must be subversively ironic than recognition that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them may indeed be ironic in the sense of being elusive and polyvalent. That would not make Chaucer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary who saw beyond his time but a man with a fertile and dazzling wit: in many ways in fact the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer who comes off the page six centuries after his death and makes himself still so readable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this review has made clear, Rigby?s intended audience is the world of literary scholars. Has he anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to say to historians? The really great debt any historian of this period owes him is his masterly exposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles, the Aegidian tradition and the wider medieval world of philosophy and political theory within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he situates both Giles and Chaucer. Perhaps he is occasionally guilty of sweeping pre- and post-Aristotelian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought together into a single medieval basket but he rarely uses earlier writers to make his point without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that much of the Thomist/Aristotelian world view was pre-figured in these earlier writings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are only two points on which a historian might want to argue with him. One is his readiness to use the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.9917 498.2695 431.9837 510.1495 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.3397 455.5015 111.3317 467.3815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5167 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now rather outmoded idea of ascending and descending theories of government. The other relates more to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular place and time: his handling of certain key political concepts in late medieval English politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political ideas, notably tyranny. Much of the most significant work on these themes has come from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who have made extensive use of legal records. In England, with the early development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s law, or ?common law?, as a system available to all freemen \(i.e. those permitted to use the law\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to protect their property, law and property were at the heart of much of the discussion of tyranny. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the association in medieval thought not only of tyranny and will but also of will and flouting of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law was commonplace in writings on the law in England. By the same token, that the tyrant rules in his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests rather than for the common good, a central concept in Giles, chimed well with the idea that the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed primarily to defend property and that a king should not take his subjects? property without due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process and for the common good. Hugely well read as Rigby is, it is in this particular area that he is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least well versed in the literature. This becomes most apparent in his handling of the faults of Chaucer?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king, Richard II. What ultimately brought about Richard?s downfall was not, as Rigby suggests, his failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consult his magnates but the king?s overriding of the law. By the same token, it was not wilfulness pure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and simple which made him a tyrant in his last years but rule by will as opposed to law, combined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete contempt for the property rights protected by that law. These principles regarding the king, law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property had been enshrined in English political consciousness since Magna Carta, where they had first been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly enunciated, and Magna Carta features more than once in the Deposition Articles for Richard II. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the Articles begin with a statement of the Coronation Oath which Richard had sworn, three of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose four clauses were about upholding the law and rendering justice to the king?s subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it would be churlish to end on a negative note. This is a splendid book. One hopes that students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval literature will give it the serious attention it deserves and learn from it but it also has a great deal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer to medieval historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jill Mann, )] TJ ET BT 115.688 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire)] TJ ET BT 295.004 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.324 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.324 403.923 m 446.312 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. J. Scattergood, ?Literary culture at the court of Richard II?, in )] TJ ET BT 381.608 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Court Culture in the Later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 124.340 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. V.J. Scattergood and J.W. Sherborne \(London, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.292 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.292 375.411 m 460.280 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 331.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 313.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 313.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1057)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 312.393 m 328.316 312.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5386)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.3237 404.2375 446.3117 416.1175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.2917 375.7255 460.2797 387.6055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 312.7075 328.3157 324.5875 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1057) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004917 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005136 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008909 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000017426 00000 n 0000017517 00000 n 0000025919 00000 n 0000025949 00000 n 0000026077 00000 n 0000026113 00000 n 0000026143 00000 n 0000026270 00000 n 0000026306 00000 n 0000026404 00000 n 0000031624 00000 n 0000031752 00000 n 0000031807 00000 n 0000031935 00000 n 0000031990 00000 n 0000032118 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32214 %%EOF