%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 34 0 R 48 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 70 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140801190455+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140801190455+01'00') /Title ('For Their Own Good': Civilian Evacuations in France and Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3800 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [('For Their Own Good': Civilian Evacuations in France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Every means of defence will be put into action to stop enemy aircraft. However, some may get )] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through [?] If nothing holds you back, as soon as the threat arrives, LEAVE! [...] LEAVE with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(your family. DO NOT WAIT. )] TJ ET BT 211.652 225.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(LEAVE)] TJ ET BT 247.652 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.980 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.980 224.289 m 269.972 224.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such was the advice given in France 1934, in anticipation of future bomb or gas attacks. Citizens were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forewarned to travel to less exposed regions. Were the French unusual in this early approach to planning for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation, or was their eastward neighbour also counselling its inhabitants to make a pre-emptive dash for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safety? And did the advent of war prompt changes to policy? In this comparison of civilian evacuation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Germany during the Second World War, Julia S. Torrie answers both questions, and many more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besides, in a book which sheds light on the wartime relationships between civilians and the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain, the story of evacuation is well rehearsed; indeed, it is a key anchor in this country?s popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of its own war. On the BBC archive of wartime memoirs contributed \(unsolicited, uncorroborated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but enormously enthusiastically\) by the public, 14,336 entries concern ?Childhood and evacuation?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1061)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Torrie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845457259)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(269pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindsey Dodd)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.9797 224.6035 269.9717 236.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8369 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to ?only? 2,911 on the Blitz or 1,295 on rationing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.992 795.075 m 338.984 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While our present interest in the grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure of evacuation may be rooted in nostalgia, recent analysis has given a more nuanced view, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant use of qualitative sources. Child evacuation is a frequent subject of academic study in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.992 752.307 m 98.984 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other countries, however, the evacuation of civilian populations ? adult and child ? barely appears. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(AHRC-sponsored project )] TJ ET BT 159.332 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bombing, States and Peoples in Western Europe, 1940-1945)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.308 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.308 711.795 m 467.300 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.300 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will soon publish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two books featuring evacuation in France and Italy. Torrie rightly points out that evacuation is an ?under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched? field \(p. 6\) in France and Germany. She cites three works on civilian evacuation in Germany )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 540.884 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 540.884 683.283 m 554.876 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 554.876 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and none for France where, she notes in her conclusion, ?the experience of evacuation [has] passed, like that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bombing itself, into the shadows of war memory? \(p. 176\). Evacuation, she says, gets a mention \(like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombing\) in studies of the home front, but there is little else on France, save mentions by Laura Lee Downs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her book )] TJ ET BT 91.676 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood in the Promised Land)] TJ ET BT 249.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 255.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her article on childrearing in France and Britain \(the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlisted by Torrie\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.004 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.004 612.003 m 140.996 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why is civilian evacuation an important topic of study? First, there is a matter of scale. During the civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exodus of 1940 \(included in Torrie?s study as an example of evacuation\) 2 million Belgians fled into France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a further 7 million French people took to the roads \(p. 39\); by late October 1944, 1.2 million French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people were displaced \(p. 159\) and 4 million bombed out \(p. 168\), while in Germany in February 1945, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was estimated maybe 17 million people were displaced \(p. 160\), 12 million evacuated by the state \(p. 2\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, evacuation had a powerful qualitatative impact on the lives of evacuees; the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological afterlife of evacuation, however, is beyond the remit of the work under review. The book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three aims \(although I would argue it does more\). Torrie uses evacuation to examine the interaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian regimes and their citizens, particularly issues of consent and coercion. Second, as air war is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rarely discussed?, particularly in France, parts of the civilian experience of total war remain unexplored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical terms; thus Torrie intends to open them up for investigation. Finally, she seeks to bring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German occupation of France ?into better focus? by studying the ?ground level interaction? between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupying and French authorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there is much more. Torrie brings to the stage a wider range of actors than might appear if her home-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front focus were broader. Thus we see women \(mothers, wives, workers\), children \(infants, schoolchildren, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adolescents\), men \(fathers, husbands, workers, soldiers, POWs\), importantly too, the elderly; we see the ill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the mentally ill, we see persecuted populations including Jews and ?asocials?; we see rural and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life; and we meet administrators at many levels. A second theme is charity and social welfare, evacuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requiring a vast programme of assistance which put the welfare of millions into the hands of the state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linked is the status of evacuation as a policy with an essentially humanitarian aim; Torrie guides us through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the maze of exclusions which cast shadows over this policy that echoed Nazi eugenic and racial policies. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourth thread is the nature of victimhood, and evacuees? status ? or lack thereof ? as victims of war. Torrie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that evacuees were a highly politicised group who later turned ?victimhood and vulnerability into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful claims for basic rights? \(p. 74\). Finally, much attention is given to the role of the family in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies at war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is clearly structured, broadly chronologically, but with three central thematic chapters on evacuee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, family ties and selection policies. In chapter one, ?Preparing for air war?, Torrie examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide contrast between German and French attitudes towards evacuation in the inter-war years. Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used an ?anti-evacuation? model, equipping urban populations to remain steadfast under the bombs. France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie writes, subscribed to a ?pro-evacuation? model, which saw it as the key means of protection, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?each person can go when he wants, where he wants? \(p. 22\). There was criticism inside France, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators looking enviously towards Germany \(Torrie says ?a minority?, although many civil defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuals the reviewer has examined made reference to Germany\), others bemoaning ?lax? planning, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most disagreeing on the best course of action \(pp. 20?1\). How rigorously was the pro-evacuation model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheld? A fleeting reference \(p. 25\) to French faith in the army hints at the unexplored contradictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying war preparations in France: was it necessary to plan evacuation when the nation was so well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended? Furthermore, by refusing to analyse civil defence preparations \(shelters, blackout, gas masks, etc\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.9917 795.3895 338.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.9917 752.6215 98.9837 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.3077 712.1095 467.2997 723.9895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 540.8837 683.5975 554.8757 695.4775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.0037 612.3175 140.9957 624.1975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 9349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking place during the 1930s )] TJ ET BT 179.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inside French towns )] TJ ET BT 279.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 26\), there is no way of assessing a ?preference? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation over staying put, when so many pages of civil defence literature were dedicated to the latter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.896 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.896 780.819 m 545.888 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie?s sharply-drawn contrast is further blurred by mention near the end of the chapter of German pre-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plans to evacuate civilians living up to 20 kilometres from the Rhine \(p. 28\); evacuation was envisaged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, under certain circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, ?Order and chaos?, builds on the positions just outlined, showing that the Germans? could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be maintained once war began. It treats the initial evacuations in France and Germany in 1939, followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civilian )] TJ ET BT 90.680 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exode)] TJ ET BT 118.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in France of May/June 1940. Torrie demonstrates the profound impact of the latter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future evacuations in both countries, in her most convincing example of the reciprocal influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring nations. She describes the problems which arose from the 1939 German border evacuations as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 113.984 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all )] TJ ET BT 129.656 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others which followed: a poor welcome, flawed planning, local improvisation, hasty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departures, attempts to impose order, civilian drift-back and popular non-compliance \(pp. 34?6\). She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions the 1939 evacuation of children from ?vulnerable areas such as Paris? \(where else?\) \(p. 37\), which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated, for a country supposedly prepared for evacuation, a lack of planning. She devotes more space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the evacuation of Alsace and Lorraine to south-west France and the ensuing cultural clashes of language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, and so on. Torrie?s depiction of evacuees? terrible journeys \(crammed into freight wagons for up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60 hours, p. 37\) prefigures the unsettling parallels she later draws between evacuation and deportation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German volte-face concerning attitudes to evacuation needed dressing up in new clothes to dissociate it from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness: the 1940 exodus became the new model of French incompetence and atomised individualism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly contrasted to orderly German evacuations, and the paternalistic, well-organised work of the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare organisation, the )] TJ ET BT 155.984 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfaht)] TJ ET BT 333.680 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(NSV\) \(p. 49\). Torrie dovetails the opposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions again, maintaining the contrast between French and German models.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?Organising evacuations?, considers the development of state policies, the work of charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations and the politicisation of war relief. Major policy changes took place in spring 1942 following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bombing of Boulogne-Billancourt in March, and of Cologne in May \(p. 50\). Children in Germany were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sent on the )] TJ ET BT 89.012 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kinderlandverschickung )] TJ ET BT 209.996 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(KLV\), a scheme originally designed to ameliorate poor children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health \(like the )] TJ ET BT 109.004 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(colonies de vacances)] TJ ET BT 210.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in France )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.296 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.296 400.419 m 275.288 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 275.288 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Now, older children were housed collectively by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler Youth, and three to ten year olds with host families; infants and their mothers, and pregnant women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also billeted with host families as part of the NSV?s )] TJ ET BT 312.980 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mutter und Kind)] TJ ET BT 392.984 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( programme. By the end of 1942, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole schools were evacuated collectively. Two million children were sent on state evacuations, most to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distant locations \(pp. 54?5\). French evacuations were broadly similar, but Torrie?s argument rests on crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences which enable her to explain the French population?s less volatile response. First, French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuations were run by local government which could negotiate with the occupiers on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population \(p. 62\). Second, French evacuations were shorter in duration. Third, French evacuees were sent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural locations closer to home \(p. 61\). Fourth, the French authorities took family ?more into account? \(p. 51\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and fourth of these reasons are at the heart of Torrie?s position: how widespread were they as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national principles? The author states that most reception areas were within 200 kilometres of home towns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own research found that )] TJ ET BT 172.316 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(where possible)] TJ ET BT 243.980 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rural areas of the home )] TJ ET BT 363.608 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dpartement)] TJ ET BT 423.596 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ?filled up? first, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saturation occurred swiftly. Children were evacuated from the Parisian suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt to at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least 15 )] TJ ET BT 74.012 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dpartements)] TJ ET BT 138.668 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; only those sent to the Loir-et-Cher were within 200 kilometres; many were over 500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kilometres away. Around 8,000 evacuees from Brest went to designated reception )] TJ ET BT 430.268 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dpartements )] TJ ET BT 497.924 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Loir-et-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cher and the Sarthe\) 400?600 kilometres away.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.304 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.304 186.579 m 276.296 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.296 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Torrie also states that there was a ?clear preference for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing children with foster families? in France. This may have been the case in Normandy, but not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. Any evacuation of children in the Nord )] TJ ET BT 279.620 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dpartment)] TJ ET BT 334.280 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had to be done under the guise of a health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony; such children went to group accommodation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.652 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.652 143.811 m 309.644 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 309.644 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When schools closed in Brest in 1941, and during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formal evacuation of 1943, boarding-school style solutions were common. Yet, as Torrie points, out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger German children went to foster families. So a stark contrast should be blurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter four, ?Our stay here gives us no pleasure?, Torrie looks at evacuees? problems ? poor welcome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompatibility of lifestyle, work-related issues, morale and morals ? and the states? solutions. Because of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive welfare programmes, Torrie writes, the Nazi party believed that people had ?unlearnt? the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.8957 781.1335 545.8877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.2957 400.7335 275.2877 412.6135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.3037 186.8935 276.2957 198.7735 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.6517 144.1255 309.6437 156.0055 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 8815 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social skill of mutual assistance: within the )] TJ ET BT 243.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volksgemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 333.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the strongest links were not between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community members, but between individuals and party. However, in France, with a more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualist tradition, but also a stronger emphasis on family relationships, pre-dating Vichy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.992 766.563 m 503.984 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were better able \(and encouraged\) to provide mutual aid. Nonetheless, evacuees still faced a cool welcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While I might not agree with Torrie that evacuations sought to ?strengthen? existing social structures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the family \(p. 89\), in France, she is right to emphasise a French insistence on family compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the German one on community, pointing out that the German scheme intended to )] TJ ET BT 450.980 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(create)] TJ ET BT 480.968 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( new ties to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime. Unlike their neighbour, the French produced little propaganda especially for evacuees, and tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid ?making them into martyrs?; this was, of course, easier for Nazi propagandists, given that Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was bombed by an obvious enemy \(p. 90\). The French position was more ambiguous. This chapter is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive in its treatment of women evacuees, notably concerning work and morality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?If only family unity can be maintained?, uses two case studies, a protest by the evacuees of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Witten, contrasted with the smoother evacuation of Cherbourg, to demonstrate the centrality of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation to evacuees? concerns. German policymakers underestimated the significance of family \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94?5\). In Witten a group of evacuees launched a protest against their forced evacuation away from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands, who remained doing essential war work. Their protest succeeded, and the withholding of ration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cards for ?wild returnees? was abandoned. In Cherbourg, Torrie writes that the Germans wished to impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar measures, separating spouses, but that the ?French authorities fought the German occupiers [?] on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf of the French citizens? \(p. 112\), permitting wives to stay to support husbands at home. The Witten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example is strong, but two minor comments might shake the French one. First, to describe French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuations as ?family friendly? \(p. 96\) because the spousal relationship was maintained ignores other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral parts of a ?family? obliged to leave: children and grandparents. Second, the insistence upon the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?the French government? as a ?buffer? between the Germans and the population is also perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overdrawn. In other towns not considered by Torrie, we find local administrators working )] TJ ET BT 468.272 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(against )] TJ ET BT 506.612 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and preferences? \(p. 116\) of local people \(as in the unpopular decision to close schools in Brest in 1941 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force the evacuation of children\), while the German attitude \(not making evacuation compulsory 1943\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chimed with popular attitudes. However, this chapter convincingly demonstrates the importance of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties in influencing the behaviour of evacuees, which policymakers were forced to take into consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, ?On the basis of selection?, shows that the protection evacuation brought must be seen as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(privilege)] TJ ET BT 76.676 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not a )] TJ ET BT 106.340 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(right)] TJ ET BT 129.680 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and furthermore, a privilege accorded only to parts of the population. This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes to understanding relations between individuals, groups and the state in these countries and brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to our attention the blurred nature of evacuees? status as victims of war. The chapter concerns the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jews, the mentally ill and ?asocials?. Torrie focuses on the strange similarities between evacuation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation \(differentiated by intention and result\) \(pp. 131?2\), and notes that Jews were deported faster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from areas where the housing crisis was greater, to make space for bombed-out members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volksgemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 124.004 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 132\). In some cases, city hospitals were evacuated to rural mental institutions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their patients switched, the mentally ill sent to urban areas vulnerable to bombing \(pp. 140?1\); others were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved to euthanasia camps. Evacuees committing criminal acts could also be sent back to cities. The Nazis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus turned ?Allied bombs into tools for genocide? \(p. 128\), or ?tools for eugenics? \(p. 147\). Members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volksgemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 124.004 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were privileged in the competition for housing and healthcare that bombing provoked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie?s evidence for similar policies in France is a little sparse. She connects the German case and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of deported Jews? apartments for bombed-out civilians, an operation run by the Comit Ouvrier de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secours Immdiat \(COSI\) \(an anti-Semitic, German-funded organisation that became directly linked to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French government only in 1944 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.336 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.336 158.067 m 214.328 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.328 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), although this properly concerns despoliation and not evacuation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only example that leads to her conclusion of ?the )] TJ ET BT 272.312 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(refusal)] TJ ET BT 305.648 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to evacuate Jews in France and Germany? \(p. 131, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my italics\) is of four ?Israelites? crossed off a list planning evacuation from a Parisian school in 1943. I do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not debate evident French anti-Semitic policies, and would find it surprising were Jews permitted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuate; but Torrie gives no policy to support her example. Concerning the mentally ill in France, I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have also liked stronger evidence of policy. Torrie describes how Normandy?s psychiatric patients were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved around as the Germans requisitioned their hospitals )] TJ ET BT 319.316 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 337.652 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it was felt they needed protection \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142\). While the difference of intention is important, the example does not show an equivalent victimisation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.9917 766.8775 503.9837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.3357 158.3815 214.3277 170.2615 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 7894 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this population to that in Germany. Finally, concerning ?a-social? evacuees in France ? here, criminals ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie notes that French policy was ?more lenient?. They were evacuated to locations with police stations; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, Torrie even says some were evacuated ?as a punishment? to separate them from urban troublemakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 149\). Thus such people were not excluded from evacuation. The chapter is fascinating in tracing how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those excluded from each ?national community? were shunted around \(in Germany, often to their deaths\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and neglected in preference to those deemed valuable; it does not illustrate the convincing equivalence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy concerning evacuation and ?undesirables? in both countries that Torrie?s conclusions imply \(see, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The penultimate chapter, ?Reponding to chaos?, moves once more into a position of contrast between France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Germany, treating evacuation in each country?s last year of war. There are points of convergence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each nation?s experience, notably an ?increasing need to evacuate and a growing impossibility of doing so? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 152\). Accommodation and transport were increasingly scarce; in both countries, Torrie says, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of civilians was characterised by compromise and improvisation \(p. 156\). The meat of the contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, comes from a difference in scale between France and Germany. For evacuees in Normandy, Torrie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes of ?unpleasant experiences? which were ?rendered bearable? as they were short term: this evacuation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she says, usually amounted to ?a few days on the road? \(p. 158\). An idea of mild upheaval perhaps emerges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the contrast with Germany where the scale of disorder was immense, or perhaps from the Norman case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study; Torrie rather plays down the French experience. Yet during the siege of Brest \(August-September )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944\), for example, 22,000 new refugees clogged local roads, with little welcome, for at least two months. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that 80 per cent of all buildings in Brest were destroyed, many had nothing to return to; only in 1959 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did local authorities begin dismantling Brest?s temporary housing. Given the levels of destruction in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman towns such as Le Havre, I find Torrie?s picture of the French ?evacuation? \(or refugee\) crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944 surprising; perhaps qualitative material might have highlighted the )] TJ ET BT 383.660 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(impact)] TJ ET BT 416.324 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the situation, because in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative contrast to Germany, it could appear slight. The scale is striking: 1.2 million displaced people in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France in late 1944, but maybe 18 million on the roads in Germany. Torrie cites thousands of children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated from their parents for months in evacuated billets or centres \(similar examples in France are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored by Torrie?s analysis\) \(p. 165\), but also the influx of eastern Germans fleeing the Red Army, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing for resources in bombed cities. Clearly, the German case was desperate, and the scale, coupled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the administrative divisions of occupation, made repatriation arduous. Torrie concludes that ?orderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuations? broke down under this pressure, although immediately counters her point by saying it is hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider evacuations in either country to have )] TJ ET BT 257.636 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ever)] TJ ET BT 278.288 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( been particularly successful \(p. 165\). Her statement that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?evacuations work best when the battle is going well for those involved? \(p. 151\), therefore, is surprising: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never in this book do we see an evacuation that really ?works?, regardless of how ?well? the ?battle? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going; ?best? is an extremely relative term.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, ?Evacuation?s aftermath?, raises important questions about evacuees? status as war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims. It begins by looking at evacuees? claims, in Germany \(the point cannot be made for France\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the ?right to reside? in former hometowns, and how this set them up in ?competition? with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displaced people, notably those returning from concentration camps and the expellees from the east \(p.168\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evacuees were low down the ?pecking order? of victims. After lobbying by interest groups, laws were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established to assist German evacuees, but they were never ?equal? victims to those persecuted by the Nazis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 173\). The French case is a thought-provoking comparison: to smooth over divisions, apart from notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborators, the French ?preferred to view victims as equals? \(p. 174\): the cracks between victims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators were papered over \(p. 172\). It could be argued that this has been at the root of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?obsession? with Vichy ever since, for time, history and society have )] TJ ET BT 368.960 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 384.296 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( judged all victims as equal. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should they have done. Yet certain ?victims? \(or people who suffered, perhaps\) were thus written out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French wartime history as their claim to victimhood could not compete with others: )] TJ ET BT 438.320 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prisonniers de guerre)] TJ ET BT 542.312 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les fusills)] TJ ET BT 84.356 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and clearly, )] TJ ET BT 149.336 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les dports)] TJ ET BT 206.996 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The politics of victimhood accounts for much of how history is written; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those victims of the Holocaust will never disappear from memory. But Torrie?s book goes a long way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinstate the experiences of a swathe of civilians in France and in Germany whose lives were turned upside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down by war.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 9254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?For Their Own Good)] TJ ET BT 142.352 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? provides new insights into civilian life in France and Germany, but it poses the a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few technical challenges. There is much in the book to admire, not least the author?s use of local archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail to flesh out examples, and her rigorous structuring of the comparison between the two countries. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are three broad reservations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding terminology, near the beginning of the book \(p. 11\) Torrie alerts the reader to her usage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word ?evacuation? and ?evacuee?. Not only did the French initially use the word )] TJ ET BT 425.264 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vacuation)] TJ ET BT 477.920 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( only under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain military circumstances, and three other terms, )] TJ ET BT 292.292 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(repliement)] TJ ET BT 343.616 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 349.616 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dispersion)] TJ ET BT 399.620 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 422.948 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(loignement)] TJ ET BT 481.604 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government frequently referred to its evacuees as )] TJ ET BT 273.608 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rfugis)] TJ ET BT 312.272 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 319.268 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rfugi)] TJ ET BT 353.264 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( meant any displaced person\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans used a variety of euphemistic terms, notably )] TJ ET BT 295.640 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(umquartieren)] TJ ET BT 360.968 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(being quartered or housed elsewhere\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and phased out )] TJ ET BT 109.004 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evakuierung)] TJ ET BT 170.324 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reserved exclusively for the deportation of Jews and others. While I fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand Torrie?s desire, for her readers? ease, to stand by one term, in doing so she loses certain nuances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of experience, turning her evacuees into ?an amorphous mass? \(to steal her own expression\) \(p. 90\), when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are important distinctions that affected their activity, motivation and treatment. She chooses ?evacuee? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because such people were ?deliberately displaced?, and not the refugees of ?an accidental confluence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events leading to flight? \(p. 9\); yet a large number of those who feature in this study might be better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in the latter terms. There is a difference between those who were evacuated to specified \(or self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen\) locations )] TJ ET BT 120.668 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pre-emptively)] TJ ET BT 186.644 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and those who fled before an invading army \(both in 1940 and 1944 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, and in Germany in 1945\), or because home was destroyed by bombing. Placing participants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a posteriori )] TJ ET BT 93.356 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuees in the same category as )] TJ ET BT 254.636 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 291.644 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evacuees belies interesting and complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences. It is hard to force people to leave if they are not expecting calamity to strike; however, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom it has struck flee voluntarily. People whose houses are not destroyed are more easily repatriated than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those bombed out. In chapter six the problem of terminology was particularly difficult as it seemed that )] TJ ET BT 533.288 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people on the move ? whether banished, swapped, deported, bombed-out, in flight, or more recognisably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuated \(see pp. 150?1\) ? were termed ?evacuees?. While too many terms might confuse, Torrie could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more systematic in identifying types of displaced person.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second reservation contains a contradiction: I am delighted to see these two countries? policies towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation presented in comparison, and I understand the motivation for their choice. Yet the enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference of scale in bombing, its damage and its motivation makes the comparison awkward at times. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie writes that ?the same difficulties afflicted both countries? \(p. 71\); they did not. She sometimes seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to hunt down similarities and differences in evacuation policy based on national )] TJ ET BT 446.288 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ideologies)] TJ ET BT 495.620 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vastly different circumstances of war which also shaped government and civilian action. This is not just a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of tonnage and death tolls: when they bombed France, the Allies aimed at military, industrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation targets, among others. The population was well aware that the bombers sought such targets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that homes and lives bodies were unintended casualties. With a \(sometimes misplaced\) faith the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombers? accuracy, localised or no evacuation at all was a more viable option. The Allies? motivation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different in Germany: ?dehousing? the working population aimed to break morale and destroy the manpower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the German war machine \(i.e. kill civilians\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie emphasises the contrasts that support her argument \(e.g. French ?pro-evacuation? )] TJ ET BT 460.916 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vs )] TJ ET BT 473.912 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German ?anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation?; French short distance )] TJ ET BT 203.312 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vs)] TJ ET BT 213.308 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( German long distance; the ?unpleasant experience? of 1944 in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vs)] TJ ET BT 44.012 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the catastrophe of 1945 in Germany\), but her own evidence often supports a more nuanced view. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, tracking down similarities can also mislead. For example, she paints the )] TJ ET BT 442.976 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secours national)] TJ ET BT 523.976 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emulation of the German )] TJ ET BT 157.328 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(NSV)] TJ ET BT 181.664 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Germans tried to make supply ?Nazi-style war relief?. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secours national, )] TJ ET BT 121.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was never neutral \(p. 68\), nor was it pro-Nazi; it was always pro-Ptain, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration stemmed from there. It did not embrace the Germanophile workerism of the COSI \(or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Entr?aide d?Hiver)] TJ ET BT 124.340 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and implemented war relief according to Vichy?s moral code of ?Travail, famille, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrie?. She ignores the animosity between the COSI and both local government and the )] TJ ET BT 460.292 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secours national)] TJ ET BT 541.292 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrating it too neatly within the mainstream of French war relief. Likewise, Torrie wonders whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French policymakers desired children in school centres to wear uniforms ?in an effort to make [them] more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the )] TJ ET BT 72.680 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(KLV)] TJ ET BT 94.688 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 67\). Instead of seeing the French gaze fixed only across the Rhine, Torrie could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked too at long traditions of scouting and uniform-wearing youth organisations in France, or in private )] TJ ET endstream endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 8796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Catholic\) schools \(and many evacuation centres were staffed by religious personnel\). In her desire to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities and support her thesis of ?cross national interaction, observation, and imitation? \(p. 71\), Torrie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decontextualises evacuation policy from the events of war. She herself notes instances where French policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments preceded German ones, reacting to external events of the war \(e.g. regarding policy alterations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France after the March 1942 Renault raid followed by German ones in May 1942\). There was imitation; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but often policy altered more pragmatically the wake of external events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concerning case study locations, Torrie describes Normandy as ?the best illustration of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation?, although notes that it is not ?typical, but used here to best expose the dilemmas of evacuation \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\). When a single case study is used, generalisations about a ?national? picture must be made carefully. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were the case study a ?typical? location, perhaps national-scale deductions would be possible. It is arguable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether any location had a ?typical? experience of war; some may have had experiences ?representative? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a number of other places; but an extreme or critical case should be used carefully. Normandy underwent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events not shared elsewhere. A case study approach is fascinating, lively and perhaps the only way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?getting at? ground-level experiences. Yet Torrie?s conclusions, based on the Norman case, contradicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those which emerged from my own work, which used other cases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such reservations should not detract from this useful, well-crafted book. Torrie was constrained to find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to be clear about evacuation; adding extra case studies is often beyond a historian?s means; any bi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national comparison will face difficulties of the incomparable. It is skilful to attempt one, and Torrie?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds. I wanted more contextualisation of events, however, and a greater role accorded to a nuanced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically varied, French state. In the end, Torrie largely achieves her aims: we are more enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to the relations between people and state in authoritarian regimes, and have developed ideas of belonging, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights and privileges. The book is a worthy contribution to a growing literature on the civilian experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(air war in Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives Municipales de Lille, 5H3.1: ?Lille et le Nord sous les gaz: recommendations officielles la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population civile?, 1934 \(Paris\). The reviewer would like to emphasise that her expertise lies in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French case of this comparison rather than across both countries, which is why supplementary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples are drawn from events in France.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.956 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.956 349.155 m 324.944 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Childhood and evacuation? is by far the largest number of entries; a distant second place goes to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of the British Land Army, with 6,364 stories. See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.100 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.100 320.643 m 550.076 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 78.008 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 25 February 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.064 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.064 306.387 m 283.052 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torrie \(p. 6\) notes the influence of Richard Titmuss, yet contemporary interest pre-dates his )] TJ ET BT 507.932 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problems )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Social Policy )] TJ ET BT 143.012 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(begun 1942, published 1950 \(London\)\); she could also have mentioned the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering research of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuated children \(D. Burlingham )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and A. Freud, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young Children in Wartime)] TJ ET BT 266.012 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1942\) and )] TJ ET BT 367.664 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Infants without Families )] TJ ET BT 488.012 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944\)\). British-based psychologists and social workers during the Blitz focused much attention on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of bombing and evacuation; see for example, W. M. Burbury, ?Evacuation and air raids: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects on children?, )] TJ ET BT 164.648 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Medical Journal)] TJ ET BT 279.980 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 November 1941, 660?2; F. Bodman, ?War conditions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the mental health of the child?, )] TJ ET BT 235.988 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Medical Journal)] TJ ET BT 351.320 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 October)] TJ ET BT 407.972 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1941, 486-?8; E. Glover, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Notes on the psychological effects of war conditions on the civilian population?, part iii, ?The ?Blitz? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? 1940-41?, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Journal of Psychoanalysis)] TJ ET BT 316.664 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(1942\), 2?37. In a recent article on children )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and war, Barenbaum )] TJ ET BT 166.652 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 187.652 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cite eight wartime psychological studies on evacuation \(Barenbaum, J. )] TJ ET BT 532.268 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 553.268 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The psychosocial aspects of children exposed to war: practice and policy initiatives?, )] TJ ET BT 480.932 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Child Psychology and Psychiatry)] TJ ET BT 224.336 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 1 \(2004\), 41?62, 48\). More recent scholarly work includes, for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, M. Parsons and P. Starns, )] TJ ET BT 236.672 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evacuation: the True Story )] TJ ET BT 390.992 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Peterborough, 1999\), S. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatcroft, ?Children?s experiences of war: handicapped children in England during the Second )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War?, )] TJ ET BT 129.656 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century British History)] TJ ET BT 293.336 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19, 4 \(2008\), 480?501; six out of 26 chapters in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthology, )] TJ ET BT 118.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children: The Invisible Victims of War)] TJ ET BT 305.012 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deal with the evacuation of British children, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another four with evacuations in different countries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.628 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.628 49.779 m 367.616 49.779 l S endstream endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.9557 349.4695 324.9437 361.3495 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.0997 320.9575 550.0757 332.8375 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.0637 306.7015 283.0517 318.5815 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6277 50.0935 367.6157 61.9735 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R ] /Contents 71 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Length 8485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.112 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/wss/bombing/index.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.112 795.075 m 333.764 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.764 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 350.756 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 25 February 2011]. Web )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition forthcoming.C. Baldoli and A. Knapp, )] TJ ET BT 303.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Blitzes: France and Italy under Allied )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bombs, 1940?1945 )] TJ ET BT 159.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, forthcoming 2011\); )] TJ ET BT 303.668 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bombing, States and Peoples in Western Europe, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1940?1945)] TJ ET BT 118.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Overy )] TJ ET BT 188.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al )] TJ ET BT 212.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, forthcoming 2011\). The latter contains chapters by Michael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schmiedel and Elena Cortesi on evacuation in France and Italy respectively.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.280 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.280 738.051 m 484.268 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Baldoli and A. Knapp, )] TJ ET BT 189.344 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Blitzes: France and Italy under Allied Bombs, 1940-1945 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, forthcoming 2011\); R. Overy, op. cit. 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Downs, )] TJ ET BT 371.660 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood in the Promised Land: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Class Movements and the Colonies de Vacances in France, 1880?1960)] TJ ET BT 450.308 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Durham, NC, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 624.003 m 118.004 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On interwar civil defence publications destined for popular consumption, see L. Dodd and M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiggam, ?Civil defence as a harbinger of war in interwar Britain and France?, )] TJ ET BT 444.248 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Synergies Royaume )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Uni et Irlande)] TJ ET BT 132.008 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(forthcoming, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.328 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.328 581.235 m 289.316 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Downs, )] TJ ET BT 124.340 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childhood in the Promised Land)] TJ ET BT 281.684 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, op. cit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.684 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.684 566.979 m 374.672 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives Municipales et Communautaires de Brest, 4H4.25, ?Incidences des principaux )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombardements subis par la Ville de Brest au cours de la guerre?, 10 Apr. 1946; 4H4.36, Adjoint-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayor of Brest to Abb du Petitcorps, 4 Oct. 1963.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.992 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.992 524.211 m 363.980 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Official evacuation outside the Nord had been forbidden by the occupier, so under the guise of ?health )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies? \(although now specifically targeting ?child victims of war? rather than poor or unhealthy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children\), thousands of children were sent away from urban centres for stints in the countryside, in and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the school holidays. \(Archives Dpartementales du Nord, 25W.38180: Head of Refugee )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Services for the Interior Ministry to all departmental refugee services, 27 Nov. 1941; Archives )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Municipales de Lille, 5H6.6: )] TJ ET BT 205.340 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Grand Echo du Nord)] TJ ET BT 322.004 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 Oct. 1941.\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.328 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.328 438.675 m 460.316 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On family policy in pre-war France, see V. de Luca, ?Restoring the notion of family in France: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronatalist and pro-family propaganda in schools and army barracks \(1920?1940\)?, )] TJ ET BT 466.928 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(English Edition\))] TJ ET BT 147.020 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60.1/2 \(2005\), 11-35; A. 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