%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 11 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818130817+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818130817+01'00') /Title (The Britannic Vision ? Historians and the Making of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1907-48) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3057 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Britannic Vision ? Historians and the Making of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Commonwealth of Nations, 1907-48)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening words of the preface to McIntyre?s scholarly book are that it ?looks at the role historians played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a forgotten act in one of the grand dramas of modern history?. The ?forgotten act? took place in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 20th century when the Dominions and Britain were searching for some way of reconciling full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence alongside some constitutional and/or cooperative links ? especially in the face and fighting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two World Wars. What the author meant by ?one of the grand dramas of modern history? is not clear; but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period included the World Wars, the formation and demise of the League of Nations, and the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the United Nations, the end of the British Empire as it was transformed into the Commonwealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations ? all this was interconnected and dramatic, to be sure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1059)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William David McIntyre)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230227811)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(392pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Ladley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the massive body of documents and writing covering the formation and ending of British imperialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including McIntyre?s own impressive work on the Commonwealth, adding new perspectives was always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to be a challenge. Colonial administrators kept prolific records \(the measure of governance over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance\) and the processes were widely commented on and written about in contemporary publications. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this has provided endless mining opportunities for historians, resulting in some major works, such as Piers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brendon?s )] TJ ET BT 88.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781-1997)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.664 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.664 711.795 m 369.656 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the magisterial Cambridge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford histories of Empire and the British Documents on the End of Empire Project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite all this information, McIntyre? )] TJ ET BT 224.660 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britannic Vision)] TJ ET BT 303.668 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that the Dominion period is neglected, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is more to be said about the attempt by Britain and \(most of\) its key Dominions in the first half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century to keep the Empire ?British?:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How the vision appeared, and was fostered; why it faded, and what role historians played in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, are questions ripe for reappraisal at a time when historical interest is reawakening in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British World? beyond the British Isles \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evidence of this ?reawakening? is epitomised by James Belich?s recent book )] TJ ET BT 407.612 539.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World)] TJ ET BT 278.336 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.336 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.336 523.491 m 295.328 523.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.328 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One link between )] TJ ET BT 385.976 524.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Britannic)] TJ ET BT 455.312 524.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision )] TJ ET BT 488.984 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth )] TJ ET BT 147.680 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that while the English settlers tried but failed to build enduring constitutional links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them, the historical, constitutional, linguistic and cultural associations nevertheless persisted. Belich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that this continuity paved the way for English \(and indeed superpower strategic\) dominance for two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries \(?the Anglo-World?\). McIntyre?s detailed exploration shows that the attempts to maintain unity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed and then were lost in the complexities of the successor organisation, the Commonwealth of Nations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the heart of the Britannic vision involved the attempt to stand together in two World Wars ? and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision was at least realised. Further, despite some changes in national priorities, its pulse still beats steadily. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A point to which I return at the end of this review. First, it is useful to outline the structure of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locate the arguments in their historical context, and show how the book explains so much about the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire and the formation of the modern Commonwealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simply outlined, Part I summarises the careers and contributions of the 17 writers, picking up key areas to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they contributed. Part II goes into more detail, discussing terms and themes: Britannic, British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Responsible Government, Dominions, Home Rule, Commonwealth etc. The backtracking revisits the actors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the events, again \(and again\). This career summary and then terminological approach allows different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives to be examined and adds layers to the subtleties of the issues. In some ways it is like an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological dig unearthing the meanings of terms and phrases that were of vital importance to the times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then buried by ?history?. Still, the price is some struggle with the repetition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach of the first two Parts contrasts with Part III, which comprises the bulk of the book. Again, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have multiple encounters with the dramatis personae. But here the approach is broadly chronological, setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the structural constitutional issues in these last phases of the dissolution of the Empire. This allows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers to be better woven into the texture of the period, mixing into the flows of characters, politics, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. The South African General Jan Smuts emerges as a towering figure in the Dominion story, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being consulted directly by the Monarch on occasions, and personally drafting key phrases that marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving free association of the Dominions with Britain. Of course, some writers \(and some politicians, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Winston Churchill and Enoch Powell\) warned of the consequences of the end of Empire. Those wanting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?continuation? envisaged keeping the ultimate legal authority of the Crown in Westminster in an evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, and the search lurched between ?form? vs ?fluff?. As regards form, there was considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of constitutional possibilities like a federal structure of states, with ultimate responsibility on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some core areas \(foreign affairs, defence\) in London, and with full self-government for the Dominions \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who might, at some distant future point, follow\). The more fluffy versions were mystical, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the units would stay together because of trust, friendship, common heritage, equality, free association, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.6637 712.1095 369.6557 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.3357 523.8055 295.3277 535.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntariness, King and ?Crown? etc. Most of these offered wonderfully elastic possibilities and it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Britannic vision found its best supporters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus of the book ends in 1947 and there is an extended epilogue that moves the story to the ?Post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britannic Commonwealth? when the vision ?blurred into a fading dream? \(p. 288\). If the ?forgotten act one? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the great drama was the first half of the 20th century, ?act two? is the better-known period in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation gave way to independence ? and from it emerged the modern Commonwealth of Nations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word ?British? disappeared as a descriptor and all the previous key relationships, including the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarch, were re-adjusted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in ?act two? however, the key theme remains that problematic facts on the ground produced the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for new approaches, especially the demand for rapid independence in a domino effect. A concise paragraph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures the issues:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in the ?twenties and ?thirties, unexpected cases induced the search for new formulae. Canada )] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had pushed for separate representation at Versailles, separate treaties, and restricting the role of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governor-generals. South Africa had demanded the declaration on status. The Irish Free State )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Highlighted ?anomalies and anachronisms? and went for external association and neutrality. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, with some help from Ireland, pioneered republican status. Similarly, at mid-century it was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibraltar that sparked-off the Smaller Territories Enquiry and the Gold Coast and Sudan posed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question of Dominion status in Africa. Each of these cases had much wider repercussions \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1947, the rapid decades of change produced independent states in the Commonwealth, recognising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarch as Head of the Commonwealth and symbol of unity, and with no remaining legal powers for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance of any sort in Westminster \(and certainly none for the Monarch as ?head?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Britannic vision was a key part of the political adaptation that shaped the still-evolving Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Nations. The processes have their roots in British history, including the development of parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in a monarchy, the battles in the European wars and religious conflicts, and the combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance, industrial revolution, trade and a navy that suddenly multiplied British power in Europe and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world from the 17th century onwards. There were particularly deep lessons for Britain in the loss of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonies, especially in its failed attempts to tax settler governments to help fund the costs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial war \(even those fought for the settler governments!\). Those lessons undoubtedly shaped Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with its next bunch of self-governing settler colonies \(Canada, Ireland, Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa\) ? and indeed, with the rest of Empire as self-government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly transformed into independence and \(mostly\) membership of the Commonwealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What became the British Empire thus has no easy dates for beginning and ending ? a simple point that says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much. Brendon?s )] TJ ET BT 121.004 230.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and Fall of the British Empire 1781?1997)] TJ ET BT 363.332 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dates the Empire from the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender to the colonists in the American war of independence and ends with the handing back of Hong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kong to China. In the broad brush of history, the Empire was consolidated over some two centuries \(18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th\), probably peaked \(in terms of geographical reach, governing authority and global significance\) at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the 19th century, attempted to find some means of reconciling settler self-government and ?loyalty? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the British Crown over two World Wars in the first half of the 20th century \(the focus of this book\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was then rapidly dismantled in the few decades after the middle of the 20th century. The Empire?s successor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the modern Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary grouping of 54 states who recognise the Queen as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Head of the Commonwealth and the symbol of free association?. These are simple enough concepts, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre shows that their negotiation was complex, and that things kept changing. The first key issue was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how to build relationships with the settler-governments essentially recognised as fully self-governing: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominions. On the basis that ?Dominion status within the Commonwealth, with the Monarch as Head of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State? was the end-point of constitutional development, awkward stages followed. Some Dominions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ireland, then South Africa\) wanted to be republics; some emerging non-settler governments \(India, Burma, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ceylon\) wanted instant ?Dominion status? followed by republican independence \(but still within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth\). And a host of other emerging states were knocking at the door: initially seeking Dominion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status, but then bypassing it for independence, with or without the Monarchy as Head of State.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so ?Dominion status? disappeared ? even those to whom it had applied just dropped the title. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Membership of the Commonwealth depended on acceptance by all other members, giving an effective veto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to racist South Africa as Africa?s states became independent. Under massive political pressure, South Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left the Commonwealth and was only readmitted with Nelson Mandela as president of a fully democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Africa in 1994.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre?s work helps explain the enormous flexibility required to manage these changes. Asked to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rules of membership so that Sudan and Ghana might know whether they would be admitted in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s, a British Minister explained:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Commonwealth has no constitution and no rules, its only two established principles being )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the common bond of the Crown and mutual consultation. As things stand at present the test of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full membership might amount simply to attendance on an equal footing at a conference of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth Prime Ministers \(p. 295\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Today, Commonwealth membership is still dependent on unanimous admission by other members. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members have either an historical Empire connection to Britain \(the bulk of the members\), or, more recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a close geographical connection to a regional grouping of Commonwealth members \(Mozambique, Rwanda\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who champion their cause for admission. The addition of the last two would also have astonished almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone in the Commonwealth even a few decades ago ? but their admission illustrates the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptation explained in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted, the re-crafting of relationships between Britain and its Empire can be seen in two ?acts?: the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and second halves of the 20th century. In act one, the settler Dominions and Britain negotiated formulae )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under which they might be equal, independent, and cooperate voluntarily in the ?British Commonwealth?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the ?Britannic vision? ? a term not used at the time, but coined by the author for this book. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned the attempt to hold the Empire together, especially for common defence purposes, by consent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust and vagueness - rather than formal legalities ? and by some sort of unifying role of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy. The script of act one involved the negotiations between the Dominions \(Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada/Newfoundland, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa\) and successive British governments in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reconcile the apparently irreconcilable i.e. the effective independence of the Dominions, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued constitutional recognition of the monarch, including, especially, willingness to go to war together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or at least stay neutral in the case or Ireland in the Second World War\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre shows that the vision was shaped by the progressive political re-formulation of constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships by the elected heads of government, meeting in Imperial Conferences in Britain. He does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say so, but the notion that such meetings could presume at once to recognise and change constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, would be baffling to anyone who did not understand the peculiarity of British ?constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions? ? especially those involving the historical evolution of the role of the monarch in Westminster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and in the derivative self-governing parliaments\). One great value of this book is that it offers historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the evolution of conventions, the simplest of which was that whatever its legal authority to do so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British parliament in Westminster would not legislate for self-governing ?responsible governments? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without their consent. This convention was eventually turned into law in the Statute of Westminster in 1931, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but its influence persisted. The convention was in large measure the justification used by the Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhodesian settler government in 1965, for example, in its Unilateral Declaration of Independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more central example of the role of evolving conventions, concerned the Monarchy itself. At the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the 20th century, a single British Monarch reigned over all the Empire as a constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unifier. By the end of act one in 1950 or so, the Monarch was not only divisible \(constitutionally reigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately over lots of states, including Britain, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand\), but sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisible \(with her Majesty?s representatives as formal head of the Queensland, New South Wales etc in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia and the provinces of Canada\). That transition alone was conceptually and constitutionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to imagine at the turn of the century ? but within a few decades was settled practice. Similarly, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was impossible to imagine a republic that did not have the British Monarch as head of state ? but by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period, republicanism was a reality in Ireland, India and Pakistan, with many more to follow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre shows the steps by which the impossible became possible, words were adjusted, minds adjusted ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility ruled. There is nice irony in his argument that modern historians \(and citizens, not least from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominions\) appear to have forgotten that a number of leading historians of the time helped write the script )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for act one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there are some problems with the core claim. McIntyre is a distinguished historian of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, so it might seem churlish to question the definition of ?historians? and how one measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ?contribution?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From a wide range of sources, the author draws out the contributions of 17 writers/actors to the Britannic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision. Not coincidentally, all but two of these influential 17 were Oxford graduates ?who not only recorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interpreted the Britannic vision but who participated in and helped to formulate it? \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even allowing a wide terminological net, would the cast of 17 who helped to form the vision have all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called themselves )] TJ ET BT 122.000 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historians)] TJ ET BT 170.012 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Probably six would have \(Keith, Coupland, Harlow, Hancock, Mansergh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perham\), and the entire cast surely would have acknowledged great interest in history \(especially Roman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek\), as educated people of that time did. Also, many of the characters had history in their degrees ? again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as intellectuals at that time did, especially from Oxford \(?the Greats?\). But their otherwise diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds show they were also elected MPs, public servants, soldiers, intelligence officers, academics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists. Amongst the academic historians were academic international relations dons \(Kenneth Wheare\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politicians who also did some history \(Enoch Powell\). Other MPs, like Winston Churchill, who wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and made\) plenty of history as one of the key actors of the period, are not part of the cast of 17. Also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people changed roles. How might one distinguish the prior academic career of Canadian Oscar Skelton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1878?1941\) from his massively influential 20 years as head of Canada?s diplomatic service? Was he really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ?historian? over his most influential years? Or consider Leo Amery \(1873?1955\), Conservative MP for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham Sparkbook from 1911 for 34 years, including as Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the critical periods, during which he played key roles in all the developments of this period. True, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming an MP he was a Times war correspondent in the Boer War and then edited the )] TJ ET BT 462.260 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the War in South Africa 1900?1909)] TJ ET BT 205.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But I doubt he would have ever put ?historian? in his passport. Today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we might describe the 17 as intellectual contributors or direct political players in diverse roles, including as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Ministers, MPs, officials, diplomats, journalists, linguists, economists, and academics in political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists in international relations, public administration, colonial studies and constitutional law, not least.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weighing the relative contributions of these writers and thinkers to the vision, also requires some latitude. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The back cover notes that the book is ?a highly original account of the part played by historians in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Commonwealth of Nations?. But how might one measure words like ?roles? and ?parts? as set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the rest of the actors on stage amidst the history of the period? That these writers were indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors is well established, evidenced in ideas, publications at critical moments, some direct influences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on cabinet papers, appointments to key positions \(e.g. Skelton, founding the diplomatic service for Canada\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so on. Also, there was clearly a period when scholarship \(especially at Oxford, but also in the influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journal )] TJ ET BT 71.012 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Round Table)] TJ ET BT 132.680 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) examined, explored and articulated the various options as the settler colonies evolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into self-government, Dominion Status and then full independence. But it would have been surprising were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it not so amongst the intellectual elites of the period ? these were their big international and constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues in the First World War and in the Versailles conference establishing the League of Nations. And they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loomed large immediately, as Britain looked for support from its Empire, especially the Dominions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, in what was thought to be a coming second conflagration. That all these intellectuals ? most from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford - were so intimately engaged with the Dominion and Empire story is extremely interesting it itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and probably warrants further research. One hesitates to use a phrase like incestuous, but there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly a lot of collaborative exploration amongst like-minded intellectuals, caught up in the ?high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindedness? of the issues. McIntyre might plausibly have done a book on the contribution of Oxford to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial and colonial vision - a point reinforced by a comment later in the book , where he notes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sudan Political Service was mainly staffed by Oxford graduates, producing the quip of the times that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a country where ?blacks were ruled by blues? \(p.297\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre?s summary of Duncan Hall?s conceptualisation late in 1918, whilst ?walking down The High in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford? \(p. 34\), is a wonderful illustration of a timely idea that became a key part of the Britannic vision. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bright undergraduate, Hall was actively puzzling over these key issues of his times ? and it struck him that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dominions could be ?effectively independent? simply by the combined political leaders making a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration to this effect ? thus avoiding having to tackle the logical dilemma of legally limiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly illimitable legislative sovereignty of the Imperial Parliament \(p. 34\). Hall?s idea was published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a short Labour Party pamphlet in 1920 setting out the party?s strategy for the evolving ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth of Nations? and then in a related book by Hall also in 1920. McIntyre writes that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet and book were ?amazingly influential, being later cited by Smuts, Amery, the leaders of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Free State, and Indian nationalists? \(p. 35\). Further, the conception that declarations could make new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional relationships was elaborated in the famous ?Balfour declaration? in 1926, establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective independence on the record. However, it soon became clear that ?declaring? full authority, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficient for increasingly nationalistic South Africa and Ireland, champing at the Imperial bit. Pushed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those two Dominions, the formula was thus enacted into law in the Statute of Westminster in 1931 ? one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most significant pieces of legislation of the times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However influential might have been Duncan Hall?s insight ?walking down the High? in 1918, it is arguable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was only articulating the established and still-evolving Dominion-London practice at that time ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new conventions. Putting this into new words, declarations and \(soon\) statutes demanded other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions, including those of the key political actors ? Smuts, for example, and later Hertzog, Fraser, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ghandi, Nehru amongst the non-UK bunch, and Mountbatten, Churchill amongst the Brits \(none on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre?s cast of 17, but all acknowledge by him as major contributors, of course\). Weighing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativities of ?contributions? is further complicated when the Imperial Conferences are placed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts of the great sweeps of international events across the period of ?act one?: World Wars, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of the League of Nations and then the United Nations, and the slippery slopes of decolonisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about to follow. There is a repeated sense in which the Dominions and London \(and these 17 actors\) were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing a vision whose core real purpose was standing together in war. That purpose required genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust, shared values, and a willingness to sent troops and spend funds. As the British had learned in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas a century or so before, none of this could be forced upon self-governing and self-taxing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliaments and peoples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever my minor difficulties with the definition of historian and how to measure contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, McIntyre brilliantly captures the somewhat mystical vision, full of ambiguities and undefined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts. These could not survive any sustained demand for detail and specificity, especially words like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, secession, or republic. As noted, this is the tradition of British ?constitutional convention? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules of government that the actors regard as binding constitutionally, but which are not ?law?, as such. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These notions were well understood \(and constantly practised\) in the settler-states of Canada, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newfoundland, Australia and New Zealand. They were perhaps less well grounded in South Africa and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, both of which had growing voter populations that resented British domination and hence, history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, McIntyre shows also that for Britain and its six core settler ?self-governing possessions? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progression from self-government in the 19th century to equal statehood in the 20th was mostly negotiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in gentlemanly fashion by settler and British elites who saw value in the British Empire. But the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions to gentlemanly negotiations amongst this group, were the Boer War of 1899?1902 and the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist violence of the first decades of the 20th century. It is hardly surprising, then, that these were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two Dominions who consistently pressed the Britannic vision into more and more specificity to favour their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence ? and who eventually left the association. In the 1920s and 30s, the rising nationalism in South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa \(by white voters\) and Ireland demanded that their leaders seek faster, clearer recognition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. The British and the other Dominions bent with the winds to accommodate the South African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Irish demands. The flexibility only just held South Africa on the British side in the Second World War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smuts narrowly managed to persuade a wavering South African parliament in 1939 to dump its nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government that wanted to back Germany, reflecting the Afrikaner memory of the Boer War. But even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new flexibility could not prevent Ireland from refusing to back Britain, and declaring its neutrality. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a blow to Britain, though dramatically less so than Ireland being an enemy state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence the book shows that trust and conventions faced historical and political realities. Those Dominions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had experienced British conquest and war \(South Africa, Ireland ? then the rest of Empire\) wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specificity. Any formal structure demanded subordination to London and informal cooperation risked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same, however fluffily expressed. Across 30 years, word by word, phrase by phrase, comma by comma, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings of Prime Ministers from 1907 until the end of the Second World War redefined the core concepts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some deeply significant events, delightfully captured by the author. For example, a pivotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting \(which was extraordinarily long by today?s standards: weeks!\) of the UK and Dominion political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders in 1926 produced what became known as the ?Balfour Declaration?. This established the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equality of all the members of the British Commonwealth. Its key terms were that the UK and Dominions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were of equal status, in free association and bound by a common allegiance to the King. Of the meetings that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrangled over the words, McIntyre writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were ?no notes and minutes of any sort or kind?. The formal record of the Committee )] TJ ET BT 64.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply notes dates of meetings with ? ?No minutes were kept?. It is, therefore, highly ironical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Balfour?s sub-committee is one of the best-known episodes of Commonwealth history. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Absence of formal records never inhibits enquiry. Private diaries, memoirs and biographies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abound. And Hankey \(the Cabinet Secretary of the British Government\), the very perpetrator of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the no-minutes policy, could not resist his recorder?s habit and wrote two long letters to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin and another to Balfour outlining what transpired! \(p .167?8\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another example is the wrangling that produced what is surely the most famous ?comma solution? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic negotiations, known as the ?O?Higgins comma? \(p. 168\). In 1926, Irish nationalists were already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly pressing for complete independence from Britain, including the six Protestant counties in the North. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the declaration at the end of the meeting, thus, Kevin O?Higgins for the Irish objected to any formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linkage with Britain, epitomised in the then standard phrase: ?Great Britain )] TJ ET BT 397.976 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 415.976 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ireland?. O?Higgins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingeniously proposed replacing the conjunction )] TJ ET BT 264.992 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 282.992 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with a comma, as in: ?Great Britain, Ireland and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Dominions beyond the Seas?. The formula worked and Ireland stayed longer in the system, albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with increasing determination to leave \(which it did, in 1949\). Another nice irony is that the compromises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ireland sought in the 1920s \(and which were refused\), eventually became the basis on which India and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan were admitted into the Commonwealth as republics in 1949 ? just as Ireland was in fact leaving.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 539.288 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 539.288 236.115 m 553.280 236.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having formed the Britannic vision it the early 1920s, it was dismantled to accommodate the demands for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearer independence. In 1931, when the Statute of Westminster made it clear that the UK Parliament could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no longer pass laws for Dominions without the express consent of Dominion Parliaments, New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted nothing to do with it. All parties in the New Zealand parliament were content in the 1920s and 30s to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live with the mysticism of the Balfour Declaration and a place at international meetings in its own right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand?s reluctance for overt constitutional change was not just because of nostalgia over shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and heritage. Wellington feared losing the favourable financial borrowing rates from London Banks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on which it depended for capital ? the rates were substantially lower because of the ambiguity that New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand was still in some way part of Britain and hence the loans were ?as safe as the Bank of England?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.572 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.572 95.811 m 551.564 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From 1926 onwards, however, despite having just come through a disastrously bloody and poorly fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War \(indeed, )] TJ ET BT 158.324 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(because)] TJ ET BT 196.976 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it had just done so, given the Treaty of Versailles\), Britain was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 539.2877 236.4295 553.2797 248.3095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5717 96.1255 551.5637 108.0055 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly nervous of another impending European conflict, and it wanted to be sure that Dominions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India would unequivocally stand with it in a European war. McIntyre shows that in one of the few serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts at securing a common security foreign policy between the UK and Dominions, the group agreed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the UK should, on behalf of them all, renew a security treaty with Japan to secure peace in the Far East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Britain and the Pacific Dominions and other Far East British interests \(such faith in treaties!\). In that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, it is not surprising that the real heart in the vision formula was whether the Dominions would join )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Britain in war, the ultimate test of ?allegiance? ? however worded. It worked for the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, though only just in South Africa, and Ireland declared neutrality. Indeed, Ireland negotiated special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility to have its own form that would avoid pledging ?allegiance? to the Crown and, allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism, neutrality, and, shortly after the war ended, full secession and withdrawal from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inspired by Ireland, key Indian leaders also took advantage of the war to demand immediate self-government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(without elections!\) for the Congress Party as a condition for continued cooperation and support, to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by independence after the war. Despite deep misgivings on the British side about whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of India were ready for the forces of nationalism, the arrangement was agreed and it enabled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese advance to be stopped in the jungles of Burma.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As McIntyre makes clear, India?s arrangements had not come out of the blue. Given the contribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian troops to the First World War, India had been represented separately at Versailles in 1919, marking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its early entrance onto the world stage of recognition, despite having no self-government. Thereafter, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an increasingly desperate search by Britain for a constitutional and political outcome that might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable to all the people of India. The British had long drawn a distinction between ?British India? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(governed by the British Governor in Council\) and ?the Princely states?. The latter were ruled by local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes and semi-feudal authorities, with British ?residents? to ensure some conformity with the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. In a delightful chapter, McIntyre connects the dots with the vision. Ghandi and the Congress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party were threatening to make India ungovernable by ?passive resistance? and demanding independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under a new constitution. But as Ghandi?s \(mostly Hindu\) nationalism was building, so was that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim-majority areas, and, separately, nationalism in Burma. With only limited experience of local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional government, the prospects of constructing an Indian central government, at speed, without violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Depression took hold in the 1930s and as the Second World War loomed, exercised the most agile of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds. Faced with the dramatic successes of the Japanese on the borders, and the prospect of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungovernable India should the Congress party have delivered on its threats, constitutional agility produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quick solution that saved the war effort by accepting ?instant Dominionisation? of India by a Congress-led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government taking charge without a new constitution and without elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is in itself a great illustration of how the evolution of the previous Dominions had produced formulae )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could be deployed to suit the situation ? all the more so because Dominion status itself then became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant. Alas, the quick fix in India fulfilled the prediction of both those who demanded full independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for India as the only option, )] TJ ET BT 170.336 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 188.336 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( those who warned of grave instability. Millions fled or were killed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partition of Pakistan from India, and the two states entered into a state of war that in 2011 has still not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though McIntyre?s account significantly enhances understanding of the evolution of arrangements leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the modern Commonwealth, his work goes considerably further by opening lines of further inquiry. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, it is interesting to ask four questions:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 57.816 140.822 m 57.816 141.372 57.589 141.918 57.201 142.307 c 56.812 142.696 56.266 142.922 55.716 142.922 c 55.166 142.922 54.620 142.696 54.231 142.307 c 53.842 141.918 53.616 141.372 53.616 140.822 c 53.616 140.272 53.842 139.726 54.231 139.337 c 54.620 138.949 55.166 138.722 55.716 138.722 c 56.266 138.722 56.812 138.949 57.201 139.337 c 57.589 139.726 57.816 140.272 57.816 140.822 c f BT 64.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why the Britannic vision might be regarded as a ?forgotten act? in the great dramas of the period?)] TJ ET 57.816 126.566 m 57.816 127.116 57.589 127.662 57.201 128.051 c 56.812 128.440 56.266 128.666 55.716 128.666 c 55.166 128.666 54.620 128.440 54.231 128.051 c 53.842 127.662 53.616 127.116 53.616 126.566 c 53.616 126.016 53.842 125.470 54.231 125.081 c 54.620 124.693 55.166 124.466 55.716 124.466 c 56.266 124.466 56.812 124.693 57.201 125.081 c 57.589 125.470 57.816 126.016 57.816 126.566 c f BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What happened to the central importance of ?common security? in the vision?)] TJ ET 57.816 112.310 m 57.816 112.860 57.589 113.406 57.201 113.795 c 56.812 114.184 56.266 114.410 55.716 114.410 c 55.166 114.410 54.620 114.184 54.231 113.795 c 53.842 113.406 53.616 112.860 53.616 112.310 c 53.616 111.760 53.842 111.214 54.231 110.825 c 54.620 110.437 55.166 110.210 55.716 110.210 c 56.266 110.210 56.812 110.437 57.201 110.825 c 57.589 111.214 57.816 111.760 57.816 112.310 c f BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did the UK?s view of its place in the world change?)] TJ ET 57.816 98.054 m 57.816 98.604 57.589 99.150 57.201 99.539 c 56.812 99.928 56.266 100.154 55.716 100.154 c 55.166 100.154 54.620 99.928 54.231 99.539 c 53.842 99.150 53.616 98.604 53.616 98.054 c 53.616 97.504 53.842 96.958 54.231 96.569 c 54.620 96.181 55.166 95.954 55.716 95.954 c 56.266 95.954 56.812 96.181 57.201 96.569 c 57.589 96.958 57.816 97.504 57.816 98.054 c f BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did the conceptualisation of the Britannic vision fit into the grander visions of international )] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs \(the League of Nations, United Nations and the European Union\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntyre only briefly engages with his own point of why the Dominion ?Britannic vision? period might )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 8349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been ?forgotten? by historians and public alike. He notes that historical fashions moved on, leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period under-considered in the history of the Commonwealth \(p. x\). Of course, there are generally complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons why academic fashions change. But in this instance, McIntyre?s study itself suggests \(possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable\) answers to why the Dominion period was apparently forgotten. Put simply, the Britannic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision was really only of interest to the ?settler dominions? ? and even there, of most interest to those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valued their British heritage, especially in the face of war. Thus Ireland?s deep resentment of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown steadily increased with the ?home-rule? extension of the franchise in that country from the early parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century. Similarly, the post-Boer War Afrikaners, had long memories and deep ?foundation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths? of their lost republics/freedoms and it was also inevitable that they would discard the British heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once their numbers and nationalism had gelled into a solid political force. But putting aside Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Africa for a moment, Canada, Australia and New Zealand saw their economic and security destinies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside Britain. ?Empire? was still a noble ideal and ?British? a tag of pride.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast, the Caribbean, Asian and African colonies had somewhat less of this sentimentality or pride. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the demand for self-determination in the UN Charter in 1945, changed everything. ?Empire? became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with domination and racism. The new themes were decolonisation, independence, freedom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-racism. There was no place for subtle processes and understandings between the Dominions and Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new states emerged in a flurry of Independence Acts and Constitutions from Westminster and chose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether to join the blurry framework of the Commonwealth, or not. They were far more likely to pillory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s racist colonialism, than to acknowledge any shared heritage and history. Britain voluntarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodated a process that would end its Empire. As noted earlier, 20th century Britain had learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical lessons from its experience in the United States in the 18th century, including:)] TJ ET 57.816 476.198 m 57.816 476.748 57.589 477.294 57.201 477.683 c 56.812 478.072 56.266 478.298 55.716 478.298 c 55.166 478.298 54.620 478.072 54.231 477.683 c 53.842 477.294 53.616 476.748 53.616 476.198 c 53.616 475.648 53.842 475.102 54.231 474.713 c 54.620 474.325 55.166 474.098 55.716 474.098 c 56.266 474.098 56.812 474.325 57.201 474.713 c 57.589 475.102 57.816 475.648 57.816 476.198 c f BT 64.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to avoid massive British expenses in distant wars, settler colonies should be self-sufficient in their own )] TJ ET BT 64.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenues, responsible government and defence as soon as possible;)] TJ ET 57.816 447.686 m 57.816 448.236 57.589 448.782 57.201 449.171 c 56.812 449.560 56.266 449.786 55.716 449.786 c 55.166 449.786 54.620 449.560 54.231 449.171 c 53.842 448.782 53.616 448.236 53.616 447.686 c 53.616 447.136 53.842 446.590 54.231 446.201 c 54.620 445.813 55.166 445.586 55.716 445.586 c 56.266 445.586 56.812 445.813 57.201 446.201 c 57.589 446.590 57.816 447.136 57.816 447.686 c f BT 64.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands for expanded self-government from British citizens could not be resisted by force \(and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British taxpayer would not countenance the expense\); and)] TJ ET 57.816 419.174 m 57.816 419.724 57.589 420.270 57.201 420.659 c 56.812 421.048 56.266 421.274 55.716 421.274 c 55.166 421.274 54.620 421.048 54.231 420.659 c 53.842 420.270 53.616 419.724 53.616 419.174 c 53.616 418.624 53.842 418.078 54.231 417.689 c 54.620 417.301 55.166 417.074 55.716 417.074 c 56.266 417.074 56.812 417.301 57.201 417.689 c 57.589 418.078 57.816 418.624 57.816 419.174 c f BT 64.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxpayers/citizens in self-governing polities were reciprocally unlikely to participate in a British war, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than as a result of the decisions of their own governments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result was that the 19th-century settler colonies were progressively given such independence as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted. After the Second World War, and with the UN General Assembly demanding decolonisation, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same rules were applied to every colony, not just the settler states. Despite grave misgivings about timing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and readiness, independence was essentially available to every entity that wanted it ? except Hong Kong and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white-ruled Rhodesia, both for special reasons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Small wonder, then, that historians? interests moved on from the Dominion period ? it was considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant to the bigger issues that followed. But McIntyre is still surely right to argue that the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect has obscured a deeply interesting piece of the evolutional jigsaw.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second example of trails this book invites one to explore is whether, in fact, the core security dimensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Britannic vision did not succeed, rather than fade. As noted earlier, all the Dominions \(and many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonies\) supported Britain in the First World War and the peak of the Britannic vision involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing for the Second World War. The strategy worked. Except for Ireland, the Dominions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies fought with Britain ? and indeed were probably essential in stopping the Axis conquest of Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, as well as of North Africa ? in addition to the Burma/India frontier. In the event, however, empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity was not enough. The tide only really turned with the support of that older set of colonies, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. After the war, the objectives of the UK and its remaining dominions, plus the USA \(Belich?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anglo-World?\) standing together in the face of security threats, took on a new dimension, which arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed directly out of the Britannic vision period. McIntyre shows that in the early 1950s when India and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ceylon pressed for membership, for example, and the questions about Sudan and Ghana were looming, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials were stumped at how to hold the ?Inner Ring? \(p. 293?4\) where defence issues could still be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, without the obvious resentment from those left out. In the end, there was no way out other than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admit all new states, but to remove confidential defence and security issues from the Commonwealth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 6656 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(umbrella and place them elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The somewhat secretive form of that is the unique and ongoing intelligence cooperation between the UK, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. But more obviously, this cooperation still extends to military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment, with subtle but important differences in when each will commit forces, and with whom they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work most closely. Examples include the Falklands War in the early 1980s, the first and second Gulf Wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Kuwait and Iraq\), Afghanistan currently, and, for Australia and New Zealand currently, regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperative exercises in East Timor and Solomon Islands. So the ?Inner Ring? changed form, dropped South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa, added the USA, and survived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third line of inquiry that emerges from this book concerns Britain?s re-evaluation of its place in the world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As its Empire disintegrated, Britain realised that its economic and security future actually lay amongst its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries-old rivals in Europe and in its ?special Atlantic relationship? with the United States of America. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This echoes one of McIntyre?s 17 thinkers, Oscar Skelton, who consistently argued that Canada should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept that geography ultimately shaped foreign policy, and hence would focus Canada on North America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than on ?? Australia or Timbuctoo, or whatever other part of the map a Jingoistic spree may chance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paint red? \(p. 27\). Accepting that McIntyre?s cast of 17 were drawn from those engaged with the Britannic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision, it is especially interesting that there appears to be almost no conception amongst them, of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth would relate to any other form of international collectivity. Apart from the victors gathering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Versailles to try to prevent another World War by forming the League of Nations \(and effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prodding Germany to rearm at the injustice of the settlement\), the discussions around the Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference table were all about how Britain would build alliances for another war. The League was, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history suggests, irrelevant. McIntyre quotes Coatman \(following Zimmern and Curtis\), only a decade or so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Second World War, waxingly nobly lyrical about internationalism for the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British Commonwealth was seen as a ?microcosm in being of the world community of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future?. It was the ?)] TJ ET BT 158.984 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primum mobile )] TJ ET BT 234.980 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the international Commonwealth of the future? and ?new )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominions of the future? would bring strange new elements into the life of the whole. \(p.52\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No League - all this was British. Did these writers presage the post-War formation of the United Nations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(what became\) the European Union, in filling these noble ambitions of international cooperation? Again, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be interesting to explore how any of the cast of 17 saw Britain, the Dominions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth as repositioning to fit into the new international collectives. But that must be for another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day, another book, perhaps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Conclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Britannic Vision)] TJ ET BT 134.024 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers insights that explain so many aspects of the end of Empire, the ambitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual cooperation in a shared vision and the difference between the settler Dominions and the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire. McIntyre writes that when constitutional change for India was being debated in the British House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons in 1935, the British government of the day refused to commit itself to granting Dominion status as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a matter of policy and law. The reason for refusing to do this, in the words of then Attorney-General Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Inskip, was that Dominion status was ?a thing of life, a spirit and growing, and not a dead thing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal form? \(p. 207\). The proposed reforms proved to be inadequate and were rejected by India?s new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political leaders. They were not interested in ?spirit and growing?. They wanted an independent republic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under a constitution drafted by themselves. One interpretation of the parliamentary debates is that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was obfuscating, in an attempt to deny Indian self-determination. Another is surely that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government could not yet see beyond the Britannic vision, which, for the decades before, had so infused the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings of Prime Ministers in London. How things changed. After the end of the Second World War, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mystical vision was gone ? independence, that ?dead thing of legal form?, was very much constitutionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alive, everywhere. And Dominion status, that ?thing of life, a spirit and growing?, was dead \(or at least, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 4929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to intelligence cooperation\). In terms of the subtitle of the book, one might question the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification of McIntyre?s entire cast of characters as ?historians? and what weight, in the scheme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things, should be given to their contributions to the debates about how to keep the Dominions ?British?. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is much harder to question the value of this work to understanding some of the great intellectuals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period and the history in which they were players. It is a deeply interesting book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piers Brendon, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781?1997)] TJ ET BT 404.672 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.996 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.996 672.531 m 539.984 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Belich, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth: the Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World)] TJ ET BT 513.320 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 644.019 m 149.000 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Northern Ireland 6 counties were then controversially separated from the South and joined back to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain \(and the phrase then returned to: ?Great Britain )] TJ ET BT 330.296 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 348.296 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Northern Ireland\). All this paved the way )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for another 50 years of conflict over the status of Northern Ireland, issues that are in 2011 still )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfolding in the recent treaty/constitutional compromise between Britain )] TJ ET BT 416.648 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 434.648 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ireland. Inevitably, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the history, the solution has been found in the simple notion that government must be by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consent. Hence, the people of Northern Ireland are allowed to choose their own form of governance, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including whether to be part of Britain, or Ireland. Whilst the Catholic minority of Northern Ireland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to be in perpetual minority, this formula was completely unacceptable to the more nationalist-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded. But as it has become clear that Catholics will in about 20 years become a majority, so the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formula has provided an acceptable basis to end the Irish Republican Army insurgency.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.268 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.268 501.459 m 538.256 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This particular point is discussed in A. Ladley and E. Chisholm, ?Who cut the apron strings and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when? Adopting the Statute of Westminster in New Zealand in 1947?, )] TJ ET BT 404.636 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Science)] TJ ET BT 485.624 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60, 2 \(2008\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15?40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 458.691 m 150.332 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 414.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 397.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 397.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1059)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 395.673 m 328.316 395.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 370.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5395)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.9957 672.8455 539.9837 684.7255 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 644.3335 148.9997 656.2135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.2677 501.7735 538.2557 513.6535 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 459.0055 150.3317 470.8855 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 395.9875 328.3157 407.8675 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1059) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000392 00000 n 0000000429 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000000731 00000 n 0000003840 00000 n 0000003949 00000 n 0000004059 00000 n 0000004168 00000 n 0000007729 00000 n 0000007857 00000 n 0000007941 00000 n 0000008032 00000 n 0000015707 00000 n 0000015737 00000 n 0000015865 00000 n 0000015901 00000 n 0000015931 00000 n 0000016059 00000 n 0000016095 00000 n 0000016160 00000 n 0000022842 00000 n 0000022907 00000 n 0000029374 00000 n 0000029439 00000 n 0000037219 00000 n 0000037284 00000 n 0000044705 00000 n 0000044796 00000 n 0000052321 00000 n 0000052351 00000 n 0000052479 00000 n 0000052515 00000 n 0000052545 00000 n 0000052672 00000 n 0000052708 00000 n 0000052773 00000 n 0000061324 00000 n 0000061389 00000 n 0000069791 00000 n 0000069856 00000 n 0000076565 00000 n 0000076677 00000 n 0000081659 00000 n 0000081787 00000 n 0000081842 00000 n 0000081969 00000 n 0000082024 00000 n 0000082152 00000 n 0000082207 00000 n 0000082334 00000 n 0000082389 00000 n 0000082517 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 82613 %%EOF