%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141020014303+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141020014303+01'00') /Title (Liquid Pleasures: a Social History of Drinks in Modern Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4630 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liquid Pleasures: a Social History of Drinks in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the last thirty years, there has been a phenomenal rise in the number of soft drinks consumed in Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although many commercial sugar-based beverages were first developed around the mid- to late-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, it was not until the 1960s and the initial mass popularity of Coca Cola that cold, non-alcoholic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottled drinks began to constitute a substantial proportion of the total number of drinks consumed. By 1995, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 20 per cent of all drinks bought in this country were soft drinks. According to John Burnett, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend represents a 'cold drinks revolution', a transformation in our )] TJ ET BT 351.284 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liquid Pleasures)] TJ ET BT 432.956 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comparable in scale to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'hot beverages revolution' of the late-seventeenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What becomes apparent throughout Burnett's welcome and authoritative volume is that Britain's drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habits have always been subject to rapid change. Over the last few centuries there has been nothing stable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional in the manner in which people have drunk. Beers and ales have undergone continual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, from the introduction of bitter-tasting hops in the fifteenth century to the popularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercially-brewed porter in the eighteenth century. The importation of the exotic caffeine-based drinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tea and coffee in the seventeenth century marked, anticipated and perhaps even encouraged the profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social changes associated with the rise of the middle class in the eighteenth century. The industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution brought about several changes, from the confirmation of cheap tea as a universal drink, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of privately-brewed beer and the re-emergence of gin palaces in the 1830s, a hundred years after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit had first prompted Hogarth's famous prints. At the same time urbanisation and declining living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards reduced the amount of milk consumed and folk recipes such as small beer were forgotten, replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the new commercial soft drinks manufactured by Robinsons and Schweppes. Rising incomes at the turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the twentieth century encouraged the growth of a leisure industry which forced the pub to compete with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(106)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Burnett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the music hall, the football ground and, eventually, the cinema, distractions which led to a long-term fall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beer sales. Governments also intervened to follow up their purification of the water supply with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouragement of milk consumption. As John Burnett so convincingly emphasises, none of these drinks can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be studied in isolation, the history of each demonstrating the fluctuating patterns of demand borne of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition that has always existed between rival )] TJ ET BT 275.648 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liquid Pleasures)] TJ ET BT 357.320 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite such an emphasis on the inter-related history of different drinks, Burnett's vast range of material has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced him to adopt a structure in which each drink is examined in a separate chapter, before a conspectus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws out the major themes. Within each chapter there is sufficient material for a separate monograph,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.232 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.232 683.283 m 540.224 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 540.224 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnett skillfully and entertainingly recounts the story of water, milk, tea, coffee, soft drinks, beer, wine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirits from their early origins through to the present day. Each chapter is organised according to similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles, with Burnett usually beginning by outlining the early history of the drink, before detailing its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to the 'hot beverages revolution' of the late seventeenth century and the changed social structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eighteenth. The industrial revolution always loom large in each narrative as does the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulteration and government intervention, issues present in Burnett's previous work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.464 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.464 597.747 m 452.456 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.456 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of the new mass consumer society are then outlined, before each chapter finishes with a sketch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing post-war patterns of consumption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a history lends itself to anecdote and Burnett nicely blends the illuminating example with his clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of the economic data of demand. Thus, in his discussion of small beer we learn that nettle beer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was popular in Lancashire and bog wortle in Yorkshire; that beer drinkers used to prefer a mixture of a sweet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy ale, a lighter hopped beer and a weaker table beer, a blend which encouraged the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of porter which to some degree matched the taste of the three combined; that Samuel Pepys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variously drank ale, wine, claret, orange juice and champagne for breakfast; that 'taking the waters', or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visiting a spa town, usually meant drinking water rather than bathing in it; that foundrymen and forgemen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in temperatures of 90-140F could get through from 8 to 24 pints of weak homebrew per shift; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Georgian physicians held that 'saline waters had valuable purgative effects, chalybeate waters containing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iron had tonic and restorative properties, sulphur waters were good for the skin and complexion, while others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were claimed to cure gout, stone and rheumatism' \(p. 10\). Such close attention to detail is matched by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad understanding of historical context which makes for some excellent interpretative speculations. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, in discussing the falling rates of milk consumption in the early nineteenth century, Burnett sees fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to mention that the protective Corn Laws encouraged the cultivation of land rather than the grazing of dairy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cattle, thus reducing the milk supply. More imaginatively, he argues persuasively for an attention to physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment in explaining demand. While here we might all be familiar with the argument that poor quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing encouraged many men to stay in the public house, Burnett also argues that the land enclosures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced the supply of free wood available to working-class homes with the consequence that both home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baking and home brewing were discouraged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of Burnett's work lies in its authoritative account of the separate histories of water, milk, tea, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffee, soft drinks, beer, wine and spirits. He manages to condense a wealth of information into clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging essays which, by examining drink throughout the 'modern' period of history \(1650 to the present\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify the more important trends and fluctuations in consumption. He has combined an extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the secondary literature with much archival research, producing, in his chapter on beer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking at least, a much needed history of a central aspect of British popular culture which has been long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overdue. He combines economic, social and cultural history and stresses throughout the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political factors to this history as well. He thus follows a recent trend in the study of consumer society which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has looked to the role of the state in influencing demand, though his previous work on adulteration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government legislation might be seen to have preceded this type of analysis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.968 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.968 131.811 m 413.960 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.960 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For instance, in his chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on milk, he emphasis the importance of fears over physical degeneration which prompted the Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments to form Infant Welfare Centres and Milk Depots where mothers could obtain bottles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterilised milk at 2d. for a day's supply. Such intervention in consumption set important precedents for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the welfare state which would be followed by the establishment of the Milk Marketing Boards in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933 and the provision of free school milk from 1946. In other chapters, too, Burnett describes the role of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2317 683.5975 540.2237 695.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.4637 598.0615 452.4557 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.9677 132.1255 413.9597 144.0055 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in, for example, the retail licensing of tea, in the setting of high excise duties for coffee, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation of drinking hours in pubs and in the municipalisation of the water supply following a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cholera epidemics in the mid-nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stated approach of Burnett is to examine the history of drinks beyond any purely realist notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiological need or innate desire. He claims that he wishes to give attention to economic considerations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while accepting that economic historians have looked too much at supply. Instead, referring to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological and anthropological literature of Grant McCracken and Mary Douglas, he argues for a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinks that accepts that consumption is a consequence of society as well as being constitutive of it. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly a novel argument within material cultural studies, but Burnett deserves considerable praise for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering a history in which a rich economic narrative of demand statistics is located within a broad social, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always cultural, context. Thus, in his chapter on spirits, he is able to argue that the three most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors in understanding their role in the nineteenth century are firstly, that whisky \(in Scotland\) and gin \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England\) were antidotes to the psychological and physical pressures of industrial life; secondly, that spirits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came under moral and religious attack from the temperance campaign from as early as 1828; and, thirdly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that consumption was, and must always be, determined by price.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnett's preference for the economic or materialist interpretation really comes through in his conspectus. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The vast majority of his overall explanation for the changing history of drinks is devoted to 'material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons': that supply had to be there in the first place; that demand had to be affordable; that physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions were important to consumption; that environmental factors influenced both demand and supply; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the role of the state was crucial. These are all extremely important considerations and need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressed in any history of consumption, but the emphasis he places on them makes it disappointing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('non-material reasons' are not explored further. These cultural issues are summarised in just one paragraph:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drinks are consumed not only, or even mainly, because they are available and affordable: they have to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desired and enjoyed. Alcoholic drinks have always contributed to conviviality, celebration and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(festivity, and through their varying rituals confirmed membership and fellowship within groups: beer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wine represented differences in social status but shared the common element of sociability, 'the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework and introduction for conversation and conviviality'. While alcohol in moderation liberated )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the drinker from mundane restraints and anxieties, the adoption of the caffeine drinks depended on a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different set of social attributes. It was initially important that they were expensive novelties, which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby defined the social superiority of users: they announced status publicly, and were 'in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion' as markers of modernity at a time of new thought in art, science and politics. It was probably )] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so important in the first place that these drinks were immediately enjoyed as they were seen to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed. The reason why caffeine drinks were adopted by the bourgeoisie were somewhat different. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social emulation was doubtless important for some people, but tea and coffee for this class carried )] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other meanings, of sobriety and seriousness, increasing mental activity without the impairing effects )] TJ ET BT 64.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of alcohol. In the Age of Enlightenment it was a rational use of time for men to drink these beverages, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women part of 'the civilising process' that was bringing more polite manners and gentler )] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships into domestic life. Louis Lewin believed that caffeine could 'sterilise nature and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extinguish carnal desires': certainly, it did not stimulate sexual virility of physical passion. As tea later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved into mass consumption it lost its original associations with novelty and luxury to become, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, the drink of morality and respectability, firmly linked with the religious revival and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperance movement and, more generally, with Victorian values of work, thrift and sobriety. [188-9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the material explanations offered in his conspectus are a summary of the excellent accounts provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the separate chapters these non-material factors were not explored by any means as thoroughly; a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies scholar would be able to conjure up a book from every one of the above sentences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liquid Pleasures)] TJ ET BT 115.688 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fulfils its primary task of presenting an entertaining, general, informative and authoritative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of drinks in Britain. Where further research might be conducted is on these more cultural issues, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though one might suggest that Burnett himself ought to have incorporated them more thoroughly if he really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is committed to emphasising the cultural context of the economic act of consumption. One explanation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of an overarching culturalist interpretation is that Burnett's subject matter is defined purely by it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical properties: water, milk, tea, coffee, soft drinks, beer, wines and spirits appear together purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they are liquids. They are not linked according to some psychological or cultural property such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that found in Goodman, Lovejoy and Sherrat's history of drugs, or what they crucially term, 'psychoative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substances' \(including caffeine\), which then lends itself to an analysis of the centrality of a particular type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption to everyday life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.332 695.283 m 191.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the general interpretative frameworks that are employed, the importance of the physical environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might warrant further attention. For instance, Burnett does make use of the material collected by Mass-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observation, but much more might be made of this organisation's anthropology of behaviour in pubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in regard to the preferences for particular types of beer, the social and cultural dynamics involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the different rooms of the pub \(the vaults, snug, bar and saloon\), and the weekly rhythms of drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals according to the day of the week.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.640 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.640 597.747 m 240.632 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.632 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, Burnett does make mention of the coffee houses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century but, given the reference to rationality and 'the Age of Enlightenment', it is surprising that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no mention is made of civil society and the public sphere, even if they were only included to dismiss some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the more exaggerated claims of Habermas' analysis of the coffee house.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.740 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.740 554.979 m 404.732 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.732 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in his description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milk bars of the 1930s and the espresso bars of the 1950s, more might have been made of the studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth culture, particularly those on the use of drinks and commercial commodities within various post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcultures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.676 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.676 512.211 m 105.668 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.668 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such close attention to the context of consumption has proved particularly useful in drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the relationship between masculinity and femininity in relation to material culture, but these gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues are also given little attention in Liquid Pleasures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.004 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.004 483.699 m 314.996 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times, Burnett stresses the importance of advertising in stimulating demand, especially with regard to soft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinks and beer, and he is particularly good at tracing the collective advertising slogans such as 'Drink More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milk' \(1922\), 'Pinta Milka Day' \(1958\) and 'Beer is Best' \(1933\). The literature on advertising in Britain is by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means as comprehensive as that which has recently appeared on America, and it would have been useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Burnett to have extended his brief analyses to respond to the problematic interpretations so far developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Loeb and Richards.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.664 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.664 386.163 m 156.656 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.656 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, apart from the four postcards which appear on the front cover, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no presentation of the visual evidence of Liquid Pleasures. Had the imagery of drink been studied in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth then again issues of masculinity and femininity might have been more thoroughly explored as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more general issue of identity. Burnett does deal very well with the issue of social status, but drinks have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been used to explore individual identity and to present images of the self to others within one's socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of these issues may seem peripheral to the author's concerns and he should not be criticised too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for what he has not included, since the socio-economic approach he does offer is largely convincing and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful corrective to the overtly culturalist turn of many recent studies. However, his realist or material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach does detract from his analysis in a number of ways. One final point that should be mentioned here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the history of health and medicine offered in the book. While Burnett is very good in outlining the medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properties ascribed to the various drinks in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, seeing such health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims as products of their time, he does not pursue the theme, except with a brief mention of advertising. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, he too readily accepts the medical evidence of more recent decades and he offers the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addiction as an explanation for the growth in coffee consumption [p. 91]. It might be argued that coffee is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely habit forming and that the authority of the claim that it is addictive is dependent on the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of scientific knowledge over the last 150 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this point is an incredibly minor one, what I hope it does is emphasise the fact that many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations which Burnett offers as real or material, may in fact be the products of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstance. This should not detract from the excellent approach and analysis provided in )] TJ ET BT 473.936 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liquid Pleasures)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an approach I think he has been largely correct to adopt. It is mentioned merely to highlight the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the history of drink might be extended. As Burnett himself argues in the introduction: '"needs" came )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3317 695.5975 191.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6397 598.0615 240.6317 609.9415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.7397 555.2935 404.7317 567.1735 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.6757 512.5255 105.6677 524.4055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.0037 484.0135 314.9957 495.8935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.6637 386.4775 156.6557 398.3575 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 6705 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be determined not by physiological requirements but in terms of cultural "wants"'[p. 4]. However, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent and definitive focus on price, supply, environment and the state, his analysis of the 'non material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons' is by no means as complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Burnett's work probably anticipates some more detailed studies: W. Gutzke, )] TJ ET BT 470.780 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drink in British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture)] TJ ET BT 143.024 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University Press, forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.636 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.636 686.787 m 476.624 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Burnett, )] TJ ET BT 116.684 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harmondsworth: Penguin edn., 1968\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.996 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.996 658.275 m 305.984 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Strasser, C. McGovern & M. Judt, )] TJ ET BT 244.676 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Societies in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 228.680 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998\); M. Daunton & M. Hilton \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Material Politics: States, Consumers and Political Cult ures)] TJ ET BT 354.032 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Berg, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.344 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.344 615.507 m 516.332 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Goodman, P. E. Lovejoy & A. Sherrat \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 294.656 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anthropology)] TJ ET BT 130.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.008 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.008 586.995 m 320.996 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mass-Observation, )] TJ ET BT 158.000 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pub and the People: A Worktown Study)] TJ ET BT 369.644 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Cresset, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.632 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.632 572.739 m 546.620 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Habermas, )] TJ ET BT 129.332 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: an Inquiry into a Category of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bourgeois Society)] TJ ET BT 151.004 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(trans. by Thomas Burger, Oxford: Polity Press, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.316 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.316 544.227 m 472.304 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Hebdige, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subculture: The Meaning of Style)] TJ ET BT 286.652 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge, 1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.644 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.644 529.971 m 477.632 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, C. Breward, )] TJ ET BT 212.312 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hidden Consumer: Masculinities, Fashion and City Life 1860-1914)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999\); V. De Grazia with E. Furlough \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 489.932 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sex of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Pe rspective)] TJ ET BT 353.672 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Los Angeles: University of California )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1996\); M. Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 183.020 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Smoking in British Popular Culture, 1800-2000)] TJ ET BT 412.364 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 458.691 m 233.996 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. A. Loeb, )] TJ ET BT 122.672 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women)] TJ ET BT 383.660 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\); T. 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