%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 24 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140712162620+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140712162620+01'00') /Title (Henry III Fine Rolls Project) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6283 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls Project)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 55.676 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 55.676 371.895 m 153.320 371.895 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.320 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 173.312 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project has delivered a new on-line edition of the surviving fine rolls from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign of Henry III, king of England \(1216?72\). The edition will also be published in book form, of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three volumes have appeared so far.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.624 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.624 343.209 m 220.616 343.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 220.616 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The earliest fine rolls survive from the reign of King John, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar rolls were very likely in use during the reign of King Richard I and perhaps as early as the 1170s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fine rolls continued to be made into the mid 17th century; the last surviving fine roll covers the 18th to 23rd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regnal years of King Charles I \(27 March 1642?26 March 1648\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.936 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.936 300.441 m 358.928 300.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.928 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The fine rolls record offerings of money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other gifts ? palfreys, hawks, wine, even cartloads of lead ? made to the king for certain, specified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favours. We may class these offerings, just as the late 12th-century exchequer handbook, the )] TJ ET BT 481.580 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exchequer)] TJ ET BT 85.328 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 91.328 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classed them, as offerings that were voluntary and those that were not. The voluntary offerings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were made for immediate or future benefits ? in the words of the )] TJ ET BT 346.940 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 391.604 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 397.604 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some privilege \()] TJ ET BT 492.584 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pro libertate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aliqua)] TJ ET BT 64.688 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), for an estate or lease \()] TJ ET BT 180.308 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pro fundo uel pro firma)] TJ ET BT 293.648 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), for the custody of a ward \()] TJ ET BT 430.940 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pro custodia cuiusque, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qui minor est annis)] TJ ET BT 126.356 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), even ?for the sake of obtaining justice in respect of some farm or rent? \()] TJ ET BT 482.264 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iustitie causa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(super fundo uel redditu aliquo)] TJ ET BT 180.020 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The second type of offering were those ?known at the exchequer as fines? \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fines ad scaccarium dicuntur)] TJ ET BT 173.672 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and treated ?as if they were pecuniary penalties? ? making the plaintiff liable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the laconic, yet effective, words of the )] TJ ET BT 233.300 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 277.964 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to ?be distrained in all things?. The )] TJ ET BT 455.948 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically cited reliefs as an example of such a fine, but the evidence of the fine rolls themselves suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a wide range of compulsory payments were classed as fines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56 fine rolls survive from the reign of King Henry III. The fine rolls for the 21st, 22nd, and 24th regnal years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1236?7, 1237?8, & 1239?40\) are now missing, lost it seems since the reign of King Richard II. The only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous attempt to edit the surviving rolls was undertaken on behalf of the Record Commission by Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts \(1803?97\), the future assistant keeper and secretary of the public records, in the early 1830s. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-volume edition was first published in 1835; the second volume appeared in the following year. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1064)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Carpenter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Doherty)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 55.6757 384.5203 55.6757 384.5203 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/home.html) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 55.6757 372.0355 153.3197 383.9155 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/home.html) >> endobj 18 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.6237 343.5235 220.6157 355.4035 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.9357 300.7555 358.9277 312.6355 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with the edition of King John?s fine rolls, published by the industrious Thomas Duffus Hardy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1804?78\) in the same year, Roberts?s edition seems by far the inferior of the two. While Hardy published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surviving rolls in their entirety, Roberts printed only a selection, what he himself recognised as ?a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of the whole?. Worse, his selection was made on the narrowest of grounds and with the narrowest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of objectives, where they supplied ?links in the chain of family descent? and where they served as an aid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Record Commission?s four-volume calendar of inquisitions )] TJ ET BT 341.660 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post mortem)] TJ ET BT 401.324 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published between 1806 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1828. Entries that did not meet these criteria or serve this objective ? in fact, the majority ? were not printed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resulting selection very much served Roberts?s own interests: when in 1865, within a year of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retirement, he printed his two-volume calendar of 13th-century geneaological detail, )] TJ ET BT 441.932 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendarium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(genealogicum)] TJ ET BT 101.336 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he cited his printed )] TJ ET BT 201.992 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Excerpta )] TJ ET BT 248.312 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.980 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.980 666.771 m 317.972 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.972 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And so, despite the intensive mining of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original fine rolls of Henry III by successive generations of scholars and despite repeated calls by some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those scholars for a new edition, most vigorously expressed in 1947, the selection published by Roberts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained the only printed edition of the fine rolls of King Henry III. As late as 1911, for instance, the then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deputy-keeper of the Public Records, Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte, could still declare that ?the fine rolls of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reigns of John and Henry III have already been dealt with by the Record Commissioners?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.928 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.928 595.491 m 480.920 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.920 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His view was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely decisive in explaining why the 21-volume calendar of medieval fine rolls, first published in that year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and continued over the next 50, began with the succession of Edward I in 1272.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.952 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.952 566.979 m 429.944 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At its simplest, the )] TJ ET BT 127.028 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 227.672 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project provides the first, comprehensive translation of the surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56 fine rolls from the reign of King Henry III. As is well known, the Record Commission used a typeface ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-named ?record type? ? that replicated the abbreviations of the chancery and exchequer enrolments; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Record Commission edition of the Fine Rolls was no exception. The Record Commission editors clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared a view that readers of their volumes would be both fluent and unchallenged at reading heavily-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbreviated Latin texts. Ours is a very different world, where Latin texts \(not to mention technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbreviations of Latin text\) are now considered too exclusive and problematic an investment for scholars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students ? not to mention, the ever-elusive general public desiring immediate dissemination and quantifiable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact. The project?s website style-book is very clear on the preference for English translation over Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text: ?the guiding principle in editing the Fine Rolls of Henry III has been to make them as intelligible as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to as wide an audience as possible?. Providing translations ? the scholarly equivalent of getting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s hands dirty ? is often a tough and thankless task, and certainly no soft option. The project?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations are faithful, careful, and precise, and its style-book supplies a valuable commentary on the rules )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing the project?s method of translation and a detailed explanation of its conventions in regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naming practices, ecclesiastical feast-days, formulae, money, land valuations, and other technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The potential limitations of this reliance on translations are more than compensated for by the project?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable feature: a facility that allows the user to examine high-quality digital images of the original rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. With some minimal scrolling and with a simple click on a link, the user is taken ? the gods and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gremlins of broadband permitting ? to a high-quality digital image of the original entry on the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membrane of the original fine roll. Here the project really comes into own. Users can now explore, examine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check, compare, and transcribe individual entries from the comfort of their own desks ? or wherever they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen to have access to the web. It is impossible to exaggerate the importance of this facility. Occasionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, the sight of the original roll provides a distinctive and memorable insight into the workings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king?s chancery and the wider dynamics of his government. A glimpse, for instance, at the fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membrane of the fine roll for the eighth regnal year \(1223?4\) underlines the scale of the crisis precipitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Falkes de Braut, one of the leading figures in the military establishment of King John \(recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upgraded from ?military adventurer? to ?soldier and royal favourite?\), whose defiance both unsettled and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united leading representatives of the minority government. During the subsequent siege of his castle at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bedford, valiantly and violently held by Falkes?s brother, William, entries reporting the despatch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous writs commanding different clusters of sheriffs to seize the chattels of Falkes, William, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were squeezed into a small body of space after the compilation of the roll. This detail is described in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed edition of the roll, but only when the membrane itself has been viewed online can the user appreciate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the burden of bureaucratic confusion created by the crisis. The value of such a resource as a teaching aid ? as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.9797 667.0855 317.9717 678.9655 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.9277 595.8055 480.9197 607.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.9517 567.2935 429.9437 579.1735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8116 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a tool, for instance, for the teaching of diplomatic, palaeography, political history, even material culture ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires little emphasis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scope of the )] TJ ET BT 116.660 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 217.304 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project extends well beyond the 56 surviving rolls. There survive eight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplicate rolls, all made in the first decade of the reign, while Richard Marsh was chancellor. The making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and use of duplicate rolls appears to have been consciously abandoned ? so it is cogently and compellingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued here ? following the death of Richard Marsh in May 1226 and the succession of his talented and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrious deputy, Ralf de Neville \()] TJ ET BT 209.336 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d)] TJ ET BT 215.336 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1244\), as chancellor later that same month. Since these duplicates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually copied from the fine rolls, the variations between the two sets of rolls are often scribal in nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore trivial in detail. The project nevertheless notes where variations between the rolls and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eight duplicates occur, which is of some importance when the duplicate roll ? very likely Ralf de Neville?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own roll as chancellor ? replaces the marginal references to counties found on the fine roll with marginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to subject and persons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 156.320 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project also offers, in effect, a very usable guide to the originalia rolls. At distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms in the exchequer year, the chancery clerks compiled extracts from the fine rolls for the use of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues in the exchequer and copied these extracts on to single membranes, which they then delivered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exchequer; marginal entries in the fine rolls ? such as ?from here it is to be sent to the exchequer? \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hinc mittendum est ad scaccarium)] TJ ET BT 197.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) ? indicate the process and timing of this copying and delivery. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close of the exchequer year, the individual membranes were collected together to form what became known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the originalia roll. The project not only notes the discrepancies between the fine and originalia rolls, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also uses the relevant originalia rolls to fill the three regnal years for which the fine rolls are missing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the narrow basis of selection used by the Record Commission edition, the )] TJ ET BT 422.648 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 523.292 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily eclipses its Record Commission predecessor in terms of its store of new information. Take, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more, Falkes de Braut. The Record Commission edition printed 12 fines concerning Falkes; the )] TJ ET BT 505.964 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 86.684 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project supplies 88. And what is true of Falkes is true of so many others who played a part in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career: not simply his boy-king, Henry III, or his wartime opponent, Louis of France, or his subsequent rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nemesis, Hubert de Burgh, but equally his brother William, his wife Margaret fitz Gerald, their victims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monks of St Albans, and their personal rival, Henry of Braybrooke, whose dishonest interference and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent capture precipitated the terrible clash at Bedford. The subject index ? non-existent in the Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission edition ? can now take you to castles, dower, and prisoners \(all, of course, subjects close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falkes?s heart\) as well as abduction, executions, and exile \(subjects no less relevant to his career, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered in dramatic and bitter circumstances\). There is still room for improvement with the subject index: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entry for ale directs the user to the entries for food and drink which only redirect the user ? to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense disappointment of this reviewer ? back to the entry for ale. The entry for wine, listing 25 different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references, is far more satisfying. At a time when the editors of the curia regis rolls no longer provide subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indices to their volumes, the editors of the )] TJ ET BT 239.000 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 291.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project are to be applauded for preserving and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persevering with theirs. It should be stated, too, that the new store of information on offer in the project and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through its various indices is not only greater in quantity, but now more easily accessible. Where before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested reader would be required to shift between the index and the listed page numbers, now the reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with one click of the mouse, is taken directly to the relevant entry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accompanying the translations and images of the fine rolls is an extensive apparatus of commentary. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus includes a valuable historical survey of the reign of King Henry III; a detailed introduction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine rolls, originalia rolls, and their respective function, form, drafting, duplication, and historical interest; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an essay exploring the many and complex digital and technological issues raised by the project. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other sections of this apparatus deserve particular notice. The first is the essay dealing with the ornate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designs of roll headings and with the drawings of three heads found in the margins, all, interestingly, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women \(Mabilia, daughter of Elijah the Jew of Gloucester, Hilary Trussebut, and a third unidentified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman\). The essay is accompanied by excellent images of the headings and of the drawings. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section is the very interesting collection of commentaries published during the active and continuing life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the project as fines of the month. Here, again, Falkes de Braut is ably served, with two very interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions on the identity of his supporters in 1224 and on the fortunes of his wife following his exile and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7209 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death in Rome. These fines of the month constitute a significant contribution in their own right. Here users )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can find immediate, vivid, and compelling insights into markets, ransoms, sheriffs, and widows, into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle of Lincoln in 1217, the murder of an Essex knight in 1225, and a duel fought in Kent in 1228, into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of Magna Carta on the post-war government, the personal grievances of Peter des Roches, bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester, and the powerful interaction of faith, prejudice, and politics that shaped the king?s response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alleged crucifixion of a Christian boy in Lincoln in 1255. Most conference proceedings would struggle to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicate the quality and range of such a collection of essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The website of the )] TJ ET BT 125.996 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 226.640 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project is easily navigable and attractively designed ? not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention, it is worth placarding in these penurious times, entirely free. The rather insignificant and subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail that the present reviewer preferred to read the introductions and the fines of the month either on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published or printed page rather than on the computer screen is more likely to confirm his luddite credentials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in any way qualify the achievement of this project, especially as the entries on the website are easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quickly printable. The )] TJ ET BT 163.664 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III Fine Rolls )] TJ ET BT 264.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project represents a serious and substantial contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study and knowledge of the reign of King Henry III and his kingdom as well as a valuable resource for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the delineation of the broader, powerful forces ? economic, legal, military, religious, and social ? that shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that king?s fortunes and those of his subjects. All those responsible for this project, individuals as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, deserve to be warmly praised for their vision, hard work, and continued engagement with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance and improvement. The AHRC should surely be congratulated for supporting and sustaining so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful and so rewarding an intellectual endeavour. The sponsors, editors, and critics of the Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission \(perhaps even Charles Roberts himself\) would have been impressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of the Fine Rolls of the Reign of Henry III Preserved in the National Archives 1: 1 to 8 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III 1216?1224)] TJ ET BT 165.992 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Dryburgh and B. Hartland \(Woodbridge & London, 2007\); )] TJ ET BT 487.952 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Fine Rolls of the Reign of Henry III Preserved in the National Archives)] TJ ET BT 427.304 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(2:)] TJ ET BT 440.300 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(9 to 18 Henry III )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1224?1234)] TJ ET BT 118.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Dryburgh and B. Hartland \(Woodbridge & London, 2008\); )] TJ ET BT 439.976 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of the Fine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rolls of the Reign of Henry III Preserved in the National Archives)] TJ ET BT 384.644 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(3:)] TJ ET BT 397.640 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(9 to 18 Henry III 1234?1242)] TJ ET BT 535.952 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Dryburgh and B. Hartland \(Woodbridge & London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.312 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.312 375.411 m 413.300 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancery, Fine Rolls, 18?23 Charles I, pt 2, C60/553.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.340 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.340 361.155 m 376.328 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 121.352 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendarium Genealogicum. Henry III and Edward I)] TJ ET BT 377.648 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., London, 1865\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.976 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.976 346.899 m 550.964 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of the Fine Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office)] TJ ET BT 380.984 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1:)] TJ ET BT 393.980 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I AD 1272?1307)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, HMSO, 1911\), p. ix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.344 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.344 318.387 m 264.332 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of the Fine Rolls preserved in the Public Record Office)] TJ ET BT 376.652 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(21 vols., London, 1911?61\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.308 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.308 304.131 m 549.968 304.131 l S BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 289.875 m 90.344 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 246.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 228.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 228.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1064)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 226.857 m 328.316 226.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 201.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5415)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/home.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.3117 375.7255 413.2997 387.6055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.3397 361.4695 376.3277 373.3495 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.9757 347.2135 550.9637 359.0935 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.3437 318.7015 264.3317 330.5815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.3077 304.4455 549.9677 316.3255 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 290.1895 90.3437 302.0695 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 227.1715 328.3157 239.0515 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1064) >> endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000006976 00000 n 0000007085 00000 n 0000007195 00000 n 0000007304 00000 n 0000010865 00000 n 0000010993 00000 n 0000011077 00000 n 0000011203 00000 n 0000011298 00000 n 0000011425 00000 n 0000011520 00000 n 0000011549 00000 n 0000011677 00000 n 0000011713 00000 n 0000011742 00000 n 0000011870 00000 n 0000011906 00000 n 0000012004 00000 n 0000020646 00000 n 0000020676 00000 n 0000020804 00000 n 0000020840 00000 n 0000020870 00000 n 0000020998 00000 n 0000021034 00000 n 0000021064 00000 n 0000021192 00000 n 0000021228 00000 n 0000021293 00000 n 0000029462 00000 n 0000029588 00000 n 0000036850 00000 n 0000036978 00000 n 0000037033 00000 n 0000037161 00000 n 0000037216 00000 n 0000037344 00000 n 0000037399 00000 n 0000037527 00000 n 0000037582 00000 n 0000037710 00000 n 0000037765 00000 n 0000037891 00000 n 0000037946 00000 n 0000038074 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38170 %%EOF