%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150503102855+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150503102855+01'00') /Title (A Sacred City. Consecrating Churches and Reforming Society in Eleventh-Century Italy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4117 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Sacred City. Consecrating Churches and Reforming Society in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eleventh-Century Italy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton?s book is an important contribution to our understanding of church reform in the 11th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the lead of a host of scholars, amongst them John Gilchrist and his diversified conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church reform, the emphasis is not on the papacy as the instigator of reform, but rather on how reform issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were formed in the localities ? in this case, by the means of church dedications. Whereas earlier scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has focused on a few dedications deemed particular significant ? that given to Cluny by Pope Urban II in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1095 for instance ? Hamilton is much more concerned with practice and the extent to which the dedications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect the entry of the crowd on the political stage. Or, as Hamilton puts it in the introduction: ?Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedications often drew large crowds ? crowds that were, in the eleventh century, becoming increasingly self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious participants in the life of the city? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton?s investigation, then, contains a plea for dealing more in detail with the liturgical dimension ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension that ?has been overshadowed by the rivalry between emperor and pope? \(p. 5\). It is commendable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Hamilton not only goes to the other extreme and only investigates the crowd?s concern with the liturgy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather accentuates the interrelationship between the understanding of the rites on the part of the learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and the reception of it by the crowd. Central to Hamilton?s understanding is the fact that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of the crowd do not always reflect the ambitions of those leading the liturgy? \(p. 7\). Several factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1062)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis I. Hamilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719080265)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leidulf Melve)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains, according to the author, the different understandings of the rite, including the actual appeal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liturgy including its sanctified space, the rivalry between different authorities competing for loyalty in urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces, and the concern of local bishops and abbots.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach chosen, that accentuating practice, is demanding since it requires an investigation of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rites were received amongst the largely illiterate crowd of the 11th century. As Hamilton admits, the variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of local custom, variety in the extant manuscripts as well as the difficulties in knowing which texts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used where, makes it ?impossible for us to assign any single meaning to the rite? \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this point of departure, the chapter ??turba concurrit?: attending the ritual and its meanings? contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fundamental investigation of the crowd?s relationship to the rite. After having addressed Diana Webb?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that the 11th-century crowd was undifferentiated and lacked agency, Hamilton criticises R. I. Moore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for underplaying the symbiotic relationship between the emerging commune and episcopal power. In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to substantiate the criticism, two well-known examples of the early communal movement, those of Milan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lucca, are analysed in some detail. Initially, Hamilton searches the liturgies for descriptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd, and concludes that the lack of simple generic description indicates that the liturgy attracted a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and varied group of people. The author also underlines that the crowds were not gathered in polar opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to elites ? whether ecclesiastical or lay. Nor is there evidence of a dichotomous relationship between urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rural parts of the crowd. On account of this extensive and varied appeal of the liturgy, Hamilton then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines the five functions of the liturgy ? which account for its wide appeal: its moral significance, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservoir of liturgical metaphors for promotion of \(local\) clerics, its aesthetics, the expectations followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the liturgy, and its function in shaping the identity of the community \(pp. 58?66\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, the analysis is slightly problematic, largely as a result of the scarcity of sources denoting more in detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reception of the rite ? and hence its function. For once, the five outlined functions are of a general nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and could perhaps have been further differentiated. For instance, it is rather evident that the liturgy had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral function; it would perhaps have been more informative to specify this moral function, for instance by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparing it with other \(literary\) expressions of the liturgy. Second, in a society so indebted to the visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so soaked in religion, it is hardly surprising that the ?dedication exerted a kind of charisma [?] and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fostered and took place in an emotional and communal atmosphere? \(p. 77\). A brief discussion of types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charisma would have strengthened Hamilton?s thesis, namely that the rites attracted extensive crowds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these crowds became conflicted in the later 11th and early 12th century. Third, Hamilton would at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have profited from discussing the claimed function of the rite up against other factors that may explain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given phenomenon ? or even, a particular function allotted to the rite. For instance, in elaborating on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function of the rite in fostering communal identity, Hamilton contends that ?the liturgy called together a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide array of people and began to subtly suggest to them a variety of ways to think abstractly about the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around them and how they might live within it? \(p. 78\). These are strong claims, placing, in essence, the rite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the centre stage of the formation of communal civic-mindedness. At this point, in order to lend credence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the claims, Hamilton could perhaps have addressed the host of factors that previous scholarship have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized as important in the creation of communal identity in the 11th century. One in particular would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be Diana Webb?s emphasis on saints as important for the creation of civic identity. As such, several aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this particular function of the rite may have been clarified, for instance the extent to which the rite acts as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a catalyst or whether the dedications basically strengthen processes which originated in different contexts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consequently, were indebted to other factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter, ?Peter Damian: from mystical to political allegory?, returns initially to the question of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the rite in the 11th century compared to its use in the Carolingian period. Arguing against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the rite reached a creative peak during the Carolingian reforms and remained largely static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter, Hamilton repeats the conclusion from the previous chapters ? emphasizing the rite?s capacity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluidity ? before introducing the theme of the present chapter by highlighting its importance in 11th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church reform. The main argument, meant to support the contention of the greater significance of the rite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 11th century compared to the Carolingian period, is that ?the exegesis of the dedication moved from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal moral significance to its broader political/ecclesiological significance? \(p. 91\). ?Political allegory? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one keyword here, denoting the political ramifications of allegorical interpretation. In order to specify )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Damian?s use of this type of allegory, three of his sermons on the feast of St Mark are compared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Desiderius? dedication of the new basilica at Monte Cassino. In the face of pro-imperial reformers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence on a literal reading of the Old Testament ? basically to demonstrate that kings had authority over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests ? Damian opts for a mystical reading of scripture with the intention of defending church reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton?s analysis is important, not so much for introducing new aspects to Damian?s conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church reform, but rather by showing its consistency. First, the importance of denouncing the ?old law? so as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to defend the new order of the cardinals is elaborated in Damian?s later treatise )] TJ ET BT 417.248 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disceptatio)] TJ ET BT 475.580 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(synodalis)] TJ ET BT 520.916 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears here in a different, and needless to say, more popular context. As such, it provides yet another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicator of the popular reception of church reform ? at least in Northern Italy. Second, Damian?s call for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform always had a strong personal note, whether it regarded the cardinalate as a new )] TJ ET BT 451.892 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ordo )] TJ ET BT 477.560 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself or thematised his own experience with simony \(in the )] TJ ET BT 333.320 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber gratissimus)] TJ ET BT 417.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and Hamilton shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which Damian?s dedications followed a structured path ? from a call for personal reform to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the idealized church of the reformed. Third, and of even greater importance, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton links this path with Damian?s use of political allegory presenting, in essence, the close connection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Damian the rhetorician and Damian the reformer: ??Damian established a pattern of interpretive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement from the typological to the topological to the anagogical. From the Old Testament precedent, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call for personal reform, and a hoped-for, idealized church of the reformed? \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next two chapters, ?Anselm of Lucca, Urban II and the invention of orthodox dedication? and ?Bruno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Segni and Paschal II: from coordination to conflict?, the author discusses different aspects of the papacy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation of the liturgy for reforming purposes. If Damian was too much of an individualist and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform strategies of the papacy was too rudimentary in the period prior to Pope Gregory VII, Anselm?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papalist reform collection, )] TJ ET BT 163.328 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collectio canonum )] TJ ET BT 257.324 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c. 1081?6\), displays, according to Hamilton, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedication had become an integral part of the governing structure of the reformed church. Yet, it is Bruno of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Segni who ?marked the high point of the use of the dedication rite, in both its practice and its interpretation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 162\). By focusing in particular on two sermons, )] TJ ET BT 282.656 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De laudibus )] TJ ET BT 343.988 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(prior to 1100\) and )] TJ ET BT 437.972 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De sacramentis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiae )] TJ ET BT 80.996 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(after 1112\), Hamilton traces characteristic features as well as the extent to which Bruno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinvigorates the ecclesiology according to changing practical circumstances. Whereas the )] TJ ET BT 470.900 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De laudibus )] TJ ET BT 532.232 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with bishops? authority and morality, puts emphasis on the future eschatological church, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeated by pro-papal interpretation, the )] TJ ET BT 239.300 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De sacramentis ecclesiae )] TJ ET BT 364.268 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers different conceptions ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverberating, in essence, aspects of the papacy of Paschal II. It lacks a defence of papal prerogatives on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand, and focuses on episcopal investment on the other. These two points are read in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruno?s disagreement with Paschal on the issue of lay investiture, accentuating the effort to undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pope by an exegesis of the rite of church dedication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton may very well be correct in situating the )] TJ ET BT 278.984 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De sacramentis ecclesiae )] TJ ET BT 403.952 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of the schism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over lay investiture in 1112, although interest in sacramental and ecclesiological issues relating to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopate is evident in Bruno?s earlier writings as well ? notably in the )] TJ ET BT 382.304 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De symoniacos)] TJ ET BT 455.288 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Yet, the real value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the analysis ? and an important one indeed ? is to widen our understanding of the discussion of investiture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late phases of the Investiture Struggle as being the prerogative of a tiny group of learned churchmen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also being reverberated in other social groups and milieus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton?s )] TJ ET BT 92.348 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sacred City)] TJ ET BT 159.008 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, is a most welcome and important addition to our understanding of the range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dynamic of 11th-century reform. The strength of the analysis emerges fully when Hamilton investigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance as well as the development of the rite of dedication in the context of other aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement for church reform. As such, it not only highlights a subject ? the liturgical dimension ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously have been relatively overlooked, but the analysis adds to our knowledge of the practice of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform movement as well as to prominent reformers such as Peter Damian, Anselm of Lucca, and Bruno of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Segni. The overall claim ? that the 11th century witnessed a renewed concern with church dedications that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the least affected the crowd ? is convincingly argued for. If something is missing, it would be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic comparison with Carolingian reform on the one hand, and the liturgical dimension of the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century on the other ? in order to put the ?emergence of the crowd? in proper perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1062)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 328.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 328.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1062) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000008727 00000 n 0000008855 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000016655 00000 n 0000016720 00000 n 0000025219 00000 n 0000025303 00000 n 0000026009 00000 n 0000026137 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26233 %%EOF